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Normal Flora

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Title: Normal Flora


1
Normal Flora
By
Dr. Humodi A. Saeed Associate Prof. of Medical
Microbiology College of Medical Laboratory
Science Sudan University of Science and
Technology E mail address Biotechsust_at_hotmail.com
2
Normal Flora
3
Normal Flora
  • Definition
  • Normal flora is the mixture of microorganisms
    (bacteria and fungi) that are regularly found at
    any anatomical site of human body like

4
Normal Flora
  • Skin
  • Eyes (i.e.Cunjunctiva)
  • Nose (i.e. Respiratory tract)
  • Mouth (i.e Human Oral Cavity)
  • Ears
  • Urogenetal tract
  • Elementry tract

5
Normal Flora
  • Resident flora
  • Acquired rapidly during after birth

6
Normal Flora
  • Resident flora
  • Reflects age of person

7
Normal Flora

Resident flora Changes continuously through out
life
.
8
Normal Flora
  • Resident flora
  • Reflects nutrition of person


9
Normal Flora
  • Resident flora
  • Reflects genetics of person

10
Normal Flora
  • Resident flora
  • 90 is S. epidermidis S. aureus, may be in moist
    areas

11

Normal Flora
  • Resident flora
  • Reflects environment of person

12

Normal Flora
  • Resident flora
  • Reflects sex of person

13

Normal Flora
  • Sterile tissues
  • In a healthy human, the internal tissues such as
  • blood
  • brain
  • muscle
  • cerbrospinal fluid (csf.)
  • are normally free of microorganisms.

14

Importance of The Normal Flora (Advantages)
  • 1. They constitute a protective host defense
    mechanism
  • by occupying ecological niches.

15
Importance of The Normal Flora (Advantages)
  • 2. They produce vitamin B and vitamin K in
    intestine.

16
Importance of The Normal Flora (Advantages)
  • 3. The oral flora contribute to immunity by
    inducing low levels of circulating and secretory
    antibodies that may cross react with pathogens.

17
Importance of The Normal Flora (Advantages)
  • 4. The oral bacteria flora exert microbial
    antagonism against nonindigenous species by
    production of inhibitory fatty acids, peroxides,
    bacteriocins, etc.

18
Importance of The Normal Flora (Advantages)
  • 5. The normal flora may antagonize other bacteria
    through the production of substances which
    inhibit or kill nonindigenous species.

19
Importance of The Normal Flora (Disadvantages)
  • 1. They can cause disease in the following
  • a) When individuals become immunocompromised or
    debilitated.
  • b) When they change their usual anatomic
    location.

20
Importance of The Normal Flora
  • 2. The oral flora of humans may harm their host
    since some of these bacteria are pathogens or
    opportunistic pathogens

21
Estimation of the Normal flora
  • It has been calculated that the normal flora
    human body about 1012 bacteria on the skin, 1010
    in the mouth, and 1014 in the gastrointestinal
    tract.

22
Normal Flora of the Skin
  • The most important sites are
  • 1. Axilla
  • 2. Groin
  • 3. Areas between the toes

23
Normal Flora of the Skin
  • The majority of skin microorganisms are found in
    the most superficial layers of the epidermis and
    the upper parts of the hair follicles.

24
Normal Flora of the Skin
  • Important bacteria
  • 1. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • 2. Micrococcus sp.
  • 3. Corynebacteria sp.
  • 4. Mycobacterium smegmatis

25
Normal Flora of the Cunjunctiva
  • 1. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • 2. Corynebacterium sp.
  • 3. Propoinibacteriumacnes)
  • 4. Staphylococcus aureus
  • 5. Viridans streptococci
  • 6. Neisseria sp.
  • 7. Haemophilus influenzae

26
Pathogens which do infect the conjunctiva
  • Neisseria onorrhoeae
  • Chlamydia trachomatis

27
Normal Flora of the Respiratory Tract
  • A) The nares (nostrils)
  • 1. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • 2. Corynebacteria
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • 4. Neisseria sp.
  • 5. Haemophilus sp
  • 6. Streptococcus pneumoniae

