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Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W. Zolar April 5, 2006 Presented to: Central Carolina Community College Sanford, NC


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Title: Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W. Zolar April 5, 2006 Presented to: Central Carolina Community College Sanford, NC

Strategies for Effective Instruction Marc W.
Zolar April 5, 2006 Presented to Central
Carolina Community College Sanford, NC
About the Presenter Marc Zolar
  • Marc is an instructional design consultant and
    certified distance
  • learning mentor. He has a broad professional
  • spanning the corporate, government and academic
  • The list of organizations Mr. Zolar has worked
    with on learning
  • and development programs includes America
    Online, American
  • Research Institute, ATT, Central Carolina
    Community College,
  • Florida State University, IBM, U.S. Department of
    Defense, United
  • State Marine Corps, University of North Carolina
    at Wilmington,
  • Verizon, Walden University.
  • He holds a Masters degree in instructional
    design and
  • development and is active in professional
    organizations in the
  • field as a writer and speaker.
  • Marc can be reached at

Todays Topics
  • Constructivism and Adult Learning Principles
  • Lecture vs. Facilitation
  • Blended Learning approaches
  • Giving students ownership in the learning process
  • Accommodating different learning styles
  • Reflective activity

Todays Approach
  • This room as a Community of Learning.
  • Presentation of content and ideas for open
  • Collect Best Practices.

Sharing your thoughts?
  • What is your guiding philosophy about teaching?

Topic 1
Constructivism And Adult Learning Principles
What is Constructivism?
Constructivism is a philosophy of learning
founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our
experiences, we construct our own understanding
of the world we live in. Each of us generates our
own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to
make sense of our experiences. Learning,
therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our
mental models to accommodate new experiences.
(Source http//
Principles of Constructivism
  • Learning is a search for meaning
  • Learning occurs in a context
  • Instruction is tailored to learners mental
  • Constructing knowledge is purpose of learning
    (not right vs. wrong)

(Source Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest
Program, University of North Carolina at
Impact on Curriculum
  • Less standardized curriculum
  • Customized to connect to learners prior
  • Emphasizes hands-on problem- solving

(Source Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest
Program, University of North Carolina at
Impact on Instruction
  • Teacher as facilitator/guide rather than
  • Focus on making connections between facts
  • Experimentation, open-ended questions, extensive
    reflection, dialogue among students

(Source Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest
Program, University of North Carolina at
Impact on Assessment
  • Ongoing assessment during instruction
  • De-emphasizes traditional grading methods
  • Self-assessment, learner articulates growth
    through projects and reflection

(Source Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest
Program, University of North Carolina at
Constructivist Strategies
  • Inquiry learning
  • Discovery learning
  • Situational learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Cognitive Apprenticeship

(Source Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest
Program, University of North Carolina at
Constructivist Words and Phrases
  • Context
  • Authentic
  • Multiple perspectives
  • Learner-centered
  • Prior knowledge
  • Higher-order thinking
  • Meaningful connections
  • Social negotiation

(Source Zolar, M. Constructivism 101. NC Quest
Program, University of North Carolina at
Discussion Question/Activity 1
  • List some constructivist strategies that you
    currently use, or could easily implement in your

What is Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy)?
Andragogy is a theory developed by Malcolm
Knowles which attempts to describe how adults
learn. His hypothesis was that adult learning
could not follow the principles of traditional
pedagogy in which teachers are responsible for
making decisions about what will be learned, how
it will be learned and when it will be learned.
Because adults in general are more self-directed,
they should take control of their own learning.
The definition of an adult, however, is not
strictly related to age. Knowles (1980) himself,
defined adulthood as "the point at which
individuals perceive themselves to be essentially
self-directing". (Source http//claweb.cla.uni
How are Adult Learners Different?
  • They are self-directed
  • They are goal oriented
  • They are practical and problem-solvers
  • They have accumulated life experiences.
  • (Source http//
    cam_hy_whig/andragogy.htm )

Implications of Andragogy for Instruction
  • Learners should know why they are studying
  • Instruction should be task-oriented, and it
    should take into account the wide range of
    different backgrounds of learners.
  • Learners should be able to relate what is being
    studied to their personal/professional
  • Learners should be motivated and ready to learn.
  • Learners should be involved in the planning and
    evaluation of their instruction.
  • Instruction should be problem-centered rather
    than content-oriented.
  • (Source http//
    /cam_hy_whig/andragogy.htm )

