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Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: A One NOAA Perspective on Preparation and Response

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Title: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: A One NOAA Perspective on Preparation and Response


1
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita A One NOAA
Perspective on Preparation and Response
  • Mary M. Glackin, David L. Johnson, Charles W.
    Challstrom, Steven A. Murawski
  • NOAA Science Advisory Board Meeting, Washington,
    D.C.
  • November 8, 2005

2
Overview
  • Issue
  • Purpose
  • Background
  • Forecast Communications
  • NOAAs Support Activities
  • Restoration and Rebuilding of Living Marine
    Resources
  • Next Steps

3
Issue
  • Hurricanes Katrina Rita wreaked unprecedented
    damage to the US Gulf Coast, together yielding
    extensive loss of life, social and economic
    impacts, and ecosystem impacts.
  • NOAAs service culture dictates continuous
    evaluation and improvement
  • Effectiveness of an organization is shown in
    times of crisis.

4
Purpose
  • Highlight NOAAs activities before, during,
    after these major Gulf Hurricane events
  • Identify preliminary challenge areas
  • Describe next steps

5
Setting the Context
  • NOAA is an operational service agency

Update Management Plans for Trust
Resources Support for Community Rebuild Ongoing
Employee Support Repair Impacted NOAA Facilities
Damage Assessment Updated Navigational
Aids Living Marine Resources Assessment Employee
Tracking and Support NOAA Infrastructure
Assessment
Outreach Education Disaster Preparedness Hazard
Assessment Continuity of Operations Planning
Media, Federal, State, and Local Outreach
Communication Weather Monitoring Hurricane
Forecasting Pre-disaster Readiness
Timeframe Ongoing
Timeframe Starts at identification of tropical
depressions
Timeframe Event through 1-2 months following
Timeframe Months to years
These are critical services in case of hurricanes
and other natural and human-induced disasters
6
NOAA and Homeland Security
  • Homeland Security Operations Center (HSOC)
  • Incident management (NOAAs connection point)
  • NOAA Responsibilities at HSOC
  • Full-time staff for All-Hazard support
  • Weather, imagery, and surveys
  • Dispersion modeling
  • NOAA Homeland Security activities for Hurricanes
  • Track employees
  • Assess Mission and facilities impacts
  • Response and contingency plan for potential 2nd
    Hurricane
  • Support facilitated through the NOAA Incident
    Coordination Center

7
Impacted NOAA personnel Katrina 538 people
Rita 181 people, including Katrina responders
NOAA Facilities impacted by Katrina and Rita
include SE Fisheries Science Center Laboratories
(FL, MS, LA, TX) Stennis Space Center (MS)
National Seafood Laboratory (MS) Space
Meteorology Center (TX) 5 Weather Forecast
Offices, 1 River Forecast Center Communications
and All-Hazards Radio
  • Cross-NOAA response to Katrina and Rita 1095
    personnel

8
NOAAs Efforts Theme Areas for Panel
Presentations
  • Forecasts and Communications (D.L. Johnson)
  • NOAAs Support Activities (C. Challstrom)
  • Restoration and Rebuilding of Living Marine
    Resources (S. Murawski)

Activities begin with Forecasts and Communications
9
Before
  • Good work in the off season sowed the seeds for
    doing well in the hurricane season

10
Before
  • Presidential Proclamation
  • Joint Hurricane Test Bed
  • 2004 Hurricane Season Hot Wash
  • Experimental Products
  • Hurricane Awareness Tours
  • Seasonal Outlook
  • WFO/RFC Efforts

11
The Hurricane Team
  • Team NOAA
  • NWS
  • NESDIS
  • OAR
  • NOS
  • NMAO
  • CIO
  • Others
  • The Larger Team
  • USAF Reserve Hurricane Hunters
  • Academia
  • Private Sector
  • Media
  • Emergency Managers
  • Responders
  • Public

12
Advancing Forecast Process Capabilities
Information Technology
Observations
Products Services
Dissemination
Research
Research to Operations
Action
Data Assimilation and Modeling
13
Katrina / Rita Comparison
  • Track
  • Size
  • Intensity
  • Storm surge
  • Warning lead time

Rita Track
Forecast Track
Forecast Track
Katrina Track
14
(No Transcript)
15
Results of Preparedness Efforts
  • 80 Evacuation of New Orleans
  • 90 Plus Evacuation of Galveston
  • Off-season Preparedness is key

16
Areas for Improvement Initial Assessment
  • Telecommunications losses
  • Storm Surge
  • Backup Procedures
  • Employee Safety and Accountability
  • Intensity Understanding

