THE QUEST FOR ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 171
About This Presentation
Title:

THE QUEST FOR ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

Description:

THE QUEST FOR ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:658
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 172
Provided by: chadgj
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: THE QUEST FOR ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE


1
THE QUEST FOR ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE
  • ELIMINATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH
  • DISPARITIES IN VULNERABLE POPULATIONS
  • September 14, 2007
  • Robert D. Bullard, Ph.D.
  • Environmental Justice Resource Center
  • Clark Atlanta University
  • Atlanta, Georgia

2
Its Just One Book But Dont Tell Anybody
  • Invisible Houston
  • Dumping in Dixie
  • In Search of the New South
  • Growth and Decline of a Sunbelt Boomtown
  • Confronting Environmental Racism
  • Residential Apartheid
  • Unequal Protection
  • Just Transportation
  • Sprawl City
  • Just Sustainabilities
  • Highway Robbery
  • The Quest for Environmental Justice
  • Growing Smarter
  • The Black Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century

3
WHY PLACE MATTERS
  • The natural environment - the quality of our air,
    water, and soil exposure to lead, environmental
    tobacco smoke, and noise industrial waste
    disposal
  • The built environment - parks, sidewalks,
    bikeways, transportation networks,
    urban/suburban/rural planning and development,
    zoning regulations, housing codes, disability
    accessibility
  • The social environment - social processes and
    conditions related to economic and political
    power and decision making human connections at
    an ecological level, such as social capital,
    efficacy, and cohesion family relationships
    safe schools discrimination due to race,
    ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation,
    gender, age

4
Defining the Environment
  • Where We Live
  • Where We Work
  • Where We Play
  • Where We Go to School
  • Physical and Natural World

5
Environmental Inequities
  • Distribution of benefits vs. burdens
  • Public investments and social equity
  • Land use and facility siting decisions
  • Residential segregation
  • Disparate access to information
  • Quality and quantity of services
  • Access to planning and decision making

6
Environmental Justice Principle
  • Environmental justice embraces the principle that
    all people and communities are entitled to equal
    protection of our environmental, health,
    employment, education, housing, transportation,
    and civil rights laws

7
Why Environment Matters
  • The natural environment - the quality of our air,
    water, and soil exposure to lead, environmental
    tobacco smoke, and noise industrial waste
    disposal
  • The built environment - parks, sidewalks,
    bikeways, transportation networks,
    urban/suburban/rural planning and development,
    zoning regulations, housing codes, disability
    accessibility
  • The social environment - social processes and
    conditions related to economic and political
    power and decision making human connections at
    an ecological level, such as social capital,
    efficacy, and cohesion family relationships
    safe schools discrimination due to race,
    ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation,
    gender, age

8
WHY HEALTH MATTERS
9
Growing Smarter Healthier
  • Smart Growth is defined as growth that is
    economically sound, environmentally friendly, and
    supportive of community livability - growth that
    enhances our quality of life
  • Smart growth is development that serves the
    economy, the community and the environment

10
WHY REGIONS MATTER
  • In the real world, all communities are not
    created equal
  • Some communities are more equal than others
  • Where you live can impact your quality of life
    and access to opportunity
  • Where you live can also heighten your
    vulnerability to disasters
  • Government policies have aided and abetted the
    creation of separate and unequal places within
    metropolitan regions

11
WARNING! WARNING!
  • Your environment can be hazardous to your health

12
Wrong Side of the Tracks
13
Toxic Public Housing
  • A 2000 Dallas Morning New study found that
    870,000 of the 1.9 million (46) housing units
    for the poor, mostly minority families, sit
    within one mile of TRI reporting factories
  • When accidents, explosions, and spills occur at
    petrochemical plants, nearby residents are
    instructed to shelter in place, close their
    doors and windows, stay inside, and pray

14
(No Transcript)
15
Toxic Homes
  • Lead poisoning is the number one environmental
    health threat to children in the United States
  • Lead poisoning is a preventable disease
  • Low-income children are eight times more likely
    than those of affluence to live where lead paint
    causes a problem
  • Black children are five times more likely than
    white children to suffer from lead poisoning

16
(No Transcript)
17
HEALTH EFFECTS OF LEAD
  • Nervous system
  • Developmental
  • Cognitive
  • Behavioral
  • Hearing
  • Sight
  • Renal (kidney)
  • Immune system

18
(No Transcript)
19
(No Transcript)
20
(No Transcript)
21
Protecting Children from Environmental Injustice
  • Children are not little adults
  • Children are more susceptible and exposed to
    environmental threats
  • Children spend more time outside and at times
    when air pollution is at its highest
  • Children are least able to protect themselves,
    making them the most vulnerable of the
    vulnerable
  • Poor children and children of color are at
    disproportionate risk for exposure to
    environmental hazards