28
Normal Flora of the Respiratory Tract
  • B) The upper respiratory tract (nasopharynx).
  • 1. Non-hemolytic streptococci
  • 2. Alpha-hemolytic streptococci
  • 3. Neisseria sp.
  • 4. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • 5. Streptococcus pyogenes
  • 6. Haemophilus influenzae
  • 7. Neisseria meningitidis

29
Normal Flora of the Respiratory Tract
  • C) The lower respiratory tract (trachea, bronchi,
    and pulmonary tissues)
  • Usually sterile.
  • The individual may become susceptible to
    infection by pathogens descending from the
    nasopharynx e.g.
  • H. influenzae
  • S. pneumoniae).

30
Normal Flora of the Human Oral Cavity
  • Oral bacteria include
  • 1. Viridans streptococci
  • 2. Lactobacilli
  • 3. Staphylococci (S. aureus and S. epidermidis)
  • 4. Corynebacterium sp.
  • 5. Bacteroides sp.
  • 6. Streptococcus sanguis (dental plaque)
  • 7. Streptococcus mutans (dental plaque)
  • 8. Actinomyces sp.

31
The Normal Flora of The Ears (i.e. external ear)
  • The external ears contains avariety of
    microorganisms. These include
  • 1. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • 2. Staphylococcus aureus
  • 3. Corynebacterium sp

32
Normal flora of the Urogenital Tract
  • a) The anterior urethra
  • 1. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • 2. Enterococcus faecalis
  • 3. lpha-hemolytic streptococci.
  • 4. Some enteric bacteria (e.g. E. coli, Proteus
    sp.)
  • 5. Corynebacteria sp.
  • 6. Acinetobacter sp.
  • 7. Mycoplasma sp.
  • 8. Candida sp.
  • 9. Mycobacterium smegmatis

33
Normal flora of the Urogenital Tract
  • b) The vagina
  • 1. Corynebacterium sp.
  • 2. Staphylococci
  • 3. Nonpyogenic streptococci
  • 4. Escherichia coli
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Flavobacterium sp.
  • 7. Clostridium sp.
  • 8. Viridans streptococci
  • 9. Other Enterobacteria

34
Normal Flora of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)
  • In humans, the GIT flora are influenced by
  • 1. Age
  • 2. Diet
  • 3. Cultural conditions
  • 4. The use of antibiotics

35
Normal Flora of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)
  • At birth
  • The entire intestinal tract is sterile, but
    bacteria enter with the first feed. The initial
    colonizing bacteria vary with the food source of
    the infant.

36
Normal Flora of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)
  • In breast-fed
  • 1. Bifidobacteria account for more than 90 of
    the total intestinal bacteria.
  • 2. Enterobacteriaceae
  • 3. Enterococci
  • 4. Bacteroides
  • 5. Staphylococci
  • 6. Lactobacilli
  • 7. Clostridia

37
Normal Flora of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)
  • In bottle-fed infants
  • Bifidobacteria are not predominant. When
    breast-fed infants are switched to a diet of
    cow's milk or solid food, bifidobacteria are
    progressively joined by
  • 1. Enterics
  • 2. Bacteroides
  • 3. Enterococci
  • 4. Lactobacilli
  • 5. Clostridia

38
Normal Flora of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)
  • In the upper GIT of adult humans
  • mainly acid-tolerant lactobacilli
  • e.g. Helicobacter pylori

39
Normal Flora of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)
  • The proximal small intestine
  • 1. Lactobacilli
  • 2. Enterococcus faecalis
  • 3. Coliforms
  • 4. Bacteroides

40
The flora of the large intestine (colon)
  • 1. Enterococci
  • 2. Clostridia
  • 3. lactobacilli
  • 4. Bacteroides
  • 5. Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium bifidum)
  • 6. Escherichia coli
  • 7. Methanogenic bacteria
  • 8. Viridans streptococci
  • 9. Staphylococcus sp.
  • 10. Proteus sp.
  • 11. Candida albicans (Yeast)
  • 12. Mycoplama sp.