Applying the Principles of Andragogy
  • Learner-centered classes will stimulate dialogue
    and knowledge construction.
  • Learners will benefit from a scaffolding
    approach to learning where the teacher provides
    more support in the early stages of the course .
  • Teachers should see themselves as facilitators
    and co-learners.
  • Teachers should recognize that learners are
    individuals with different life experiences and
    learning preferences. Some adult learners will
    still prefer the traditional pedagogical approach
    to teaching and learning.
  • Teachers should gradually try to push learners
    away from their comfort zone in the direction of
    a deeper approach to learning. (Source
    ig/andragogy.htm )

Practical Tips
Ten Practical Tips for Teachers of Adult
Learners Adults prefer instructors who 1. Are
content experts 6. Consider learner
interests 2. Provide relevance 7. Individualize
instruction 3. Are well organized 8. Use active
learning 4. Dont waste time 9. Encourage
self-directed learning 5. Provide clear learning
goals 10. Are supportive and non-threatening (Sou
rce http//
strategies.pdf )
Discussion Question/Activity 2
  • Describe one new activity you could add to one
    of your courses that is consistent with adult
    learning theory.

Topic 2
  • Lecture vs. Facilitation

"It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that
the modern methods of instruction have not yet
entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry.
. . . It is a very grave mistake to think that
the enjoyment of seeing and searching can be
promoted by means of coercion and a sense of
duty." - - - - - Albert Einstein
Lecture Sage on the Stage
  • At the root of the lecture model lies the notion
    that knowledge resides in the head of the
    teacher, and the student learns this knowledge by
    listening to the teacher.
  • (Source http//

Characteristics of Effective/Ineffective Lectures
Source http//
Lecture Components
Silberman (1990) suggests five approaches to
maximizing students understanding and retention
during lectures. These can be used to help ensure
the effective transfer of knowledge. Use an
opening summary. At the beginning of the lecture,
present major points and conclusions to help
students organize their listening.  Present key
terms. Reduce the major points in the lecture to
key words that act as verbal subheadings or
memory aids.  Offer examples. When possible,
provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in
the lecture.  Use analogies. If possible, make
a comparison between the content of the lecture
and knowledge the students already have.  Use
visual backups. Use a variety of media to enable
students to see as well as hear what is being
Source http//
Lecture or Not to Lecture?
Source http//
Discussion Question/Activity 3
  • How much do you rely on lecture as an
    instructional strategy? How do you determine
    whether or not to use this strategy?

Facilitation Guide on the Side
  • Learners learn best when given control of the
    experience, under the guidance and direction of a
    skilled instructor.
  • (Source http//

What is Facilitation?
  • Facilitation is the process of enabling groups to
    work cooperatively and effectively
  • (http//

What is a facilitators job?
  • Quite simply, a facilitator's
  • job is to make it easier for
  • the group to do its work.
  • By providing non-directive
  • leadership, the facilitator
  • helps the group arrive at
  • the decisions that are its
  • task. The role is one of
  • assistance and guidance,
  • not control.
  • (Source Ward-Green and Hill Associates at

Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
  • 1. Address students current mode of thinking and
    learning in class
  • Many students believe they are supposed to
  • to have the right answers
  • to meet explicit or implicit expectations of
    authority figures
  • not to ask questions or share information
  • not to experiment or to make mistakes and/or
  • not to challenge the status quo.
  • These types of student fears/misconceptions need
    to be addressed directly and honestly by the
    instructor. Students must be made to feel that
    your classroom is a safe place to explore new

Source http//
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
  • 2. Manage class dynamics
  • As a facilitator, a faculty member will have to
    balance the following sets of opposing factors
    that influence how a class should be conducted
  • Structure How rigidly or flexibly should the
    lesson be run? Pacing How rapidly or leisurely
    should the group be pushed to achieve learning?
  • Group Interaction How do group members relate to
    the facilitator and to each other?
  • Focus Which is more important to impart, all
    course content as planned or the process of
  • Concern Should energy be directed at individual
    or group needs?
  • Control To what extent are students empowered to
    perform in class?