22
Toxic Public Schools
  • More than 600,000 students in MA, NY, NJ, MI, and
    CA attend nearly 1,200 public schools (attended
    by mostly students of color) that are located
    within a half mile of a federal Superfund or
    state identified contaminated site
  • Nearly one in five schools in the U.S. has at
    least one room, or more than 73,000 schoolrooms
    in all, with radon levels above 4 pCi/L
    (picocuries per liter), the level that EPA
    recommends that action should be taken

23
Threats to Children
  • One of every four American child lives in areas
    that regularly exceeds the U.S. EPA ozone
    standards
  • Children living or attending schools within 300
    meters of major roadways are significantly more
    likely to get asthma and other respiratory
    illnesses
  • Asthma accounts for 10 million missed school
    days, 1.2 million emergency room visits, 15
    million outpatient visits, and over 500,000
    hospitalizations each year

24
Uninsured Households
  • The number of people without health insurance
    coverage rose from 44.8 million (15.3 percent) in
    2005 to 47 million (15.8 percent) in 2006
  • The number of uninsured children increased from 8
    million (10.9 percent) in 2005 to 8.7 million
    (11.7 percent) in 2006
  • One-third (34.1 percent) of Hispanics and
    one-fifth (20.3 percent) of blacks were uninsured
    in 2006, compared with one-tenth (10.8 percent)
    of whites

25
STATE OF THE AIR - 2007
  • Nearly half (46 percent) of the U.S. population
    lives in counties that have unhealthful levels of
    either ozone or particle pollution.
  • Over 136 million Americans live in 251 counties
    where they are exposed to unhealthful levels of
    air pollution in the form of either ozone or
    short-term or year-round levels of particles.
  • One-third of the U.S. population33.4
    percentlives in areas with unhealthful levels of
    ozone, a significant reduction since the last
    report when nearly half did.Roughly one in three
    people in the United States lives in an area with
    unhealthful short-term levels of particle
    pollution, a significant increase since 2006.
  • Nearly one in five people in the United States
    lives in an area with unhealthful year-round
    levels of particle pollution.
  • About 38.3 million Americansnearly one in eight
    peoplelive in 32 counties with unhealthful
    levels of all three ozone and short-term and
    year-round particle pollution.
  • Source American Lung Association (2007)

26
Transportation and Pollution
  • Transportation sources account for 80 of carbon
    monoxide, 45 of nitrogen oxide, 35 of
    hydrocarbons, 32 of carbon dioxide, 19 of
    particulate matter, and 5 of sulfur dioxide

27
Dumping Dirty Diesel
  • Emissions from dirty diesel vehicles pose
    health threats to nearby residents
  • Diesel particulate matter alone contributes to
    125,000 cancers in the U.S.
  • In New York City, six out of eight of the MTAs
    diesel bus depots (housing 2000 buses) in
    Manhattan are located in Northern Manhattan, a
    low-income community of color

28
Geography of Air Pollution
  • Nationally, 57 of whites, 65 of blacks, and 80
    of Hispanics live in counties with substandard
    air
  • Over 61.3 of Black children, 69.2 of Hispanic
    children and 67.7 of Asian-American children
    live in areas that exceed the 0.08 ppm ozone
    standard, while 50.8 of white children live in
    such areas
  • Air pollution claims 70,000 lives a year, nearly
    twice the number killed in traffic accidents

29
Living and Dying with Pollution
  • African Americans are 79 percent more likely than
    whites to live in neighborhoods where industrial
    pollution is suspected of posing the greatest
    health danger
  • African Americans in 19 states are more than
    twice as likely as whites to live in
    neighborhoods with high pollution and a similar
    pattern was discovered for Hispanics in 12 states
    and Asians in seven states
  • Source Associated Press (2005)

30
Paying with Our Health
  • Air pollution claims 70,000 lives a year, nearly
    twice the number killed in traffic accidents
  • Public health costs due to air pollution account
    for over three-quarters of the total
    pollution-related public health costs and could
    be as high as 182 billion annually
  • An estimated 50,000 to 120,000 premature deaths
    are associated with exposure to air pollutants
  • People with asthma experience more than 100
    million days of restrictive activity annually,
    costing 4 billion a year

31
DIRTY POWER
32
Dirty Power and Children
  • Over 78 of African Americans live within 30
    miles of a power plantthe distance within which
    the maximum effects of the smokestack plumes are
    expected to occur, compared with 56 of white
    Americans
  • Over 35 million American children live within 30
    miles of a power plant, of which an estimated two
    million are asthmatic

33
Its Raining Mercury
  • Coal-burning power plants are the major source of
    mercury pollution
  • Much of the mercury stays airborne for two years
    and spreads around the globe
  • One recent study found fetus-harming levels of
    mercury in about 8 of U.S. women of childbearing
    age
  • Efforts to limit mercury from the 1,100
    coal-burning power plants that are the main
    source of mercury pollution are mired in politics

