Wright Center International Environmental Change Workshop Series - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Wright Center International Environmental Change Workshop Series PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 113d38-ZmU5Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Wright Center International Environmental Change Workshop Series

Description:

Wright Center International Environmental Change Workshop Series – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:65
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 150
Provided by: zachs1
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Wright Center International Environmental Change Workshop Series


1
Wright CenterInternational Environmental Change
Workshop Series
  • Hydrosphere 2006
  • Thanks-
  • Bermuda Biological Station for Research

2
Map of Bermudahttp//www.offroute.com/
3
  • Bermuda Biological Station
  • for Research
  • http//www.offroute.com

4
Bermuda Biological Station for Research
  • BBSR conducts world-class science and education
    from its unique mid-Atlantic location. We seek to
    improve society's understanding of marine
    ecosystems, ocean/atmospheric interactions and
    ocean health, and their influence on man's
    habitat and health.

5
International Center for Ocean and Human
Health Marine Environmental Program In
2003/2004, the coral reef marine environmental
research monitoring at BBSR was
revised/restructured to form the Marine
Environmental Program (MEP). Research and
monitoring is now associated with identifying
potential new sources of pollution, understanding
the significance and consequence of existing
sources, identifying effects associated with
regional/global changes (i.e. bleaching events
and disease outbreaks) , and delineating between
effects of climate and non-climate stresses.
6
Participating teams
  • Maine
  • New Jersey
  • Massachusetts
  • Indiana
  • New York
  • Pennsylvania

7
Introduction TimeContact information
  • Fun facts about yourself

8
3 x 5 questions
  • 1 thing you know about the connection of the
    hydrosphere (within the scope of our workshop)
    to climate change
  • 1 thing you think you know - misconceptions
    about the connection of the hydrosphere (etc) to
    climate change
  • 1 thing you want to know about the connection of
    the hydrosphere (etc) to climate change
  • Other workshop goals
  • How do you like to learn?

9
Workshop Goals
  • Have fun
  • To encourage a global systems approach when
    thinking about environmental change (the
    butterfly effect)
  • To provide direct experience with scientific
    research/environmental education
  • To enhance networking with other teachers
  • Have fun

10
Research Goal To understand how coral reefs
can be used as indicators of climate change.
11
Rising Ocean Temperatures Threaten Florida's
Coral Reef
  • On May 9, for the first time, two species of
    Caribbean coral acropora palmata, or elkhorn,
    and acropora cervicornis, or staghorn were
    added to the list of threatened species under the
    federal Endangered Species Act.
  • "Elkhorn and staghorn used to be the dominant
    species on the Caribbean reef said Jennifer
    Moore, a natural .. division of the National
    Marine Fisheries Service based in Arizona. "But
    the species has declined 97 percent since the
    late 70's."
  • There is no one answer to what is killing these
    coral. The greatest culprit seems to be disease,
    especially "white diseases," which fleck the
    coral with pox and bands of deathly white. But
    there are other stresses, including degraded
    water quality, nutrient runoff from agriculture,
    human poaching and boating accidents.
  • Of perhaps greater impact are instances of coral
    bleaching affecting these and other corals that
    have occurred with increasing frequency in recent
    years. In these outbreaks, which are directly
    tied to rising ocean temperatures and reach their
    height in the warmest months, vast fields of
    coral shed their gaudy colors, turn bone-white
    and die.
  • "Last year was a particularly bad outbreak," said
    Tyler Smith, a coral biologist at the University
    of the Virgin Islands. "We lost anywhere from 70
    to 100 percent of our coral to bleaching."

12
Climate Change History
  • Early 19th Joseph Fourier/ John Tyndall - Physic
    calculations about how Earth is heated UV-IR,
  • should be below freezing
  • 1896 Arrenius Sweden
  • Calculations for amount of gas in atmosphere,tube
    of CO2- double gas , no change in T
  • specific EM bands saturated. Swedish
    CO2 array
  • Climate system theory, Grossly underestimated
    number/effect climate variables
  • Turn of century Chamberlin - American
  • Ocean circulation, dense saline cold water sinks
    and upwells
  • WWII Milutin Milankovitch- Earth-Sun calculation,
    Milankovitch theory
  • 1940s Revelle- Suess _at_ Scripps
  • Atomic energy commission bomb blasts/Cold war
  • 1959 Keeling and IGY - money largely military-
    up to know climate was a sideline
  • 1960s Wally Broecker Lamont Doherty- Columbia,
    paleo coral reefs above sea level radio dated,
  • confirmed Milankovitch
  • 1961 Meeting of Meteorologists in NYC,
    Temperature down since 40s but took until 60s to
    see it for
  • lack of baseline data,precision
  • 1966 Camp Century Greenland ice core to bedrock
    (first in Greenland was 1956)
  • 1965 Boulder meeting Peter Weyl Oregon State,
    calculated reduced salinity in N Atlantic
  • 1968 First Antarctic ice core, Byrd Station -
    2037 metes to bedrock