41
THANK YOU
42

43
??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?
  • ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???
    ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??
    ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??
    ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ? ??? ???? ??

1. ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????.
2. ?????? ? ????? ? ???? ? ??????.
3. ??????.
4. ????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????.
5. ??? ??????? ? ????? ??????.
6. ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????.
??????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ? ??????.
44
????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????
??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????
  • 1. ??? ????????????? ??????? Food microbiology
  • ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????
    ? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????.

45
  • 2. ??? ????????????? ?????? Soil microbiology
  • ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ??
    ????? ????? ?????? ??????.

46
  • 3. ??? ??????????????? ?????? Medical
    microbiology
  • ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???
    ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ???
    ??????.

47
  • 4. ??? ????????????? ??????? Agricultural
    microbiology
  • ???? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??
    ??????? ????????? ????????.

48
  • 5. ??? ????????????? ??????? Industrial
    Microbiology
  • ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????
    ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????
    ????????? ??????.

49
  • 6. ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????? Water and
    Sewage Microbiology
  • ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????.
  • ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???
    ?????

1. ??? ???? ??????? ??????? Microbial
ecology ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????.
2. ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? Microbial
Physiology ???? ?????? ????? ???????.
50
???? ??? ??????? ??????? Development of
Microbiology
  • ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????
    ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???
    ??????? Antony Van Leeuwenhock ??? ??????? ??
    ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????????

51
????? ??????? ?????? Spontaneous Generation
Theory
  • ???? ??? ?????? (1713-1781) ?????? ??? ????? ???
    ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????
    ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ? ????
    ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ????
    ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ?????.

52
??? ????? ??????? ?????? Disproof of Spontaneous
Generation
  • 1. ????? ?????? ?????????? Lazaro Spallanzani
    Experiment

53
  • 2. ????? ????????? ??????? ???? Franz Schulz
    Theodor Schwan

54
  • 3. ????? ????
  • ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? Schroeder ???? ???
    Von Dusch ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???
    ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???
    ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????.

55
  • ???? ?????? Louis Pasteu
  • ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? (1822-1895 ?)
    ???? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??
    ??? ??????

56
  • ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? Anthrax ?????? ????????
    ?????? ????? Bacillus anthracis ??? 1877.
  • ?- ??? ??? 1880 ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????
    ??????.
  • ?- ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ????
    ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????
    ?????.
  • ?- ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????Rabies .
  • ?- ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????
    ??????? yeast ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???.
  • ?- ?????? ?? ???????? Bacilli ???? ???? ????????
    Lactic acid ?? ?????.
  • ?- ????? ????? ??????? Pasteurization ?????????
    ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????.
  • ?- ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????
    ??????? ?? Pebrine ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??
    ?????.

57
  • ???? ????? ??? Robert Koch
  • ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????
    ??? 1843-1910 ??????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???
    ???? ????? ??? ????? ????

58
  • ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ???? Mycobacterium
    tuberculosis ???? ?? ????? ????? Koch's bacilli.
  • ?- ??? ??? 1883 ????? ???????? ?????? ????
    ???????? Vibrio cholerae.
  • ?- ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??????
    ??? Koch's Postulates ???? ???????? ?????? ?????
    ??? ????? ???
  • ?- ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??
    ???? ????Pure culture ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????
    ??????? ??????.
  • ?- ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ????
    ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????.
  • ?- ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???????????
    ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????.
  • ?- ?? ??? 1881 ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????
    ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????
    ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???????
    ?????? Pure culture.

59
  • ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????
    ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ???
    ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Mycobacterium leprae
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Treponema pallidum
  • 1. ?? ?? ??? ???? Infectious disease ???? ??
    ???? ????????.
  • 2. ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ???? Pure
    culture.
  • 3. ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????
    ??? ???????.
  • 4. ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ???????
    ??? ????.

60
??????? ??????????
  • ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????
    ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ????
    ?? ???? ?????? ? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??
    ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????.

