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Type 2 Diabetes

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Diabetes is the growing heath problem in the United States and has risen about ... In diabetes, something goes wrong in the body so that you can not produce ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Type 2 Diabetes


1
Type 2 Diabetes
2
Diabetes Mellitus
  • The name diabetes mellitus means sweet urine. It
    stems from ancient times when physicians would
    taste a patients urine as a part of a diagnosis.

3
Current Population Trend
  • Diabetes is the growing heath problem in the
    United States and has risen about six fold since
    1950. Its now affecting about 17 million
    Americans and one third of those Americans (5.9
    million) dont even now they have the disease.
    Today, not only are adults being diagnosed with
    this disease, but its also affecting todays
    youth.

4
Whats Occuring in the body?
  • Our body uses a hormone called insulin to handle
    glucose, which is a simple sugar thats a main
    source of energy. In diabetes, something goes
    wrong in the body so that you can not produce
    insulin or are not sensitive to it. That means
    that your body produces high levels of blood
    glucose, which acts on organs to produce the
    symptoms of the disease.

5
Development of Type 2
  • Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy to
    all cells in the body
  • The cells take in glucose from the blood and
    break it down for energy, most of this is used
    for fuel.
  • Glucose come from the food you eat

6
Development of Type 2
  • Glucose gets absorbed from the intestines and
    distributed by the bloodstream to all cells.
  • The body tries to maintain a constant glucose
    concentration in the blood.
  • So, when you over supply on glucose, your body
    stores the excess in the liver and muscles by
    making glycogen
  • When glucose is in short supply, the body makes
    glucose from stored glycogen or from the food
    thats been eaten.

7
To maintain a constant blood glucose level, the
body relies on two hormones produced in the
pancreas that have opposite actions insulin and
glucagon.
8
Facts on Type 2
  • Type 2 diabetes is a disease that generally
    develops over a period of years.
  • People who will eventually develop this disease
    are insulin resistant several years before their
    blood sugars become abnormal.
  • Their bodies try to make up for the higher
    insulin needs created by insulin resistance by
    producing more insulin.

9
Facts on Type 2
  • But in Type 2 diabetes, the body ends up
    producing abnormally high levels of insulin over
    the years eventually begins to have a negative
    effect.
  • The pancreas gradually begins to lose its ability
    to produce the extra insulin needed to overcome
    insulin resistance. As body insulin levels fall,
    blood sugars begin to rise.

10
  • Type 2 diabetes and the insulin resistance that
    causes it have a strong genetic basis and are
    made worse by environmental factors, including
    inactivity, weight gain, and stress.
  • Most people are overweight at the time their Type
    2 diabetes is discovered. Being more active or
    losing weight may help prevent or delay the
    development of diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes was once called "Adult-onset
    Diabetes" but this term is no longer used because
    it is inaccurate. Type 2 diabetes is on the
    increase in all age groups, even among children
    of high school and grade school age.

11
Who gets Type 2 Diabetes?
  • Most people are lead to believe that theyre to
    blame for the disease. However, this disease can
    also be inherited by genes as well. Not everyone
    that eats a lot of sugar and is overweight have
    the disease. But there are higher risks for
    people developing type 2 diabetes. Here are some
    facts on how it is people obtain this disease

12
  • People who are overweight
  • Have a parent or sibling with diabetes
  • Are 40 years of age
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Are African America, Latino, or Native American
  • Had diabetes during pregnancy
  • Have the stress of an illness or injury
  • Had a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds at
    birth.

13
Symptoms of Diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes is often without symptoms in its
    early stages. Thats the reason there are 40 of
    people with Type 2 diabetes are unaware of their
    disease. When there are symptoms, they may occur
    gradually. If present, they usually are
  • feeling tired and weak
  • passing large volumes of urine, especially during
    the night
  • having frequent infections
  • having blurred eyesight
  • Weight-loss
  • Excessive hunger and thirst

14
RISK FACTORS!
  • If left untreated this, Diabetes can cause many
    life threatening complications
  • Blindness
  • Chronic Renal Failure kidney failure
  • Atherosclerosis heart attacks and stroke
  • Diabetic Neuropathy numbness and pain to hands
    and feet
  • Foot Ulcers
  • Autonomic Neuropathy diarrhea, rapid heart beat,
    and low blood pressure

15
Risk Factors!
  • Coma or death may occur as a result in Diabetic
    Ketoacidosis (caused by infection)
  • People who smoke are a much higher risk at heart
    attacks, stroke, infections, and problems with
    poor circulation

16
Treatment for Type 2
  • Because there are several defects in the body's
    chemistry that develop as Type 2 diabetes changes
    over time, there are many tools used to treat it.
    In its earliest stages, Type 2 diabetes can often
    be controlled effectively by becoming more active
    and by managing food to reduce the body's need
    for insulin. This may involve promoting a modest
    amount of weight loss, controlling and
    distributing carbohydrate intake through the day,
    or both.

17
Treatment for Type 2
  • When the disease has progressed to the point
    where blood sugars are not controlled by activity
    and food management alone, several types of oral
    medications (pills) and/or insulin may be used
    singly or in combination to regain blood glucose
    control. Their effectiveness is judged by testing
    the blood sugar periodically throughout the day.

18
How to take care of yourself
  • Once youve been diagnosed with Type 2, there are
    many changes and things you have to do in order
    to keep your blood sugar level steady and
    healthy. Those ways are meal planning, weight
    loss, and exercise.

19
Meal Planning
  • With type 2 Diabetes you have to eat healthy in
    order to keep your sugar levels well maintained.
    That means
  • Fruits and vegetables (apples, bananas, broccoli,
    spinach, etc.)
  • Whole grain, cereals ,and bread. (Wheat, barley,
    rice and bran.)
  • Dairy products (yogurt, skim milk, cream)
  • Meat fish, poultry, eggs, dried beans

20
Weight-loss
  • Obesity increases insulin resistance and can
    lead to many other cardiovascular health
    problems.
  • However the diabetic that carries the disease
    and loses weight, will see a decrease in blood
    glucose levels and a decrease in taking oral
    medication

21
Exercise
  • Exercise can take glucose out of the blood and
    for energy during or after exercise, which lowers
    the glucose level.
  • Helps delay large blood vessel clots, which lead
    to Cardiovascular heart Disease
  • All people with diabetes should exercise to
    control their blood sugar level, to maintain

22
Prevention???
  • Researchers attribute obesity to Type 2 Diabetes
  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • (fruits, vegetables, bread, milk)
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes for 4-5 days a week.
  • (swimming, walking, basketball, running)
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