13
Journals
14
(No Transcript)
15
Coral Reef Adventure
16
Questions?
17
Sunday July 2nd
18
Today in Bermuda
  • Another day in paradise
  • Footprint
  • Journals
  • Haiku
  • Playing Connections
  • Global climate change
  • Paleoclimate data- instrumental and proxy
  • SST, Salinity, pH
  • Global carbon budget, CO2
  • Remotely sensed images- mapping
  • Snorkeling for Transects-Quadrants

19
More introductions
20
Footprint Calculator
  • Directions
  • Get a pencil and a calculator. After answering
    the questions below, add up the results. The
    final result is your personal footprint, in
    acres. This figure represents the minimum amount
    of ecologically productive land that is required
    to provide all the resources and space that you
    use, directly or indirectly, as well as the area
    needed to store or absorb resulting waste and
    pollution.

21
Footprint Calculation
  • 1. FOOD
  • In an average week how much of the following food
    items do you eat?
  • Vegetables Fruits
  • _____ lbs. X 133 _______ (US avg.
    7.50 lbs.)
  • Chicken _____ lbs. X 280 _______ (US avg.
    1.25 lbs.)
  • Pork _____ lbs. X 650 _______ (US avg.
    1.00 lbs.)
  • Beef _____ lbs. X 3,300 _______ (US avg.
    2.20 lbs.)
  • Fish _____ lbs. X 900 _______ (US avg.
    0.33 lbs.)
  • Cereal, Rice, Pasta
  • _____ lbs. X 144 _______ (Hint 1
    lb. 2-3 servings)
  • Eggs _____ lbs. X 104 _______ (US avg.
    4.7 eggs)
  • SUB
    TOTAL Food ________
  • 2. HOUSING
  • How big is the house or apartment in which you
    live? (US avg. for new homes is 2,120 square
    feet.)
  • Multiply square footage of home ________ X 1.4
    _________
  • then divide by number of occupants ____
    Housing ________
  • 3. MOTOR VEHICLE TRANSPORTATION (gasoline powered
    vehicles)
  • Estimated gallons of gasoline you use in an
    average week
  • ______ gallons X 110
    Motor Vehicle ________
  • (US avg. individual consumption is 11 gallons per
    week, with avg. weekly mileage estimated at 220
    miles.)

22
Footprint Calculator
  • 6. WATER CONSUMPTION
  • Estimated gallons of water per day (see your
    water bill)
  • ______ X 1.1 Water ________
  • (Note typical household water use -- residential
    use -- is about 300-500 gallons per day. Total US
    per capita consumption averages over 1,500
    gallons/day, most if it for indirect uses of
    water, such as crop irrigation and
    manufacturing.)
  • 7. WASTE PRODUCTION
  • (The average American generates approximately 30
    lbs. of solid waste per week. Many more pounds
    are generated indirectly from industrial,
    commercial, and agricultural activities that
    support an individual's consumption.)
  • Estimated pounds of waste recycled per week
    (US avg. 7.7 lbs.)
  • ________ X 20 Recycled Waste ________
  • Estimated pounds of nonrecycled waste per week
    (US avg. 23 lbs.)
  • ________ X 28 Unrecycled Waste ________
  • 4. AIR TRANSPORTATION
  • Estimated hours of flying time (hours you spent
    in the air) during the past year ________ hrs. X
    100 Airplane ________
  • 5. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • Estimated kilowatt hours of electricity consumed
    in an average month
  • _____ kWh X 5.5 Electricity
  • (Check your utility bill, if possible. Typical
    household consumption maight be 300-500 kWh per
    month.)
  • Estimated therms of natural gas consumed in an
    average month
  • ________ X 14 Natural Gas ________
  • (Precise numbers can be found on your utility
    bill. Typical use might be 60-150 therms per
    month.)