34
(No Transcript)
35
Source of Sulfur Dioxide - 2002
36
Dirty Power Plants Kill
37
(No Transcript)
38
(No Transcript)
39
TOUGHER OZONE STANDARDS
  • EPAs own Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee
    (CASAC), an independent body chartered under the
    Clean Air Act, concluded that the current ozone
    standard (.080 ppm) is not adequate to protect
    human health and unanimously recommended EPA set
    a new tougher standard in the range of .060 to
    .070 parts per million
  • New epidemiological and clinical studies reveal
    that breathing ozone at concentrations at the
    current standard of 0.08 ppm, decreases lung
    function, increases respiratory symptoms,
    inflammation, and increases susceptibility to
    respiratory infection

40
Ground Level Ozone and Health
  • Over 27 million children under age 13 live in
    areas with ozone levels above the EPA standard
  • Half the pediatric asthma population, two million
    children, live in these areas
  • More than 61.3 percent of African American
    children, 69.2 percent of Hispanic children and
    67.7 percent of Asian-American children live in
    areas that exceed the 0.080 ppm ozone standard,
    while 50.8 percent of white children live in such
    areas.
  • High ozone levels cause more than 50,000
    emergency room visits each year and result in
    15,000 hospitalizations for respiratory
    illnesses.
  • Ozone pollution is responsible for 10 percent to
    20 percent, and nearly 50 percent on bad days, of
    all hospital admissions for respiratory
    conditions
  • Ground level ozone sends an estimated 53,000
    persons to the hospital, 159,000 to the emergency
    room and triggers 6,200,000 asthma attacks each
    summer in the eastern half of the United States.

41
OZONE IN SPRAWLANTA
  • Nearly half (48.6 percent) of the Atlanta metro
    region's air pollution is from cars and
    heavy-duty vehicles, which each year spew over
    1.5 million tons of pollutants.
  • Transportation-related air pollution sources
    exact a major financial toll on the Atlanta
    region, with public health costs estimated to be
    as high as 637 million.
  • In 2007, metro Atlanta experienced forty-seven
    smog alerts 34 "orange" days and 13 "red" days
    for ozone, particulate matter, or both.

42
(No Transcript)
43
VULNERABLE POPULATIONS
44
(No Transcript)
45
(No Transcript)
46
THE RIGHT TO BREATHE
  • Air pollution has been linked to rising asthma
    rates
  • Asthma hits poor, inner city children the hardest
  • African Americans and Latinos are two to six
    times more likely than whites to die from asthma
  • Asthma hospitalization rate for African Americans
    and Latinos is 3 to 4 times the rate for whites

47
An Asthma Epidemic
  • Asthma affects 15 to 17 million people, including
    5 million children in the U.S.
  • Six percent of U.S. children have asthma
  • Asthma is now the nations number one childhood
    illness
  • Asthma is the number one reason for childhood
    emergency room visits and school absenteeism

48
(No Transcript)
49
Protecting Children from Environmental Threats
  • Children are not just little adults
  • Children are more susceptible and exposed to
    environmental threats
  • Children spend more time outside and at times
    when air pollution is at its highest
  • Children are least able to protect themselves,
    making them the most vulnerable of the
    vulnerable
  • Poor children and children of color are at
    disproportionate risk for exposure to
    environmental hazards

50
Threats to Children
  • One of every four American child lives in areas
    that regularly exceeds the U.S. EPA ozone
    standards
  • Children living or attending schools within 300
    meters of major roadways are significantly more
    likely to get asthma and other respiratory
    illnesses
  • Asthma accounts for 10 million missed school
    days, 1.2 million emergency room visits, 15
    million outpatient visits, and over 500,000
    hospitalizations each year

51
Barriers to Physical Activity
  • Time
  • Cost
  • Access to Resources
  • Child Care
  • Sedentary Activities
  • Beliefs
  • Safety Security
  • Environment
  • Transportation

52
Urban Green Space Linked to Walking, Cycling
Levels
  • The top 10 cities for utilitarian walking and
    bicycling New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore,
    Minneapolis-St. Paul, Boston, San Francisco,
    Chicago, Portland, Cincinnati and Oakland
  • The bottom 10 cities for utilitarian walking
    and bicycling Memphis, Columbus, Cleveland,
    Virginia Beach, Milwaukee, St. Louis/Atlanta
    (tied), San Jose, San Diego and Sacramento

53
Top 10 Walking Cycling
  • The top 10 cities for recreational walking and
    bicycling San Francisco, Milwaukee, Oakland, San
    Diego, San Jose, Pittsburgh, Sacramento, Los
    Angeles/Tampa (tied) and Denver
  • The bottom 10 cities for recreational walking and
    bicycling Atlanta, Cincinnati, New York,
    Chicago, Houston, Phoenix-Mesa, Cleveland, Miami,
    Las Vegas and Virginia Beach

54
MEAN STREETS DONT WALK
55
Dangerous Streets
  • Walking is 36 times than driving and more than
    300 times more dangerous than flying