17
Before After
  • Good work in the off season sows ed the seeds for
    doing well in the hurricane season

18
What does the future hold?
  • There are other sites especially vulnerable to
    disaster
  • Houston/Galveston
  • New Orleans (again)
  • Tampa Bay
  • Southwest Florida
  • Florida Keys
  • Southeast Florida
  • New York City/Long Island
  • New England
  • Service Assessments aid in continued improvement
    of products and services

19
NOAAs Efforts Theme Areas for Panel
Presentations
  • Forecasts and Communications (D.L. Johnson)
  • NOAAs Support Activities (C. Challstrom)
  • Restoration and Rebuilding of Living Marine
    Resources (S. Murawski)

After the storm passes, recovery and restoration
begins
20
NOAA Response Activities
21
Aerial Photography
  • Collected 10,000 digital aerial images and
    partnered with private industry to make images
    available to the public
  • Used for
  • damage assessments
  • public information
  • spill response prioritization
  • search rescue
  • access routes for Navigation Response Teams

22
Navigation Surveys
  • Navigation Response Teams, NOAA ships (Nancy
    Foster and Thomas Jefferson) and contract vessels
    surveyed rivers and ports to ensure waterways
    were clear of hazards
  • Surveys allowed critical ports and harbors to
    open to commercial and emergency vessel traffic
    sooner

23
Hazardous Materials
  • NOAA information products used for planning and
    response operations throughout impact region
  • Working with Federal, State, and local agencies
    to identify, assess, prioritize, and mitigate oil
    and hazardous material spills
  • Providing guidance on vessel salvage, conducting
    shoreline cleanup assessments, and collecting
    information to assess impacts to natural resource
    from spills

24
Water Levels
  • Water level measurements, forecasts, and PORTS
    data used
  • to support NWS storm surge models
  • to support NOAA Hydrographic Survey operations
    supporting restoration of shipping in damaged
    ports
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineer plans to rebuild New
    Orleans levees

17th Street Canal Breach
25
Marine Animal Response
  • Located and rescued dolphins stranded in
    hurricane aftermath
  • Rescue of dolphins aided by NOAA damage
    assessment photography in conjunction with modern
    GIS mapping techniques.

26
Spatial Analysis and Mapping
  • Analysis and mapping used for response and
    restoration
  • Ocean observations, hazards mapping, topographic
    data, habitat restoration, and economic impacts

27
Initial Assessment
  • Strong pre-existing relationships improve
    response effectiveness
  • Flexibility and collaboration is essential
  • NOAA needs to increase the depth of our essential
    capabilities (including workforce planning and
    safety)

28
Rebuilding Fisheries, Communities and Habitat
  • Response gathers critical information for
    Restoration/Recovery
  • The long-term recovery of the Gulf region will
    require extensive coordination, and driven by
    state and local priorities for
  • Assessments
  • Habitat Restoration and Stock Recovery
  • Rebuild/Economic Recovery

29
NOAAs Efforts Theme Areas for Panel
Presentations
  • Forecasts and Communications (D.L. Johnson)
  • NOAAs Support Activities (C. Challstrom)
  • Restoration and Rebuilding of Living Marine
    Resources (S. Murawski)

Response and Restoration must consider the living
ecosystem.
30
Evaluating Hurricane Effects in an Ecosystem
Context
31
Looking for Evidence of Potential Movement of
Toxics Pathogens
MODIS Coastwatch Imagery TUESDAY 13 September
32
Pollution Issues Subject to Sampling
  • Hydrocarbon releases along the lower Mississippi
    River and from sunken vessels
  • Toxics and pathogens from pumping out New Orleans
  • Large numbers of sunken vessels inshore of
    Mississippi Sound
  • Contents of storm surge waters
  • Offshore releases

33
R/V Nancy Foster
34
Chartered Fishing Vessel Sampling
Bi-weekly sampling underway
35
Joint EPA Cruise and Mussel Watch
36
Chlorophyll a SEAWIFS Satellite September 26,
2005
37
Modeling of Water Mass Movements -OAR
CODE Drifter
38
Wetlands Inundation
39
NOAA Fishing Community Profiles (334 communities,
75 counties, in five states)
Socio-Economics Survey
40
Survey Results
Depicts Fish Processors Fish Markets Equipment
suppliers Residence patterns
41
Losses of Fishing Infrastructure
42
Socio-Economic Assessments
  • Re-evaluate up-to-date, community-level
    information for measuring impacts on
  • Local and regional socioeconomic conditions
  • Local and regional demographic trends
  • Nature and extent of local and regional
    involvement in fishing, oil/gas, tourism, other
    industries
  • Social and economic relationships between Gulf
    communities
  • Use, and by extension availability, of inshore,
    near-shore, and offshore marine resources for
    commercial and recreational purposes
  • Fishing and marine-specific service and physical
    infrastructure
  • Socio-cultural aspects of life in Gulf
    communities
  • Currently conducting surveys to assess losses of
    infrastructure in affected communities