23
Footprint Calculator
  • 8. OTHER
  • The average American uses 222 pounds of materials
    every day. Only a portion of that use is
    accounted for in the above footprint categories.
    Many other products and services of nature are
    appropriated by humans indirectly in ways that
    are too complex to include here. In order to
    capture some of the indirect contributions of
    manufacturing, industry, recreation, highway
    construction, and so forth, we have provided a
    multiplier of 1.3 to represent other
    contributions to the average American footprint.
  • Add up the subtotals from the previous 7
    categories
  • Total for Worksheet Categories ___________
  • Multiply by 1.3 Grand Total ___________
  • Take the grand total and divide by 1,000
  • Footprint in acres __________

24
What do I do to help?
25
New Vocabulary- Questions- Misconceptions
  • SST
  • Salinity
  • pH ('pouvoir hydrogen' or logarithmic Hydrogen
    Power)
  • Thermohaline circulation
  • Haiku
  • Evidence for climate change

26
Collecting observationsand the scientific method
27
The Tao of Climate Journaling
  • We are at the begging of a change of worldview as
    radical as the Copernican Revolution a shift
    from a mechanistic to a holistic and ecological
    view, from a value system based on domination to
    one based on partnership. - Fritjof Capra
  • Science journaling is a wonderful way to practice
    fine motor skills, schedule time for
    observations, link all disciplines, collect data,
    view nature, and watch climate change.
  • The Tao of Climate Journals hopes to highlight
    the ability of journaling to emphasis seeing the
    forest because of the trees, collecting thoughts
    on how the whole is greater than the sum of its
    parts, and especially using journals to collect
    data for promoting long and short-term climate
    studies.
  • Too often we do science without actually
    following the scientific method. Science
    journaling helps put the observations back into
    the scientific method and allows for student
    understanding of the why.
  • Journals should allow for multiple intelligences
    as well as promote writing, sketching, poetry,
    art, science anatomy, and careful, precise
    observations as part of good science.

28
Journal Procedure
  • Name
  • Date/ Time
  • Location latitude, longitude, elevation
  • Subject/ Purpose(immediate focus) noted
  • Partners
  • Scientific method - observation, inference,
    hypothesis, experiment, reflections

29
Procedure - continued
  • Define climate parameters.
  • Depending on the experience level of your
    students you may or may not want to define each
    climate parameter. The art of understanding what
    your observing often depends on your discovering
    the definitions on your own. For students to
    truly understand what they are doing they have to
    become involved in the process of developing
    their own definitions.
  • Skill development
  • Practice writing and drawing. Inability to make
    nice marks in a journal can turn some kids off
    from journaling. Add color and 3-D to your
    journal art.
  • Long-term program.
  • The journal can be used all year long with the
    understanding that the kinks will be worked out
    through out the year. In the beginning of the
    year observations/assignments can be canned and
    progress to more ownership throughout the year,
    spiraling upward each year. Though the first
    observations should be completely unconstrained.

30
  • Journal Entries
  • What is recorded?
  • Name/date/etc
  • Observations on climate parameters
  • Focus details Particular way of seeing- Private
    eye
  • Time-lapse observations
  • Connections
  • How is it recorded?
  • Art (colored pencil and/or water color)
  • See the world in true or impressionistic color
  • Age appropriate art 3-D is awesome!
  • Writing
  • Paragragh style
  • Labels (with arrows)
  • Essays
  • Poetry

31
  • 9 natural indicators of climate change
  • Ice on/ice off
  • Length of growing season
  • Precipitation
  • Intense precipitation events
  • Sea level rise
  • Sea surface temperature
  • Snowfall amounts
  • Days with snow on the ground
  • Bloom dates
  • www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/ information/pdf/indic
    ators.pdf

32
(No Transcript)
33
Martha Mitchell on Nature Journaling
34
  • Haiku
  • Haiku-poems can describe almost anything, but you
    seldom find themes which are too complicated for
    normal PEOPLE's recognition and understanding.
  • Some of the most thrilling Haiku-poems describe
    daily situations in a way that gives the reader a
    brand new experience of a well-known situation.
  • The metrical pattern of Haiku poems consist of
    respectively 5, 7 and 5 syllables in three units.
    In japanese, this convention is a must, but in
    english, which has variation in the length of
    syllables, this can sometimes be difficult.
  • Each Haiku must contain a kigo, a season word,
    which indicate in which season the Haiku is set.
    For example, cherry blossoms indicate spring,
    snow indicate winter, and mosquitoes indicate
    summer, but the season word isn't always that
    obvious.
  • An endless summer
  • Should be with all the coral
  • Not with the penguin