56
Mean Streets for Walkers - 2004
  • Over the ten-year period from 1994 to 2003, more
    than 50,000 pedestrians died on our streets
  • The Top Ten most deadly cities for walkers
    include
  • 1 - Orlando, FL 2 - Tampa-St Petersburg-Clearwat
    er, FL3 - West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL4 -
    Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL5 - Memphis, TN-AR-MS6
    - Atlanta, GA7 - Greensboro--Winston-Salem--High
    Point, NC8 - Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX9 -
    Jacksonville, FL10 - Phoenix-Mesa, AZ

57
Do Not Walk or Bike
  • Today, fewer than one in eight students walk or
    bike to school compared to a majority of students
    a generation ago
  • Wide streets with no sidewalks often leave
    pedestrians stranded and exposed to traffic

58
Protecting the Most Vulnerable
  • Children represent just 15 of the U.S.
    population, yet they account for 30 of the
    pedestrian fatalities
  • More than one-fourth of the 5-9 year old children
    killed in traffic accidents are pedestrians
  • Being hit by a car is the number one cause of
    death of kids 5-14 in New York City, with The
    Bronx leading the five boroughs with the highest
    percentage of children hit (over one third of the
    pedestrians hit in The Bronx are children 14 and
    under)

59
WHY PARKS MATTER
60
Top 10 Cities for Parkland
  • The top 10 cities for parkland as a percentage of
    city acreage San Francisco, Washington, New
    York, San Diego, Boston, Minneapolis-St. Paul,
    Portland, Cincinnati, Philadelphia and
    Phoenix-Mesa
  • The bottom 10 cities for parkland as a percentage
    of city acreage San Jose, Atlanta, New Orleans,
    Tampa, Miami, Houston, Cleveland,
    Memphis/Sacramento (tie) and Columbus (OH)

61
(No Transcript)
62
(No Transcript)
63
(No Transcript)
64
(No Transcript)
65
(No Transcript)
66
WE ALL NEED NOT BE MARATHON RUNNERS
67
(No Transcript)
68
ALL PARKS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL
69
Dangerous Playgrounds
  • The most common wood preservative and pesticide
    used to treat outdoor wood is chromated copper
    arsenic (CCA)
  • Current law allows less than 10 milligrams of
    arsenic per liter of drinking water
  • The average 12-foot-long piece of CCA-treated
    wood contains 1 ounce of pure arsenicenough to
    kill 250 adults
  • Children are estimated to ingest almost 630
    milligrams per visit to a playground and after
    five minutes contact with treated wood

70
Polluted Parks
  • Children play at a park across the street from
    the Shell Oil refinery in Norco, LA
  • The chemical plant was built on the Old Diamond
    Plantation
  • In July, 2002, after a decade of struggle, the
    Diamond community was finally relocated by Shell
  • For her gallant effort to win justice for her
    Diamond community, Margie Richard was awarded the
    2004 Goldman Prize

71
(No Transcript)
72
Park in Camden, NJ
  • Residents in the Waterfront South district of
    Camden, New Jersey live in housing nestled among
    two Superfund sites, a sewage treatment plant, a
    trash-to-steam incinerator, an Ogden
    co-generation plant, the Camden Iron and Metal
    works, the Jen-Cyn sheet metal plant, the Comarco
    Pork Products, and the new St. Lawrence Cement
    plant

73
(No Transcript)
74
Park in West Harlem, NY
  • River Bank State Park sits atop the North River
    Sewer Treatment Plant in mostly African American
    and Latino West Harlem, NY
  • West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT) sued
    the City and won a 1.1 million settlement
  • For her effort to win justice for her West Harlem
    community, Peggy Shepard, Executive Director of
    WE ACT, was given the prestigious 2003 Heinz
    Award in the field of environment

75
(No Transcript)
76
A Park in Baytown, TX Located Across from
ExxonMobil Refinery
  • On late Sunday evening January 25, 2006, a
    storage tank at the Exxon Mobil Refinery in
    Baytown, Texas spilled a 150,000-barrel storage
    tank holding a heated substance called process
    gas oil, or PGO, releasing 1,400 barrels of oil
    droplets into a 48-unit public housing complex
  • Monday afternoon Exxon Mobil clean-up crews
    showed up wearing jumpsuits and plastic gloves
  • It was not until Tuesday that the company
    informed state officials of the cleanup and that
    the incident went off the plants grounds
    affecting the nearby community
  • Harris Countys Pollution Control and
    Environmental Health Division officials learned
    of the off-site release from media accounts on
    Wednesday, more than two days after the incident
  • Process gas oil contains benzene, a known
    carcinogen

77
(No Transcript)
78
(No Transcript)
79
(No Transcript)
80
WHY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MATTERS
81
Physical Activity and Obesity
  • Government data suggest that only 45 percent of
    Americans meet recommendations for physical
    activity and of the remaining 55 percent, about
    half are sedentary
  • African American (24.1) children are
    significantly less likely to participate in
    organized physical activity compared to white
    children (46.6)
  • In a Yankelovich survey, nearly one-third of
    Americans with incomes below 15,000 per year
    said they did not walk or jog in their
    neighborhood for fear of crime, double the
    proportion of those making 25,000

