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LIN 201

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Quiz 2 in Recitation this week. ... Oralism: Students are taught in such a way as to become part of the hearing ... In the classroom: Oralism -- taught Spanish. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LIN 201


1
LIN 201
  • Fall 2005
  • Lecture XIV (14)
  • ASL II (concl.)
  • Animal communication I

2
Reminder
  • Quiz 2 in Recitation this week. Covers Weeks IV
    through VIII Language Acquisition, American
    Sign Language, and Animal Communication (not
    Origin of Language).

3
Agenda
  • 1. ASL review.
  • 2. Language and speech.
  • 3. Modularity again.
  • 4. Overview of sub-modules of grammar.
  • 5. Animal communication General.
  • 6. Animal communication Chimps.
  • 7. Video Chimp Talk.

4
Agenda
  • 1. ASL -- review and preview.

5
Sign languages of the deaf (1)
  • Claim The sign languages of the deaf have all of
    the major properties of language and, therefore
    are full-fledged languages in our sense.

6
Sign languages of the deaf (2)
  • Evidence so far
  • 1. Knowledge Lex, Rules -- Yes.
  • 2. Brain -- Yes.
  • 3. Acquisition -- To do.
  • 4. Critical Period -- To do.

7
Agenda
  • 2. Acquisition of ASL The logical problem of
    language acquisition.

8
Acq of ASL the logical problem (1)
  • ASL obeys the Structure Dependency Principle and
    the Coordinate Structure Constraint.

9
Acq of ASL the logical problem (1)
  • Topicalization (FR, p. 147)
  • Both English and ASL --
  • Sam Spade insulted the fat mans henchman.
  • The fat mans henchman, Sam Spade insulted.
  • Sam Spade insulted the fat mans henchman.
  • Henchman, Sam Spade insulted the fat mans.

10
Agenda
  • 3. Acquisition of ASL the process of
    acquisition.

11
ASL Acquisition
  • Distinguish between
  • Acquisition in children of signing parents. (10
    of cases)
  • Acquisition in children of non-signing parents.
    (90 of cases)

12
Acq from signing parents -- about the same ages
as for spoken
  • Manual babbling.
  • One-sign (holophrastic) stage.
  • Two-sign stage.
  • Telegraphic stage.
  • Acquisition of functional elements.
  • Explosion.

13
Acquisition from signing parents -- negation
  • Stage I
  • No Subject Verb.
  • Stage II
  • Subject no Verb.
  • Stage III
  • Subject not Verb. ( adult form)

14
Acquisition from non-signing parents
  • Home sign
  • Input from non-signing parents Unstructured and
    pantomime-like.
  • Childrens grammars Relatively highly
    structured and enriched.

15
Agenda
  • 4. Critical period for ASL?

16
ASL -- Critical Period
  • Children who acquire ASL after 12 years of age
  • master lexicon and word order.
  • fail to master morphological complexity
    (functional elements).

17
Agenda
  • 5. ASL overview.

18
ASL overview
  • Properties shared with spoken languages.
  • Knowledge lexicon, rules (morphological and
    syntactic).
  • Representation in the brain.
  • Innate principles and the process of acquisition.
  • Critical Period.

19
Agenda
  • 6. Language and speech.

20
Language and speech
  • ASL and other sign languages of the deaf) are
    true languages but are not spoken, so we must
    distinguish between language and speech.
  • Language An internalized, abstract system of
    rules and principles represented in the brain.
  • Speech The external, physical aspect of
    linguistic events for spoken languages.

21
Agenda
  • 7. Modularity again.

22
Autonomy of language (1)
  • Language impaired, other capacities intact
    aphasia, Specific Language Impairment.
  • Language intact, other capacities impaired
    savants (Laura, Christopher), Turner and Williams
    syndromes.

23
Autonomy of language (2)
  • Another case Spatial perception for a sign
    language of the deaf is autonomous from general
    spatial perception.

24
Agenda
  • 8. Overview of sub-modules of grammar Lexical
    and functional (syntactic) structure.

25
Evidence for lexical and functional sub-modules
of grammar (1)
  • Lexical morphemes vs. function morphemes -- ASL
    as well as spoken.
  • Ev (1) Brocas aphasia.
  • Ev (2) Telegraphic stage of acquisition.
  • Ev (3) Language acquired after the Critical
    Period (Genie, second lg acq, pidgins vs creoles).

26
Agenda
  • 9. Videotape excerpts from Language questions
    on pp. 85-86 of the Course Reader.

27
Agenda
  • 10. A case of language creation -- Nicaraguan
    Sign Language.

28
NSL -- Historical background (1)
  • 1. Before 1977 -- no school for the deaf, no
    public services, not contact among deaf people.
  • 2. 1977 -- founding of a public school for the
    deaf in the capital (Managua).
  • 3. 1981 -- founding of a vocational school for
    the deaf in Managua.

29
NSL -- historical background (2)
  • Schools for the deaf (in general) -- two
    different philosophies
  • Oralism Students are taught in such a way as to
    become part of the hearing community -- (1)
    taught to read lips, (2) taught to vocalize, (3)
    taught to read and write a spoken language. Use
    of signs is often prohibited.
  • Total communication Students learn to
    communicate in whatever way they choose --
    signing, spoken language, etc.

30
NSL -- Historical background (3)
  • The schools in Managua --
  • In the classroom Oralism -- taught Spanish.
  • Outside of the classroom Total communication --
    allowed to use whatever form of communication
    they wished.
  • Outcome Outside of class, students developed a
    new language for communication among themselves.