35
Haiku Journey
36
Playing Connections
  • Connections is a game much like Name That Tune
    but with earth system science connections.
  • The teacher could pick any two objects (in
    nature) and ask how are they connected. There
    are always multiple correct answers, some easy
    answers, and always a few complicated though
    quality answers. For example, the teacher (or
    student) may pick an apple and a snail. The easy
    answer is that the apple may fall to the ground,
    start decomposing , and be eaten by the snail.
  • A more complicated answer would involve the snail
    producing waste which contains nitrogen. The
    nitrogen is fixed in the ground by other
    organisms. The nitrogen is then used from the
    ground by the apple tree helping to produce
    apples, which fall to the ground and are eaten by
    the snail. Or add more detail by adding Yellow
    sweet clover (Melilotus indicus) is a member of
    the pea family (Fabaceae). The roots of this
    legume contain swollen nodules containing
    nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Rhizobium
    or Bradyrhizobium in the bacteria family
    Rhizobiaceae. Nitrogen fixation is a remarkable
    prokaryotic skill in which inert atmospheric
    nitrogen gas is converted into ammonia. Through
    another bacterial process called nitrification,
    the ammonia is converted into nitrites and
    nitrates, thereby making the vital element
    nitrogen readily available to the roots of higher
    plants. Which is why you often find sweet yellow
    clover growing in orchards.
  • This simple game will help your students make
    connections to the objects they have drawn in
    their journal.

37
Snorkeling for Observations
38
Developing custom activities
39
Take chances, make mistakes, and get messy
40
(No Transcript)
41
  • Climate is an ill-tempered beast,
  • And we are poking it with a stick
  • . W. S. Broecker

42
Climate Change History
  • Early 19th Joseph Fourier/ John Tyndall - Physic
    calculations about how Earth is heated UV-IR,
  • should be below freezing
  • 1896 Arrenius Sweden
  • Calculations for amount of gas in atmosphere,tube
    of CO2- double gas , no change in T
  • specific EM bands saturated. Swedish
    CO2 array
  • Climate system theory, Grossly underestimated
    number/effect climate variables
  • Turn of century Chamberlin - American
  • Ocean circulation, dense saline cold water sinks
    and upwells
  • WWII Milutin Milankovitch- Earth-Sun calculation,
    Milankovitch theory
  • 1940s Revelle- Suess _at_ Scripps
  • Atomic energy commission bomb blasts/Cold war
  • 1959 Keeling and IGY - money largely military-
    up to know climate was a sideline
  • 1960s Wally Broecker Lamont Doherty- Columbia,
    paleo coral reefs above sea level radio dated,
  • confirmed Milankovitch
  • 1961 Meeting of Meteorologists in NYC,
    Temperature down since 40s but took until 60s to
    see it for
  • lack of baseline data,precision
  • 1966 Camp Century Greenland ice core to bedrock
    (first in Greenland was 1956)
  • 1965 Boulder meeting Peter Weyl Oregon State,
    calculated reduced salinity in N Atlantic
  • 1968 First Antarctic ice core, Byrd Station -
    2037 metes to bedrock

43
Earth System Processes and T Proxies
From Mayewski, University of Maine
44
Earths Average Temperature Through Geologic Time
From http//www.scotese.com/climate.htm
45
Wright Center Potion 9
  • 800,000 years of
  • climate change

46
http//www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/research/glacier_retreat
.htm viewed on line 3/17/03
Grinnel Glacier in Glacier Natl. Park, MT, summer
938 (left), and 1981 (right)
47
http//www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/research/glacier_retreat
.htm viewed on 3/17/03
48
(No Transcript)
49
  • Sources of greenhouse gases CO2 Equivalents
  • Inventory for year 2002
  • www.pscleanair.org/specprog/globclim/

50
Greenhouse Effect
  • Without the Greenhouse Effect, Earths mean
    temperature would be about -18oC instead of the
    current 15oC
  • CO2 is the second most important natural
    greenhouse gas at 22
  • CO2 is produced by vegetation through the release
    of carbon during respiration, though vegetation
    and water vapor both remove CO2 from the
    atmosphere - photosynthesis/solution- thus the
    CO2 cycle