82
Rising Childhood Obesity
  • Over 60 of American adults are overweight or
    obese, as are nearly 13 of children 
  • Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary
    habits are causes of childhood obesity, a
    condition associated with risk factors for adult
    chronic diseases
  • Annual U.S. obesity-attributable medical
    expenditures are estimated at 75 billion in 2003
    dollars

83
Causes of Childhood Obesity
  • Modifiable causes
  • Physical Activity - Lack of regular exercise
  • Sedentary behavior - High frequency of television
    viewing, computer usage, and similar behavior
    that takes up time that can be used for physical
    activity
  • Socioeconomic Status - Low family incomes and
    non-working parents
  • Eating Habits - Over-consumption of high-calorie
    foods. Some eating patterns that have been
    associated with this behavior are eating when not
    hungry, eating while watching TV or doing
    homework
  • Environment - Some factors are over-exposure to
    advertising of foods that promote high-calorie
    foods and lack of recreational facilities
  • Non-changeable causes
  • Genetics - Greater risk of obesity has been found
    in children of obese and overweight parents.

84
YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT
85
(No Transcript)
86
FAST FOOD GEOGRAPHY
87
(No Transcript)
88
Healthiest Cities 2005 (Pre-Katrina)
89
Fat City USA Pre-Katrina
  • The American Obesity Association reports that New
    Orleans is among the U.S. cities with the highest
    obesity rates
  • In 2000, it was ranked the city with the fifth
    highest obesity rate in the nation
  • The following year it climbed to fourth place,
    and in 2002 fell back to twentieth place and
    moved back up to seventh place in 2005
  • According to the New Orleans Health Department,
    the number one killer in the Orleans Parish is
    cardiovascular diseases
  • This has been partially attributed to high
    obesity rates and poor dietary habits

90
(No Transcript)
91
Marketing Bad Health
  • According to Advertising Age, food industry ad
    spending runs about 10 billion per year
  • McDonald's alone spends more than 1 billion and
    Coke more 800 million
  • Healthy messages like the national 5-A-Day
    Fruit-and-Vegetable Campaign, funded annually at
    a paltry 2 million

92
Supermarket Flight
  • Wealthier neighborhoods have more than three
    times as many supermarkets as poor neighborhoods,
    limiting access for many people to the basic
    elements of a healthy diet
  • When broken down by race, not just wealth, there
    are four times as many supermarkets in
    predominantly white neighborhoods as in black
    neighborhoods
  • Low-income residents pay 10 to 40 percent more
    for food than higher income residents

93
(No Transcript)
94
The 250 Billion Poverty Business
95
(No Transcript)
96
Supermarket Redlining
  • Food redlining operates when large-scale
    supermarkets abandon lower-income and people of
    color communities for their more affluent and
    white counterparts, leaving entire communities
    with little or no access to affordable, quality
    food
  • Food redlining and relining by banks and
    insurance companies go hand in hand
  • Food redlining forces low-income residents to
    spend more money and time, and travel farther and
    accept lower quality of food

97
Crossing the Food Desert
  • How do you know if you live in a food desert?
    Answer If you shop for food in the local
    corner drugstore or pharmacy
  • Food deserts are vast areas with no or distant
    grocery stores
  • Food deserts are not accidental but are created
    by conscious decisions made by multiple actors

98
(No Transcript)
99
(No Transcript)
100
(No Transcript)
101
(No Transcript)
102
DUMPING ON THE POOR
  • Many inner-city grocery stores sell leftovers or
    seconds from their sister stores in wealthier
    areas
  • It is not uncommon to find wilted produce,
    expired milk, and spoiled meat in inner-city
    grocery stores

103
UNHEALTHY BY DESIGN
  • Fast food outlets proliferate in many inner city
    neighborhoods, crowding out access to healthier
    foods
  • Children are the special targets of saturation
    marketing by the fast food and junk food industry
  • Access to fast food outlets and concentration are
    associated with important health outcomes and
    diet-related diseasesincluding cardiovascular
    disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity

104
SUPERSIZE ME
105
YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT
  • In many people of color urban neighborhoods, it
    is far easier to get an artery-choking burger and
    fries (super-sized) than a bag fresh apples or
    bunch of grapes

106
(No Transcript)
107
(No Transcript)
108
(No Transcript)
109
Toxic Wastes and Race - 2007
  • Race continues to be a significant independent
    predictor of commercial hazardous waste facility
    locations when socioeconomic and other non-racial
    factors are taken into account
  • People of color make up the majority (56) of
    those living in neighborhoods within 3 kilometers
    (1.8 miles) of the nations commercial hazardous
    waste facilities, nearly double the percentage in
    areas beyond 3 kilometers (30)
  • People of color make up a much larger (over
    two-thirds) majority (69) in neighborhoods with
    clustered facilities
  • People of color in 2007 are more concentrated in
    areas with commercial hazardous sites than in
    1987