43
Ongoing Operations Studies
  • Sustained ops. for contaminants monitoring
    cruise biweekly with other sampling as
    appropriate, NANCY FOSTER, PATRICIA JEAN, GORDON
    GUNTER
  • Mussel Watch stations were sampled in October-
    will be sampled again in January, 2006.
  • Joint NOAA-NOS EPA cruise on EPA BOLD sampling
    EMAP stations
  • Hydrodynamic models being run at AOML (OAR) to
    forecast materials distribution and to direct
    sampling
  • Monitoring of SEAWiFS and shipboard samples for
    potential HAB outbreaks resulting from Karenia
    brevis
  • Wetlands loss analysis and restoration activities
    being undertaken by NMFS and NOS
  • Impacts on abundance and distribution of fishes,
    crabs and shrimps to be assessed in ongoing
    bottom trawl cruises in October-November 2005
  • Re-assessment of community profiles, Alabama,
    Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, west coast of
    Florida
  • Coordination of activities with USACE, USGS, EPA,
    NSF, state directors and other agencies
  • Website www.noaa.gov Hurricane Katrina
    Environmental Impacts

44
Points for Discussion
  • Interagency coordination of toxics/pathogens
    sampling and public release of findings EPA,
    FDA, USGS, US Army Corps
  • Rebuilding Gulf fisheries needs to be on a
    sustainable basis (many fisheries were
    overcapitalized before Katrina and Rita)
  • Rebuilding fisheries must be done within existing
    Regional Institutions (Gulf States Marine Fishery
    Commission, Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management
    Council, State Agencies, other collaborative
    groups)
  • Will build upon long standing partnerships for
    wetlands restoration (CWPPRA in LA), similar
    governance model could be applied to MS, AL, TX,
    and FL

45
NOAAs Efforts Theme Areas for Panel
Presentations
  • Forecasts and Communications (D.L. Johnson)
  • NOAAs Support Activities (C. Challstrom)
  • Restoration and Rebuilding of Living Marine
    Resources (S. Murawski)
  • Next Steps

46
Improvements Underway
  • Continue work to improve response to warnings
  • Continue to improve hurricane intensity and storm
    surge models
  • Improve mechanisms to account for employees and
    ensure their safety
  • Update NOAA disaster response plans to include
    necessary ecosystem assessments
  • Continue to strengthen internal communication
  • Strengthen connections between HAZMAT and HAB
    responses and large-scale environmental models

47
Assessment Activities
  • Conduct NOAA-wide Review of Operations and
    Services during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
  • Review activities before, during, and after
    events
  • Emphasize perspective of customers and partners
  • Focus on readiness, communication, coordination,
    continuity of operations, and recovery
  • Expected completion January 31, 2006
  • Support Administrations Review

48
Points for Discussion
  • Interagency coordination in response to natural
    disasters
  • White House Environmental Impact and Cleanup
    Working Group
  • Gulf Coast Recovery and Rebuilding Council
  • NOAAs Role in promoting hazard resilient
    communities