31
NSL -- Historical background (4)
  • Course of development of NSL
  • 1. Before the founding of schools -- individual
    home sign.
  • 2. Initially after the founding -- a pidgin
    from the various forms of home sign.
  • 3. Later students -- a creole based on the
    original pidgin.

32
Agenda
  • 12. Nicaraguan Sign Language -- an experiment.

33
Gestures with spoken language vs. signs (1)
  • Home sign A form of gestural communication
    developed within a family with deaf children and
    hearing adults.
  • Develops through interaction between deaf
    children and hearing (gesturing) adults.

34
Gestures with spoken language vs. signs (2)
  • General comparison of signs of the deaf and
    gestures of hearing people as they speak.
  • Example 1 Representation of verbs referring to
    motion.

35
Gestures with spoken language vs. signs (3)
  • The ball went rolling down the street. Three
    aspects to this motion
  • Simple motion went.
  • Manner of motion rolling.
  • Path of motion down the street.
  • In this sentence in a spoken language these three
    aspects of motion are expressed in three
    different expressions arranged sequentially.

36
Gestures with spoken language and signs (4)
  • Gestures that accompany speech All three
    aspects are represented simultaneously.
  • Fully-developed sign languages Three aspects
    represented sequentially as in spoken language.

37
Gestures with spoken language vs. signs (5)
Study
  • Task represent the motion of a cat that had
    swallowed a bowling ball wobbling and rolling
    down a street.
  • 1. For hearing/speaking subjects -- gestures
    represented the motion simultaneously.
  • 2. For deaf/signing subjects.
  • a. older, early-entry (1977-1984) students in the
    Managua schools.
  • b. younger, later-entry students in these schools.

38
Gestures with spoken language vs. signs (6)
Study results
  • Early-entry students showed much more
    simultaneous representation (like the gestures of
    hearing people) than later-entry students, who
    showed more sequential representation (as in a
    fully-developed sign language).

39
Gestures with spoken language vs. signs (7)
Explanation
  • Early-entry students created a pidgin from their
    various versions of home sign.
  • This pidgin became the source of input for
    later-entry students, who creolized the pidgin to
    make it more like a fully-developed sign language.

40
NSL -- Additional observations
  • Early-entry students continued to communicate
    among themselves as well as with later-entry
    students using their version of NSL but never
    developed the structures that the later-entry
    students incorporated into the language through
    creolization.

41
NSL -- Summary
  • A case of genuine language creation.
  • Shows clear parallels with the pidgin-creole
    progression in spoken language.
  • Shows Critical Period effects.

42
Agenda
  • 11. Animal communication General.

43
Communication
  • Communication any way in which one organism
    conveys information to another. Language is
    (often) a form of communication, not all
    communication is language.
  • All animals have ways of communicating. Do any
    non-human animals have language as we have
    defined it? (lexicon, rules, etc.)

44
Properties of language (for comparison with other
species)
  • Knowledge
  • Lexicon (arbitrariness).
  • Rules (creativity).
  • Use Stimulus-free.
  • Acquisition No instruction.

45
Animal Comm (FR, 24-26)
  • Spiders and fiddler crabs.
  • Bird calls.
  • Bird songs.
  • Honeybees.

46
Agenda
  • 12. Animal communication Chimpanzees.

47
Common chimps
  • A. Vocalizing Gua and Viki.
  • B. Signing (ASL).
  • 1. Washoe (Nevada).
  • 2. Nim Chimpsky (New York).
  • C. Lexigrams (Yerkish -- cartoon in FR, p. 387
    tape Chimp talk)
  • 1. Austin.
  • 2. Sherman

48
Bonobo (pygmy) chimps
  • Lexigrams
  • 1. Kanzi.
  • 2. Panbanisha.

49
Chimpanzees (1)
  • Knowledge Lexicon
  • Washoe -- 85 ASL signs (many arbitrary).
  • Other signing chimps -- same or more.

50
Chimpanzees (2)
  • Knowledge -- Rules (creativity) Chimp syntax
    -- Nim Chimpsky (FR, p. 387)
  • GIVE ORANGE ME GIVE EAT ORANGE ME EAT ORANGE GIVE
    ME EAT ORANGE GIVE ME YOU.
  • Unlike childs telegraphic speech in that longer
    utterances dont show combinations of semantic
    relations from earlier stages.

51
Chimpanzees (3)
  • Claimed knowledge -- Rules (creativity 2)
  • Washoe WATER BIRD duck
  • Koko FINGER BRACELET finger ring
  • Course Reader, p. 55 -- Panbanisha Fight. Mad.
    Austin. (in various combinations)

52
Created forms in chimps
  • Water. Bird.
  • Waterbird.

53
Chimpanzees (3)
  • Stimulus-freedom.
  • Only 12 of Nim Chimpskys sign productions were
    spontaneous.
  • 40 were repetitions of trainers productions.

54
Chimpanzees (4)
  • No instruction.
  • All but Kanzi and Panbanisha required heavy
    instruction (careful arrangement of signs,
    etc.)
  • Kanzi and Panbanisha Apparently spontaneous
    acquisition.

55
Chimps (5) Concl
  • Lexicon -- maybe.
  • Rules -- very unlikely.
  • Stimulus-freedom -- limited.
  • Instructionless acquisition --
  • common chimps no.
  • bonobo chimps probably.

56
Agenda
  • 7. Video Chimp Talk Questions, pp. 59-60 of
    the Course Reader.
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