110
Report Findings Continued
  • Over 5.1 million people of color, including 2.5
    million Hispanics or Latinos, 1.8 million African
    Americans, 616,000 Asians/Pacific Islanders, and
    62,000 Native Americans live in neighborhoods
    with one or more commercial hazardous waste
    facilities
  • Percentages of people of color as a whole are 1.9
    times greater in host neighborhoods than in
    non-host areas.
  • Percentages of African Americans,
    Hispanics/Latinos, and Asians/Pacific Islanders
    in host neighborhoods are 1.7, 2.3, and 1.8 times
    greater (20 vs. 12, 27 vs. 12, and 6.7 vs.
    3.6), respectively

111
Disparities by EPA Region
  • Racial disparities for people of color as a whole
    exist in 9 out of 10 EPA regions (all except
    Region 3)
  • Disparities in people of color percentages
    between host neighborhoods and non-host areas are
    greatest in Region 1, the Northeast (36 vs.
    15) Region 4, the southeast (54 vs. 30)
    Region 5, the Midwest (53 vs. 19) Region 6,
    the South, (63 vs. 42) and Region 9, the
    southwest (80 vs. 49)

112
Disparities in U.S. Metro Areas
  • In Metro areas, people of color in hazardous
    waste host neighborhoods are significantly
    greater than in non-host areas (57 vs. 33)
  • Six metro areas account for half of all people of
    color living in close proximity to all of the
    nations commercial hazardous waste
    facilitiesLos Angeles, New York, Detroit,
    Chicago, Oakland, and Orange County
  • Los Angeles alone accounts for 21 of the people
    of color in host neighborhoods nationally
  • Greater Los Angeles tops the nation with 1.2
    million people living less than two miles from 17
    waste facilities, and 91 percent of them, or 1.1
    million, are people of color

113
Disparities in U.S. Metro Areas
  • Detroit is home to 12 hazardous waste facilities
    where nearly 70 of the residents living with two
    miles are people versus 25.8 percent living in
    areas with waste facilities
  • More than three-fourths (78.6) of the residents
    near wastes facilities in the Houston metro
    region are people of color
  • Clearly, six of eight Texas metro areas have
    waste facility siting disparities
  • In Georgia, people of color make up a majority
    (55.6) of residents near waste facilities
  • And in Metro Atlanta, people of color (largely
    African Americans) comprise nearly two-thirds
    (64.6) of the residents in neighborhoods with
    wastes facilities compared to 39.6 percent
    without waste facilities

114
REPORT CONCLUSIONS
  • People of color are found to be more concentrated
    around hazardous waste facilities than previously
    shown
  • Race matters -- Race maps closely with the
    geography of pollution
  • Place matters -- Unequal protection places
    communities of color at special risk
  • Polluting industries still follow the path of
    least resistance
  • The current environmental protection apparatus is
    broken and needs to be fixed
  • Slow government response to environmental
    contamination and toxic threats unnecessarily
    endangers the health of the most vulnerable
    populations in our society

115
Policy Recommendations
  • Codify Environmental Justice Executive Order
    12898
  • Provide Legislative Fix for Title VI of the
    Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Reinstate the Superfund Tax
  • Hold Congressional Hearings on EPA Response to
    Contamination in EJ Communities
  • Convene Congressional Black Caucus and
    Congressional Hispanic Caucus Policy Briefings
  • Enact Legislation Promoting Clean Production and
    Waste Reduction
  • Require Comprehensive Safety Data for all
    Chemicals
  • Implement the EPA Office of Inspector General
    Recommendations
  • Fully Implement Environmental Justice Executive
    Order 12898
  • Protect Community Right to Know
  • End EPA Rollback of Environmental Justice
    Initiatives
  • Require Cumulative Risk Assessment in Facility
    Permitting
  • Require Safety Buffers in Facility Permitting and
    Fenceline Community Performance Bonds for
    Variances
  • Require State-by-State Assessment (Report Card)
    on EJ
  • Develop Brownfields Partnerships with Academic
    Institutions
  • Establish Tax Increment Finance Funds
  • Establish Community Land Trusts

116
Policy Recommendations
  • Development Community Benefits Plans
  • Increased Private Foundations General Support
    Funding for EJ
  • Funds to Support Training of New Generation of
    Leaders
  • Target Dirty Dozen EJ Test Cases
  • Step up Efforts to Diversify Mainstream
    Environmental Organizations
  • Strengthen Racial, Ethnic and Cross-class
    Collaborations among EJ Organizations
  • Adopt Clean Production Principles
  • Phase Out Persistent, Bioaccumulative, or Highly
    Toxic Chemicals
  • Adopt Extended Producer Responsibility
  • Support Community and Worker Right-to-Know
  • Adopt and Uphold Legally-Binding Good
    Neighborhood Agreements

