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Lecture 5. Political Culture and Political Socialization

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3. Parochial: totally unaware of politics in the society. 12. 13 ... to foster subject if not parochial political culture, depoliticize society, and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lecture 5. Political Culture and Political Socialization


1
Lecture 5. Political Culture and Political
Socialization
  • A. Definition of Political Culture
  • B. Key Aspects of Political Culture
  • C. Political Culture as an Explanation for Levels
    of Participation
  • D. Modernization, Democratization and Political
    Culture
  • E. Political Culture and Regime Types
  • F. Political Socialization
  • G. Agents of Socialization

2
A. Definition of Political Culture
  • A particular distribution of political
    attitudes, values, feelings, information, and
    skills that affects the behaviour of a nations
    citizens and leaders throughout the political
    system.
  • Assumption what people know or feel about their
    political system affects their political
    behaviour.

3
  • Assumption Like traditional cultures, political
    cultures vary across countries and can explain
    variations in modes and levels of political
    participation.
  • All these variations can be measured through
    surveys.

4
B. Key Aspects of Political Culture
  • 1. COGNITION
  • What people know about politics
  • Who are the leaders, what are the governments
    policies, how much do they affect your life?
  • what percent of populations actually follow or
    keep aware of political events and how often they
    do so.
  • willingness to have and express political opinions

5
  • 2. AFFECT AND EFFICACY
  • What they think about their political system,
  • about their own role in the political
    system,
  • and their ability to affect the outcomes?
  • are they proud of their country? of its leaders?
  • do they feel that they can affect outcomes?
  • sense of efficacy and competence should increase
    the level of participation
  • do they feel that people have the responsibility
    to participate in political activity?

6
  • 3. INTENSITY OF FEELINGS
  • The depth or intensity with which they hold those
    values
  • how willing are they to allow other people to
    express dissenting views?
  • how deep are the cleavages within society?
  • Are there cross-cutting cleavages that can
    limit the level of conflict within the society?
  • conflictual versus consensual political culture
  • See Figure Conflictual Political Culture

7
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8
C. Political Culture as an Explanation for
  • I. Levels and modes of Participation
  • II. For the type of policies that
  • governments adopt in response to
  • perceived public opinion and popular
  • values

9
  • Three levels of analysis
  • a. System Level Beliefs
  • the views of citizens and leaders about
  • the entire political system,
  • especially the values and organizations
  • that hold the political system together
  • level of government legitimacy affects
  • citizen's choice of modes of participation,
  • includes belief in the right to use
    violence
  • against an "illegitimate" system

10
  • b. Process Level Popular are the attitudes to
    the process of participation
  • do citizens get involved in politics, make
    demands, obey the law?

11
  • Three Types of Political Cultures in a political
    system
  • 1. Participant informed about politics, make
    demands on government, support political leaders
  • 2. Subject passively accept government policies
  • 3. Parochial totally unaware of politics in the
    society

12
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13
  • the share of the population holding these
    different types of political cultures will affect
    the type of political system in that country

14
  • c. Policy Level values of citizens that affect
    government policies
  • what are the general attitudes within society
    about issues such as property rights, individual
    rights, acceptable levels of government
    intervention in the economy, etc.
  • Collective values versus individual rights
    citizens' right to welfare versus need to create
    opportunity for upward mobility within society.

15
D. Modernization, Democratization and Political
Culture
  • 1. Values and Democracy
  • Strong belief among social scientists that
    certain values are necessary for democracy to
    develop and take root
  • need for participatory culture for democracy to
    succeed

16
  • Here is the link between modernization
    theorylevels of education, communication,
    participation, political culture and popular
    attitudes -- and democratization
  • Suggests that non-modern systems cannot be
    democratic because they lack modern values
  • Raises question of whether political cultures can
    change quickly -- if not, political systems have
    problems

17
  • Seen to be a biased perspective of Western social
    scientists
  • Theory weakened by world-wide shift to
    democracies
  • Third Wave, since 1975 ?many countries shifted to
    democracies

18
  • 2. Institutions/Organizations and Political
    Culture
  • at systemic, macro-level, establishing democratic
    institutions may create a democratic political
    culture
  • the experience of democracy may do this too
  • at micro-level, organizations have own political
    culture, based on the rules, norms, incentives or
    hierarchy in the institution.

19
E. COMPARISON ACROSS REGIME TYPES
  • a. Governments try to influence the dominant
    political culture
  • authoritarian regimes try to foster subject if
    not parochial political culture, depoliticize
    society, and promote "departicipation.

20
  • socialist regimes tried to "mobilize" people to
    support state goals by creating a kind of
    participatory political culture, but they try to
    channel the direction of that participation
  • democratic regimes should teach people the
    importance of participation as a value in itself

21
F. Political Socialization
  • Definition How states teach values and shape
    the political attitudes of their citizens.
  • in all systems, state institutions socialize
    people to support government policy or accept
    legitimacy of government and its symbols of
    legitimacy.

22
  • Without such socialization and education, there
    is little loyalty for political institutions
    which makes it difficult to govern
  • All states perform this function in different
    ways, and have different Agents of Socialization

23
  • Some states are far more aggressive in
    controlling the process of socialization while
    others leave it more to society and societal
    institutions to fulfill that role.
  • Socialist states in particular tried very hard to
    shape or change the popular attitudes towards
    politics from those in the pre-revolutionary
    society.

24
G. Key Agents of Socialization
  • School, family, religious organizations, peer
    groups, interest groups, media and the
    marketplace, political parties.
  • Some may preach or teach values that unify
    society, while others may try to highlight
    differences for the purpose of political
    mobilization of different sectors of society.
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