49
BACKUP
50
Katrina Time Line
A. Formed (tropical depression) 400
pm CDT Tues. Aug 23 B. Became Tropical Storm
700 am CDT Wed. Aug. 24 C. Became
Category 1 230 pm CDT
Thu. Aug. 25 D. Landfall FL (Category 1)
530 pm CDT Thu. Aug. 25 E. Entered
eastern Gulf of Mexico (as tropical storm)
200 am CDT Fri.
Aug. 26
M
K
L
D
C
F. Became Category 1 400 am CDT
Fri. Aug. 26 G. Became Category 2 1030
am CDT Fri. Aug. 26 H. Became Category 3
400 am CDT Sat. Aug. 27 I. Became
Category 4 1240 am CDT Sun. Aug.
28 J. Became Category 5 615 am
CDT Sun. Aug. 28 K. Became Category 4
200 am CDT Mon. Aug. 29 L. Landfall
southeastern LA (Cat 4) 610 am CDT Mon. Aug.
29 M. Landfall LA/MS border (Cat 3) 1000 am
CDT Mon. Aug. 29
B
J
E
F
I
G
H
A
51
Advisory 23 Sunday 08/28/2005 1000 AM CDT
000 WWUS74 KLIX 281550 NPWLIX URGENT - WEATHER
MESSAGE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NEW ORLEANS
LA 1011 AM CDT SUN AUG 28 2005 ...DEVASTATING
DAMAGE EXPECTED.... HURRICANE KATRINA...A MOST
POWERFUL HURRICANE WITH UNPRECEDENTED
STRENGTH...RIVALING THE INTENSITYOF HURRICANE
CAMILLE OF 1969. MOST OF THE AREA WILL BE
UNINHABITABLE FOR WEEKS...PERHAPS LONGER. AT
LEAST ONE HALF OF WELL CONSTRUCTED HOMES WILL
HAVE ROOF AND WALL FAILURE. ALL GABLED ROOFS WILL
FAIL...LEAVING THOSE HOMES SEVERELY DAMAGED OR
DESTROYED. THE MAJORITY OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
WILL BECOME NON FUNCTIONAL.PARTIAL TO COMPLETE
WALL AND ROOF FAILURE IS EXPECTED. ALL WOOD
FRAMED LOW RISING APARTMENT BUILDINGS WILL BE
DESTROYED. CONCRETE BLOCK LOW RISE APARTMENTS
WILL SUSTAIN MAJOR DAMAGE...INCLUDING SOME WALL
AND ROOF FAILURE. HIGH RISE OFFICE AND
APARTMENT BUILDINGS WILL SWAY DANGEROUSLY...A FEW
TO THE POINT OF TOTAL COLLAPSE. ALL WINDOWS WILL
BLOW OUT.
BULLETIN HURRICANE KATRINA ADVISORY NUMBER 23 NWS
TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL 10 AM CDT
SUN AUG 28 2005 ...POTENTIALLY CATASTROPHIC
HURRICANE KATRINA…EVEN STRONGER…HEADED FOR THE
NORTHERN GULF COAST…. REPORTS FROM AN AIR FORCE
HURRICANE HUNTER AIRCRAFT INDICATE THAT THE
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS HAVE INCREASED TO NEAR
175 MPH…WITH HIGHER GUSTS. HURRICANE FORCE WINDS
EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 105 MILES FROM THE
CENTER… AND TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS EXTEND
OUTWARD UP TO 205 MILES.. COASTAL STORM SURGE
FLOODING OF 18 TO 22 FEET ABOVE NORMAL TIDE
LEVELS… LOCALLY AS HIGH AS 28 FEET ALONG WITH
LARGE AND DANGEROUS BATTERING WAVES… CAN BE
EXPECTED NEAR AND TO THE EAST OF WHERE THE CENTER
MAKES LANDFALL.
AIRBORNE DEBRIS WILL BE WIDESPREAD...AND MAY
INCLUDE HEAVY ITEMS SUCH AS HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES
AND EVEN LIGHT VEHICLES. SPORT UTILITY VEHICLES
AND LIGHT TRUCKS WILL BE MOVED. THE BLOWN DEBRIS
WILL CREATE ADDITIONAL DESTRUCTION.
PERSONS...PETS...AND LIVESTOCK EXPOSED TO THE
WINDS WILL FACE CERTAIN DEATH IF STRUCK. POWER
OUTAGES WILL LAST FOR WEEKS...AS MOST POWER POLES
WILL BE DOWNAND TRANSFORMERS DESTROYED. WATER
SHORTAGES WILL MAKE HUMAN SUFFERING INCREDIBLE BY
MODERN STANDARDS. THE VAST MAJORITY OF NATIVE
TREES WILL BE SNAPPED OR UPROOTED. ONLY THE
HEARTIEST WILL REMAIN STANDING...BUT BE TOTALLY
DEFOLIATED. FEW CROPS WILL REMAIN. LIVESTOCK LEFT
EXPOSED TO THE WINDS WILL BE KILLED. AN INLAND
HURRICANE WIND WARNING IS ISSUED WHEN SUSTAINED
WINDS NEAR HURRICANE FORCE...OR FREQUENT GUSTS AT
OR ABOVE HURRICANE FORCE...ARE CERTAIN WITHIN THE
NEXT 12 TO 24 HOURS. ONCE TROPICAL STORM AND
HURRICANE FORCE WINDS ONSET...DO NOT VENTURE
OUTSIDE!
Advisory 23 Issued
52
Single Track SLOSH forecast
NHC track forecast
Storm surge data posted by NHC at 920 am CDT
8/28/05 Shows envelope of high water relative to
mean sea level (of 1929)
53
Why model improvements are needed
Tropical Storm Katrina Model Guidance from
Wednesday 08/24/2005 100 pm CDT. Models
indicate possible landfalls from SE Louisiana to
South Carolina to no landfall at all within five
days
Intensity and track forecasts are interrelated
54
NOAA SLOSH Maximum Envelope of Water Composite
of Category 4 Storms Moving N at 15 mph
NOAA SLOSH Storm Surge Data First Provided to New
Orleans Area in 1989. NOAA first provided
guidance for forecasting storm surge along the
open U.S. Gulf and east coasts from the precursor
to SLOSH known as SPLASH, in 1972.
55
On-Scene Weather Support
  • Provided weather briefings to the incident
    command staff
  • Helped coordinate placement of Bureau of Land
    Management remote mobile weather stations to fill
    gaps left by the loss of automated weather
    stations
  • Used for incident operations planning and safety
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