117
DEADLY MIX OF WATER, POLLUTION, AND RACE
118
Poisoned Wells in Dickson County, Tennessee
  • An automotive manufacturing plant dumped
    trichloroethylene or TCE in the Dickson County
    Landfill from 1968 to 1985
  • Federal, state, and county officials knew as
    early as 1988 that TCE was in the wells of a
    black family who lived near the county landfill
  • In 1993, white families in the area were notified
    within 48 hours of that determination that the
    toxic chemical was present in their wells and
    placed on the county system

119
Nightmare on Eno Road
  • Harry Holt Prostate cancer, bone cancer, Type 1
    diabetes, hypertension, kidney failure (died on
    January 9, 2007)
  • Beatrice Holt Rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes,
    cervical polyps
  • Sheila Holt-Orsted Breast cancer, diabetes,
    arthritis, gastrointestinal disorder
  • Bonita Holt Arthritis, colon polyps,
    hypertension, gastrointestinal disorder
  • Demetrius Holt Diabetes, gastrointestinal
    disorder
  • Patrick Holt Immune disorder, arthritis

120
Faulty Testing and Notification
  • In 1990, government tests found 26 ppb (parts per
    billion) TCE in the Harry Holt wellfive times
    above the established Maximum Contaminant Level
    (MCL) of 5ppb set by the federal EPA
  • TCE was also detected in the Mr. Holt well in
    1991 and he was sent a letter saying, Use of
    your well water should not result in any adverse
    health effects.
  • No tests were reported on the Holt well between
    1992 and 1999
  • In Oct. 9, 2001, Harry Holt well was tested and
    registered a whopping 120 ppb TCE, 24 times
    higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
    of 5ppb set by the federal EPA
  • On Oct. 20, 2001, the Holt family was placed on
    Dickson City watertwelve years after the first
    government tests found TCE in their well in 1988
  • The family filed a lawsuit in 2003

121
Pre-Katrina - Living and Dying in Louisianas
Cancer Alley
  • Dozens of toxic time bombs along Louisianas
    Cancer Alley, the 85-mile stretch from Baton
    Rouge to New Orleans, made the industrial
    corridor a major environmental justice
    battleground in the 1990s
  • Before Katrina, New Orleans was struggling with a
    wide range of environmental justice concerns,
    including an older housing stock with lots of
    lead paint

122
LOUISIANAS CANCER ALLEY
123
Living on a Toxic Dump
  • Residents of New Orleans Press Park neighborhood
    were living on top of the Agricultural Street
    Landfill Superfund site
  • The landfill was reopened in 1965 for the
    disposal of debris from Hurricane Betsy
  • Moton Elementary School was also built on the
    landfill site
  • Before Hurricane Katrina, residents of
    Agricultural Street had been fighting a legal
    battle for decades to get relocated from the
    contaminated site
  • The lawsuit was finally settled in January 2006

124
(No Transcript)
125
(No Transcript)
126
EPA Your Neighborhood is Safe
  • EPA officials assured the Ag Street residents
    that their neighborhood was safe after a 2001
    Superfund clean-up
  • Residents did not trust the EPAs clean-up and
    filed a lawsuit against the city

127
(No Transcript)
128
A Bitter-Sweet Victory
  • In January 2006, Seventh District Court Judge
    Nadine Ramsey ruled in favor of the residents,
    describing them as poor minority citizens who
    were promised the American dream of first-time
    homeownership, though the dream turned out to
    be a nightmare
  • Today, a dozen or so FEMA trailers now house
    Katrina survivors in the contaminated
    neighborhoodwhere EPA announced in April 2006 it
    had found the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene at levels
    almost 50 times the health screening level
  • No decision has been made to cleanup the
    contamination found near the old Agriculture
    Street landfill

129
(No Transcript)
130
(No Transcript)
131
(No Transcript)
132
(No Transcript)
133
Faulty Flood Protection
  • Much of the flooding that drowned 80 percent of
    New Orleans was caused by levee breachesa
    man-made disaster
  • The Army Corps of Engineers has spent 5.7
    billion for New Orleans levee repairs
  • The 200-mile repaired and reinforced levee system
    is not guaranteed to hold when a Category 4 or 5
    hurricane strikes

134
(No Transcript)
135
(No Transcript)
136
(No Transcript)
137
(No Transcript)
138
(No Transcript)
139
(No Transcript)
140
Washed Away by Katrina
141
Avoiding a Second Disaster
  • November 2005 Katrina and the Second Disaster
    A Twenty-Point Plan to Destroy Black New
    Orleans
  • Race plays out in disaster survivors ability to
    rebuild, replace infrastructure, obtain loans,
    and locate temporary and permanent housing
  • Communities of color face challenges in
    addressing environmental and health concerns
    before and after the disasters
  • Generally, people of color disaster victims spend
    more time in temporary housingshelters,
    trailers, mobile homes, and hotelsand are more
    vulnerable to permanent displacement