51
Global Energy Budget
  • Carbon Dioxide CO2 along with water vapor H2O,
    methane CH4, nitrous oxide N2O, and ozone
    O3(stratospheric/tropospheric) are all naturally
    occurring gases in the atmosphere lt1 (by mass)
  • Absorb terrestrial infrared and ultaviolet
    radiation create the Greenhouse Effect

52
asd-www.larc.nasa.gov
53
Vostok Ice Core Record - 4 Glacial Cycles
Source Petit et al., 1999, Nature 399, p.
429-346.
54
Variations of Earths surface temp for past 1,000
yrs
SPM 1b
55
(No Transcript)
56
(No Transcript)
57
(No Transcript)
58
Whats the difference between Chanukah and an SUV?
  • Chanukah is about a days worth of oil lasting 8
    days-
  • An SUV is about making 8 days worth of oil
    lasting one day
  • Jay Leno

59
(No Transcript)
60
(No Transcript)
61
Dust from the Sahara
  • Global circulation removes materials from Africa
    and deposits it in the ocean and all the way to
    the Americas.
  • Much of the Iron (Fe) that naturally fertilizers
    plankton growth comes from the big deserts.
  • NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response
    Team at NASA GSFC

62
(No Transcript)
63
(No Transcript)
64
asd-www.larc.nasa.gov
65
http//www.spamula.net/blog/i34/cows.jpg
66
(No Transcript)
67
(No Transcript)
68
(No Transcript)
69
(No Transcript)
70
Global Carbon Budget
  • Calculated in Gtons of carbon

71
Big Experiment Time
  • Now everyone-

72
So, three sub atomic particles walk into a bar
73
Making Carbonic Acid Labs 1 2
  • www.elmhurst.edu/chm/onlcourse/chm110/

74
http//www.elmhurst.edu/chm/onlcourse/chm110/moli
mages/H2CO3.GIF
  • H2O CO2 H2CO3

75
Joanne Kleypas- Institute for the Study of
Society and Environment
76
  • The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
    is very important for living things. This is
    because hydrogen ions are positively charged they
    alter the charge environment of other molecules
    in solution. By putting different forces on the
    molecules, the molecules change shape from their
    normal shape. This is particularly important for
    proteins in solution because the shape of a
    protein is related to its function.

77
Carbon Dioxide Lab 1
  • To make carbonic acid
  • Add water
  • Blow gently through straw (no inhaling!)
  • Measure pH or CO2 concentration
  • pH paper
  • Phenolphthalein solution/Sodium Hydroxide

78
Buffering of Carbonic acid Lab 2
  • Now you have a weak acid - not always good for
    plants and animals!
  • drop in ground seashell CaCO3
  • CaCO3 limestone (aragonite)
  • This island is a build up of limestone/shells
  • Addition of eroded Ca, buffers CO3

79
Dissolved CO2
  • CO2 is highly soluble and chemically reactive-
    temperature dependent.
  • If ocean (SS) T increases 1oC the partial
    pressure increases by 4.2 and there is an
    average net flux of 4 GT C to the atmosphere - if
    sea surface T increases 1oC then 2x more CO2
    moves from the oceans to the atmosphere than is
    produced anthropogenically!
  • How much is 4 GT of carbon?

80
  • Take one down, pass it around, many more GT of
    carbon in the air
  • One gigaton is equal to one billion tons of
    carbon (or 1015 g). How much is one gigaton? It
    is about 2750 Empire State Buildings, or about
    142 million African elephants.
  • 1 African elephant weighs 10,000 lbs.
  • A staggering 98 tons of prehistoric, buried plant
    material that's 196,000 pounds is required to
    produce each gallon of gasoline we burn in our
    cars, SUVs, trucks and other vehicles, according
    to a study conducted at the University of Utah.
  • 1.0 US gallon gasoline (0.833 Imperial gallon,
    3.79 liter) 2.42 kg carbon

81
CO2 in the ocean
  • The total dissolved CO2 in the oceans is 50x what
    is in the atmosphere.
  • Exchange takes place at the ocean surface,
    50-100m thick, delimited by the thermocline.
  • Exchange by gas exchange driven by CO2 partial
    pressure.

82
Joanne Kleypas- Institute for the Study of
Society and Environment
83
Carbon Dioxide and the Deep Oceans
  • The CO2 beneath the SS increases considerably
    because of the physical pump and the biological
    pump.
  • The physical pump is sinking ocean
    water-thermohaline circulation
  • The biological pump is sinking carbon organisms.
    Some remains and some returns through dissolved
    inorganic carbon (DIC).