61
??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? Molecular
Structure of Bacterial Cell
  • ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????
    ???????
  • ???? ?????? The cell membrane.
  • ???? ?????? The cell wall.
  • ??????????? The cytoplasm.

??? 1 ????? ?????? ??????????
62
???? ?????? Cell membrane???? ???? ?????
??????? ? ???? ????? ????.
  • ?????? ???????????? Cytoplasmic Membrane
  • ?????? ?????? Celullar Membrane
  • ?????? ????????????? Protoplasmic Membrane

????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????
Phospholipids ?? ???? ??? ?????? ????? Polar
group ???? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ??????
?????? Fatty acid-side chain ??? ????? ???? ???
??????. ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????
?? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????.
63
??? ??? ??????????
  • 1. ??????????? ???? ?????
  • DAN ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??????.
  • Ribosomes ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????.
  • ????? Water.
  • ?????? ??? ????? Inorganic ions.
  • ????? ?????? Amino acids.
  • ?????? ?????????????? (Volutin) Metachromatic
    granule ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? phosphate
    ? ??????
  • ?????????? ??????? Transport protein ???? ????
    ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????.
  • ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? Energy
    metabolism.
  • ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? The
    cell wall.
  • ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??

64
  • ?????? Glucose.
  • ????? Sulpher.
  • ???? Lipid.
  • ???????? Glycogen.

65
  • 2. ??????????? Mesosomes
  • ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????????. ??? ???? ?????
    ?? DNA ?????? ??????? ??????.
  • ????? ???? ??????
  • ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ?????
    ???????? ???.
  • ??? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????.
  • ???? ???? ?????? Osmatic barrier ????? ??? ?????
    ??????? ???????.

66
  • ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????
  • ???? ???? Very delicate organelle.
  • ????? ????? ???????? ???? Highly active
    metabolically.
  • ????? ????????? ?????????? Selective permeability
    ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????
    ??????? .

67
???? ?????? Cell wall???? ?????? ???? ??? ????
?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???
  • ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????
    .Mycoplasma.
  • ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???.
  • ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????? Rigidity
    ?????? ??????.
  • ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? Antibiotics
    ???? ???? " ?????? ?????????? " Selective
    toxicity ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???
    ??????.
  • ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????
    ????????? Hypotonic ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????
    ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? Abnormal
    expansion.
  • ???? ??????????????? Peptidoglycan ?? ?? ????? ??
    ?????? ?????? Polysaccharides ????? ??????
    ?????? Peptide bonds.
  • ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ??????N-acetyl
    glugsamine (NAG), Acetylmuramic acid (NAM).

68
????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?
??????? ????Differences between Gram ve and
Gram -ve bacterial cell wall
  • ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ???? ??????????
    ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ??
    ???? (1).

???? 1 ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????
???? ??????????? ????? ????
69
??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??
    ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? Penicillin ????
    ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? Lyses enzymes
    ?????? ????????? Lysosyme ????? ????? ???? ??????
    ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????
    ???? ?????

70
  • ???????????? Protoplast
  • ????? ?? ???????? ????? ???? Gram ve ????
    ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??
    ?????????.

71
  • 2. ????????????? Spheroplast
  • ????? ?? ???????? ????? ???? Gram -ve ??? ??????
    ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??
    ?????????.

72
  • 3. ????? L. L-Forms
  • ???? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????
    ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????
    ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??
    ????????? ????????.

73
  • ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??
    ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?
    ??? ???????? ??
  • ?????? The capsule
  • ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? Slime
    layer ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ??????
    ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ????
    ??????? ?????????? ? ?? ???? ????? ???

74
  • ????? ?????? The Function of capsule
  • ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????
    ?????????? ?? ???????? phogocytosis ??????
    ???????? phagocytes .
  • ??????? ????????? ?????? The chemical nature of
    capsule

75
  • ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????
    ?????????? ?? ???????? phogocytosis ??????
    ???????? phagocytes .

2.???? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????
?????? ?????? ?????????? Bacteriophages .
3. ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????.
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