Source http//
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
3. Establish core values The teacher-as-facilitat
or should have a set of core values to guide
his/her actions (Argyris Schon, 1974). These
core values will prevent the facilitator from
behaving defensively when strong differences in
views erupt in class or when students conduct
themselves in an unacceptable manner.
Source http//
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
  • 4. Communicate
  • It is paramount for a facilitator to listen to
    not only what is said, but also what is not said
    during a discussion. The facilitator has to
  • Be alert and spot when and how individual
    students within the class express confusion or
    strong feelings.
  • Practice empathy so as to quickly respond to any
    doubts or questions students may have.
  • To encourage dialogue in class, both students and
    the faculty member have to suspend their own
    assumptions and show respect for each other in
    class individual pride and ego must make way for
    a sincere interest in learning from one another.

Source http//
Some Guidelines for Effective Facilitation
5. Sculpt students thinking For effective
facilitation, facilitators probing or
questioning skills, and the ability to integrate
or summarize various viewpoints is important. In
this manner, different viewpoints can be
generated and presented, and all in the class can
achieve a fuller understanding of what is taught
or learned. The aim of sculpting is not to
impose ones view on the students, but to help
them mould their new understanding of the
concepts learned to their existing body of
knowledge and views (if any).
Source http//
Characteristics of Effective Facilitators
  • Effective facilitation does not happen overnight.
    It requires commitment and practice on the part
  • the instructor or trainer. Aker (1976) studied
    effective facilitators in detail and believed
    they were
  • individuals who exhibited the following
  • Have great empathy--i.e., try to see things as
    seen by their learners.
  • Consistently use reward, seldom if ever use
    punishment, and never ridicule.
  • Have a deep sense of their responsibility, enjoy
    their work, and like people.
  • Feel secure in their own abilities, yet believe
    that they can do better.
  • Have a profound respect for the dignity and worth
    of each individual and accept their fellow
    learners as they are without reservation.
  • Have a keen sense of fairness and objectivity in
    relating to others.
  • Are willing to accept or try out new things and
    ideas and avoid drawing premature conclusions.
  • Have high levels of patience.
  • Recognize the uniqueness and strengths of each
    individual and build upon such strengths.
  • Are sensitive to the needs, fears, problems and
    goals of their fellow learners.
  • Reflect on their experiences and attempt to
    analyze them in terms of success and failure.
  • Are humble in regard to their role and avoid the
    use of power which is assumed by some educators.
  • Do not pretend to have the answers and enjoy
    learning along with others.
  • Are continuously expanding their range of
  • Are committed to and involved in their own
    lifelong learning (p. 3).

Source http//
Discussion Question/Activity 4
  • List some core values you might establish in
    your classroom for facilitated exercises.

Topic 3
  • Blended-Learning Approaches

What is Blended Learning?
Blended learning is the combination of multiple
approaches to teaching or to educational
processes which involve the deployment of a
diversity of methods and resources or to learning
experiences which are derived from more than one
kind of information source. Examples include
combining technology-based materials and
traditional print materials, group and individual
study, structured pace study and self-paced
study, tutorial and coaching. Source
Why Use Blended Learning?
  • Helps to accommodate different learning styles
  • Expands learning beyond the classroom
  • Gives students additional ownership in the
    learning process
  • Creates a community of learning

Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
  • Option 1 Asynchronous Discussion Boards in
  • Reinforces material covered in class and asks
    student to use higher-level thinking skills in
    answering questions.
  • Is a relatively low pressure strategy allowing
    students to carefully ponder assigned questions
    and prepare a thoughtful response before posting.
  • The exchange of ideas, including your insights,
    quickly creates an energy that can fuel your
    class and help create a sense of community among
    your learners.

Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
  • Option 2 Synchronous Chats in Blackboard
  • More active participants in your class will
    embrace this method.
  • Real-time exchange of ideas is not only
    exciting, but also teaches the participants to
    assimilate information quickly and to communicate
    their points more succinctly.
  • Managing a synchronous chat experience requires
    the instructor to know and enforce some basic

Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
  • Option 3 Web-based Research Assignments
  • The Internet is a powerful and free resource
    that has relevance to every conceivable content
  • Encouraging some guided discovery learning using
    sites identified by the instructor as a starting
    point (e.g. Webquests, situated learning sites,
  • Allow student to explore resources of their
    choosing, but provide guidelines for citation and
    validation of sources.

Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
  • Option 4 Online learning weeks
  • Skip a few face-to-face sessions during the
    semester and instead require students to complete
    classwork online.
  • Include assignments that require students to
    engage in different kinds of activities. For
    instance, you might ask your students to complete
    a Web-based research project, and then join a
    small group of their classmates for a synchronous
    chat session followed by an asynchronous
    discussion posting to share their conclusions.
  • When you see your students again in the
    classroom, you can lead a lively discussion about
    their distance learning experience in addition to
    what they learned in new content.