84
Thermohaline Circulation
  • First developed at Columbia University
  • One parcel of water per 1000 years

85
Lab 3 Changing Sea Level
86
(No Transcript)
87
http//www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/iecws/materi
als/beach_tree_investigation/Beach-1.htm
88
The BIG GCB numbers
89
GCB conclusions
  • Anthropogenic CO2 becomes incorporated into the
    natural carbon budget distributed among the three
    active reservoirs the atmosphere, the
    terrestrial biosphere, and the ocean.
  • Only half the carbon remains in the atmosphere
    and is chemically active
  • Current modeling confirms an increase of
    atmospheric CO2 concentration 370ppm to 500-1000
    ppm by the end of the 21st century with a
    possible T increase of 1.4oC -5.8oC
  • There has been a 0.8oC change in the last 100
    years (natural and anthropogenic combined)

90
But- what about the oceans?
  • Back to the slide
  • Atmospheric CO2 adds more CO2 to the oceans,
    which increases the acidity, which removes
    carbonate (CO3-) to make bicarbonate (CO3),
    making less carbonate (CO3) available for
    coral/shell production, which lowers the oceans
    productivity

91
Collecting data - Transects and Quadrants
  • A la Wright Center Productions

92
MOVIE TIMEWright Center Research in Hawaii
93
Snorkel?
  • Quadrat
  • Transect line
  • T, salinity, turbidity, pH

94
Mapping
  • Top maps
  • Latitude and Longitude
  • True N, Magnetic N, Declination, compass
  • Contour lines, contour interval- hand activity,
    card board activity
  • Map making
  • Satellite image
  • Aerial photograph

95
EarthKAM BINGO
  • Mapping from the outside in
  • http//www.earthkam.ucsd.edu/

96
(No Transcript)
97
(No Transcript)
98
(No Transcript)
99
Tomorrows Boat Day
  • Water
  • Mask/fins/snorkel
  • Dive shirt
  • Wind breaker
  • Lunch
  • Journal
  • Sea sick meds
  • Important personal meds
  • Group science and other equipment

100
Brainstorm
  • Groups of four- How does (can) this fit into your
    classroom?

101
Monday July 3, 2006
  • Another fun day in Bermuda

102
Today at BBSR
  • Another day in paradise
  • Recap, up to now
  • Journal/collect observations
  • Communicating with the Wright Center
  • GCM
  • Coral, Coral, Coral
  • Fish, Fish, Fish
  • Relative- Absolute dating
  • Boat ride
  • Brainstorm
  • Big Discussion!!!

103
Boat DayData collection of fish and coral using
transects and Quadrants
  • Water
  • Mask/fins/snorkel
  • Dive shirt
  • Wind breaker
  • Lunch
  • Journal
  • Sea sick meds
  • Important personal meds
  • Group science and other equipment

104
Daily Recap
  • Questions? Concerns? New Vocab
    words/terminology?
  • Play connections

105
Journal time
  • Observations
  • Data
  • Sketches

106
Communicating project ideas with the Wright
Center
107
Knowing the futureGCM
  • http//edgcm.columbia.edu/
  • The EdGCM Project develops and distributes a
    research-quality Global Climate Model (GCM) with
    a user-friendly interface that runs on desktop
    computers.
  • The design of the software allows students to
    learn and experience the full scientific process
    including designing experiments, setting up and
    running computer simulations, post-processing
    output, using scientific visualization to display
    results, and creating scientific reports ready
    for publishing to the web.

108
Oh Fish - Project Wild
109
Getting down to Coral
110
A corals best friend- the zooxanthellae
  • This is a closeup photo of a zooxanthellae cell
    (Symbiodinium sp.) in a Scanning Electron
    Microscope that was cultured from Aiptasia
    pulchella.
  • http//www.coral.noaa.gov/themes/zoox_pics.html

111
Anatomy of coral
  • From WHOI we bring you..

112
CoralWatch
113
(No Transcript)
114
Relative and Absolute dating of cores
115
Coral- Fish ID
116
(No Transcript)
117
(No Transcript)
118
(No Transcript)
119
Building a classroom aquarium
120
Debrief boat ride
121
  • This is your brain
  • this is your brain
  • on climate change