142
FEMAs Toxic Travel Trailers
  • Since early 2006, the Federal Emergency
    Management Agency (FEMA) knew about the hazardous
    formaldehyde levels that exist in trailers it
    provided to victims of Hurricane Katrina
  • Not only did the agency fail to act and conduct
    thorough testing of the air quality inside the
    trailers, it actively suppressed health and
    safety warnings from its own workers
  • Formaldehyde levels in some trailers reached 75
    times the federal limit for worker exposure to
    the chemical
  • Two years after the storm, there were 65,000
    trailers still in use in the Gulf Coast, of which
    45,000 were in Louisiana

143
(No Transcript)
144
Will The Toxic Cleanup Be Fair?
145
(No Transcript)
146
The Mother of All Toxic Cleanups in the U.S.
  • Katrina floodwaters left miles of sediments laced
    with cancer-causing chemicals, toxic metals,
    industrial compounds, petroleum products, and
    banned insecticides, all at levels that pose
    potential cancer risk or other long-term hazards
  • Government agencies have chosen not to clean up
    the contaminated topsoil where 80 of New Orleans
    flooded homes sit
  • Since Katrina struck, more than 99 million cubic
    yards of debris have been removed in Alabama,
    Louisiana, and Mississippi

147
(No Transcript)
148
(No Transcript)
149
(No Transcript)
150
(No Transcript)
151
DEBRIS FROM GUTTED HOMES
152
Asthma in New Orleans
  • New Orleans children have the highest asthma
    rates in Louisiana with over 16.4 suffering from
    the illness
  • The asthma death rate in Orleans Parish is
    significantly higher than rates for the rest of
    Louisiana and the U.S.
  • According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of
    America, childhood asthma costs in Orleans Parish
    are nearly 7 million per year tops in the
    state
  • New Orleans humid climate and the large number
    of old homes, which often have dust mites and
    mold create a high concentration of major asthma
    triggers

153
Indoor and Outside Mold Threats
  • A number of asthma triggers are associated with
    excess moisture and mold
  • Independent tests conducted by the Natural
    Resources Defense Council (NRDC) have also found
    dangerously high airborne mold levels inside and
    outside of homes, especially in the New Orleans
    neighborhoods that flooded
  • Such high concentration of mold spores is likely
    to be a significant respiratory hazard
  • Unfortunately, federal agencies, including the
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department
    of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),
    have not monitored mold levels in areas that
    flooded, and have done little to assist residents
    cope with the mold problem

154
(No Transcript)
155
The Katrina Cough and Mold
  • Health officials are now seeing a large number of
    evacuees afflicted with "Katrina cough," an
    illness believed to be linked to mold and dust
  • Individuals are returning to their flooded homes
    without the necessary protective gear and getting
    sick
  • Mold spores can trigger asthma attacks and set up
    life-threatening infections when normal immune
    systems are weakened

156
New Orleans Gets Clean Bill of Health
  • On August 17, 2006, nearly a year after Katrina
    struck, the federal EPA gave New Orleans and
    surrounding communities a clean bill of health,
    while pledging to monitor a handful of toxic hot
    spots
  • EPA officials concluded that Katrina did not
    cause any appreciable contamination that was not
    already there
  • Although EPA tests confirmed widespread lead in
    the soil, a pre-storm problem in 40 percent of
    New Orleans, EPA dismissed residents calls to
    address this problem as outside its mission

157
Not Clean Enough for Horses . . .
  • Although government officials insist the dirt in
    New Orleans residents yards is safe, Church Hill
    Downs, Inc., the owners of New Orleans Fair
    Grounds, felt it was not safe for its million
    dollar thoroughbred horses to race on
  • The owners scooped up and hauled off soil tainted
    by Hurricane Katrinas floodwaters
  • The Fair Grounds opened on Thanksgiving Day 2006
  • The Fair Grounds is the nations third-oldest
    track, only Saratoga and Pimlico have been racing
    longer

158
(No Transcript)
159
(No Transcript)
160
(No Transcript)
161
(No Transcript)
162
(No Transcript)
163
Before
Before
A SAFE WAY BACK HOME
After
After
After
164
(No Transcript)
165
(No Transcript)
166
(No Transcript)
167
(No Transcript)
168
Its About Human Rights
169
Need to Forge Broad Policies and Strategies
  • Strengthen public health laws and regulation to
    protect children
  • Provide funding to build capacity in community
    based organizations
  • Build global environmental and economic justice
    movement to address root causes of poverty
    pollution
  • Adoption of environmental justice and
    precautionary principle to protect the most
    vulnerable populations
  • Improve communication between researchers, public
    health officials, policy makers, and the
    community
  • Build community participation into research and
    policy development

170
TAKE AWAY MESSAGE
  • This is not rocket science
  • Design communities (all communities) as if you
    lived next door
  • Buy my books and dont wait for the movie or DVD

171
For More Information Contact
  • Environmental Justice Resource Center
  • Clark Atlanta University
  • Phone 404/880-6911
  • Fax 404/880-8132
  • E-Mail ejrc_at_cau.edu
  • Web Page www.ejrc.cau.edu
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com