Web-based Options for Face-to-Face Classes
  • Option 5 Distance-based collaborative projects
    for small groups
  • Assign students into small groups and ask them
    to work collaboratively at a distance. Successful
    online collaboration will foster discipline and
  • Ask your students to use the tools at their
    disposal to socially negotiate a method for
    completing the collaborative assignment with
    their peers, and then execute it.
  • Have each group present their results including
    the method they used to work together.

Discussion Question/Activity 5
  • Have you used any of these online components? If
    yes, what were the results. If no, which appeal
    to you (if any)? Why?

Topic 4
  • Giving students ownership in
  • the learning process

It is not what you teach, but what they learn,
that matters.
Student Ownership in Learning
  • Current educational research says puts increasing
    responsibility on the student for truly
    meaningful learning to occur. Promoting student
    ownership in the learning process is consistent
    with constructivist approaches to learning and
    adult learning theory.
  • Some strategies to do this are
  • Learning Contracts
  • Social negotiation of assignments and/or
    evaluation criteria
  • Collaborative work
  • Presentations

Strategy 1 Learning Contracts
ATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching 
Learning Contracts On-line UK Available
Learning Contracts, continued
Strategy 2 Social Negotiation of Criteria
One very effective way to promote student
ownership is to give them input over the
evaluation process for assignments. For instance,
you might conduct an activity to create a rubric
for a class project. Why should students create
their own rubrics? Reading or listening to a
teacher's expectations is very different for a
student than creating and accomplishing his or
her own goals. The purpose of inviting students
to develop their own evaluation structure is to
improve their motivation, interest, and
performance in the project. As students' overall
participation in school increases, they are
likely to excel in it. (Source
Strategy 2 Social Negotiation of Criteria
  • Once students are involved in project-based
  • Students are motivated intrinsically to design
    their own assessment tool
  • Once students have invested a significant amount
    of time, effort, and energy into a project, they
    naturally want to participate in deciding how it
    will be evaluated.
  • The knowledge gained through experience in a
    particular field of study provides the foundation
    for creating a useful rubric.
  • (Source http//

Strategy 2 Social Negotiation of Criteria
Example Rubric Bridge Building Project In this
case, the class was divided into teams. Each
group decided on their own "Company Name" as well
as who would fill the following department head
positions project director, architect,
carpenter, transportation chief, and accountant.
All students were required to help out in every
department. Each group received 1.5 million
(hypothetically) to purchase land and supplies.
Students were asked to think about what parts
of the design, construction, budget, and building
journal were the most significant to the overall
bridge quality. The class came up with four
different rubrics (Source http//www.teachervisi
Strategy 2 Social Negotiation of Criteria
The budget rubric is provided as an example
(Source http//
Strategy 3 Collaborative Work
  • What is collaboration and why should students do
  • Collaboration is the social process that supports
    learners' development of capabilities in which
    they learn to do without assistance things that
    they could initially do only with assistance.
  • By collaborating, students can develop their
    potential for learning. Specifically, students
    can learn to approach and solve new problems so
    that they develop the capability to solve
    problems that do not exist at the moment of
  • Source http//

Strategy 3 Collaborative Work
  • What is required for students to collaborate?
  • To collaborate, students need
  • The task, e.g., a problem or project, the
    completion of which requires conceptual change in
  • A group of students with problem-solving or
    project-developing capabilities distributed among
  • Meaningful assistance for needed capabilities not
    distributed among group members
  • Time to interact with each other
  • Guidance for developing group processes and
    assessing their progress
  • Source http//

Strategy 3 Collaborative Work
  • How do I get students to collaborate?
  • To entice students to collaborate, it is helpful
  • Shift course situations and reward structures to
    encourage students to view interactions with
    peers as indispensable learning resources.
  • Assign tasks that are suitable for collaboration,
    i.e., tasks that require the integration rather
    than just the accumulation of ideas.
  • Make the collaborative aspects of a course
    sufficiently large that students cannot safely
    ignore them.
  • Stage the first collaborative activities in ways
    that build swift trust among group members so
    they can get to work on the task to attain useful
    results quickly, which encourages subsequent
  • Have student groups make the results of their
    collaboration visible to other student groups,
  • Source http//

Strategy 4 Portfolio-based assessment
What is a portfolio?
  • A portfolio is a collection of work used as
  • proof, as evidence. It demonstrates
  • Look what I have done, look what I can
  • do, I have made these things, these are
  • my products.