122
Oceanography Literature
  • A la Betsy Stefany

123
TuesdayHappy July 4thMore Fun!
  • Boat day

124
Today at BBSR
  • Another day in paradise
  • Recap, up to now
  • Journal/collect observations
  • Dr Wood and Counting Coral
  • Project Wild
  • Barnacle Joe - the activity
  • Brainstorm
  • Journal/ collect more observations
  • Analysis of data

125
Daily Recap
  • Questions? Concerns? New Vocab
    words/terminology?
  • Play connections

126
Journal time
  • Observations
  • Data
  • Sketches

127
Boat Day
  • Water
  • Mask/fins/snorkel
  • Dive shirt
  • Wind breaker
  • Lunch
  • Journal
  • Sea sick meds
  • Important personal meds
  • Group science and other equipment

128
Dr James Wood
  • Counting Corals and CephBase

129
(No Transcript)
130
Barnacle Joe the scientist
  • The
  • Barnacle
  • Outreach
  • Program

131
(No Transcript)
132
Brainstorm
  • Groups of four- What else do you need to make
    this work for your classroom?

133
BIG DISCUSSION
  • So, how do coral reefs indicate climate change??
  • ..And can an environmentalist drive a Volvo?
  • Please pack bags for tomorrow

134
WednesdayJuly 5th
135
Today in Bermuda
  • Another day in paradise
  • Recap
  • Journals
  • Reach your research goal?
  • Deep sea sediments -pasta counting
  • EXAM
  • Closing thoughts -
  • Questions????
  • Leave BBSR by noon

136
Daily Recap
  • Questions? Concerns? New Vocab
    words/terminology?
  • Play connections

137
Journal time
  • Observations
  • Data
  • Sketches

138
Journal review
  • Observations
  • Data
  • Sketches

139
Deep Sea Sediments
  • Collecting and analyzing forams from deep sea
    sediments
  • And the movies please

140
Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg
1894)http//www-bprc.mps.ohio-state.edu/foram/spe
cies/neogloboquadrina_pach.htm
  • Collected Aug. 1991, Franz Josef Land sounds,
    150 mwd, modern deposits
  • Collected summer1992 U.S.G.S. cruise, Arctic
    continental slope off Alaska modern hemipelagic
    mud
  • The most abundant planktonic foraminifer of high
    latitudes as any planktonic foraminifer, avoids
    low-salinity and shallow waters. The left-coiled
    morphotype prevails at lowest temperatures and
    occurs throughout the Arctic Ocean. extending
    from the continental margin to the shelf
    interior.

141
EXAM TIME
142
Geologic Timeline(s)
143
Joanne Kleypas- Institute for the Study of
Society and Environment
144
WC Sea Level Change activity
145
Terrestrial Carbon cycle
  • Terrestrial terrestrial pools are -
  • Soil
  • Living vegetation
  • Detritus
  • Interaction occurs through vegetation
  • carbon uptake through photosynthesis and release
    1/2 through respiration and 1/2 into biomass- to
    be stores or released again through heterotrophic
    respiration

146
CO2 atmosphere and Land exchange
  • The capability of the terrestrial biosphere to
    store carbon is in anthropogenic climate change
    itself.
  • There is a lower limit to plant productivity -
    and an upper limit. Vegetation in temperate and
    cold regions would increase productivity (carbon
    sequestering).
  • The upper limit is defined by liquid water.

147
Vegetation and water
  • High T destroy enzyme system and cells.
  • Fixed boundaries between building of biomass by
    photosynthesis and decomposition by respiration
    enables the highest productivity.
  • Ecosystems currently carbon sinks could be future
    sources.

148
Vegetation, light, and heat
  • The growing season is dependent on light and
    though the growing season has expanded by 11 days
    in Europe due to global warming - carbon sink.
  • Though permafrost will decay- carbon source.
  • Some forests could migrate northward - carbon
    sink.
  • Arid areas could increase and lead to reduced
    carbon uptake.

149
CO2 Fertilization Effect
  • As CO2 increases, photosynthesis increases,
    density of stomata can be reduced, and improved
    water utilization in relation to carbon uptake
    is achieved.
  • Thus the terrestrial biosphere has been a carbon
    sink in the last two decades- and may continue to
    increase. And the net change in carbon
    sequestering by vegetation (global average) might
    be an increase - carbon sink.
  • If we do not use all the trees?
About PowerShow.com