Source NC Quest Program, UNCW at
Why create a portfolio?
  • To provide a holistic perspective of your
    students learning journey
  • To document your students mastery of specific
    goals and objectives of the course through the
    selection and presentation of select pieces of
    evidence or data.
  • To serve as a tool for learning, to be built and
    reflected upon in a continuous manner as you
    proceed in your professional development.

Source NC Quest Program, UNCW at
Implementing Portfolios
  • Introduce the basic structure/requirements at the
    beginning of the semester
  • Encourage student input in negotiating some
  • Provide recommendations and examples
  • Require a portfolio outline prior to assembling

What a Portfolio is NOT
  • Keep in mind this is not a
  • scrapbook.
  • It should be a learning tool that
  • includes select pieces of
  • evidence, along with written
  • reflections that explain, for
  • example, why you chose each
  • artifact, in what course objectives
  • growth took place, what obstacles
  • you overcame, and what goals
  • you have for continued growth in
  • this particular area. As you
  • assess your own learning, there
  • should be a strong connection
  • that links your growth to overall
  • goals of the course.

Source NC Quest Program, UNCW at
Discussion Question/Activity 6
  • What methods do you currently use to promote
    student ownership in the learning process?

Topic 5
  • Accommodating different
  • learning styles

Theory on Learning Styles
  • There are many theories and models on
  • learning styles. Some theorists to explore are
  • Gardner (Multiple Intelligences)
  • McCarthy (4MAT)
  • Dunn and Dunn (Cognitive Style Theory)
  • Shindler (Paragon Learning Style Inventory)

A Few Basic Ideas
  • No two learners learn in the identical way. 
  • An enriched environment for one learner is not
    necessarily enriched for another. 
  • No learner is all one learning style
  • The instructors learning style has an impact

Some Familiar Styles
  • Auditory 
  • Visual
  • Tactual
  • Kinesthetic
  • (Source http//

Auditory Learners
  • Find it easy to learn by listening 
  • Enjoy dialogues and discussion
  • Do well talking through problems
  • Are easily distracted by noise and other auditory
  • Students who are NOT auditory learners often
    struggle during lectures to concentrate or
    understand what is being said by the instructor
  • (Source http//

Strategies for Auditory Learners
  • Incorporate audio tapes, Internet content
    including audio, and discussion activities along
    with lectures.
  • Tape record lectures and make them available for
    student use.
  • Encourage auditory learners to
  • use tape recorders to record lectures, and their
    own verbal notes.
  • join a study group.
  • Talk through solutions to technical/math content
    and record it in their own words.

Visual Learners
  • Like to see demonstrations and written
    descriptions of concepts 
  • Often use lists to organize notes and recognize
    words by sight
  • Have active imaginations
  • Are easily distracted by movement or action Are
    generally unaware of noise
  • Student who are NOT visual learners often read a
    page and realize they dont know what they just
    read. They often have difficulty with reading
    assignments and overhead notes.
  • (Source http//

Strategies for Visual Learners
  • Use diagrams, illustrations, Internet
  • Use tables and charts with color coding to
    present text-based information
  • Encourage visual learners to re-write notes,
    color codes with highlighters, create study aides
    containing key information from text books and
    classroom assignments.

Tactual Learners
  • Like to take notes during a lecture or when
  • Often draw or doodle to remember things
  • Do well with hands-on projects (demonstraton,
    labs, etc.)
  • Students who are NOT tactual learners generally
    do not take notes, and struggle to keep up during
    hands-on exercises.
  • (Source http//

Strategies for Tactual Learners
  • Use hands-on activities (labs, models, writing
  • Incorporate assignments using computers
  • Encourage tactual learners to
  • create flashcards
  • Devise symbols or icons to help classify

Kinesthetic Learners
  • Do well when they are involved or active in the
    learning activity 
  • Have high energy levels
  • Often dont retain information presented during
  • Dont do as well when asked to sit and read
  • Students who are NOT kinesthetic learners prefer
    to sit and watch rather than get involved in
  • (Source http//

Strategies for Kinesthetic Learners
  • Create large diagrams wall or floor
  • Huge floor/wall puzzles
  • Large Maps on wall or floor
  • Team-based activities using chart paper posted on
    wall to score
  • Overheads projected on wall so students can move
    to them for games.
  • Acting
  • Interviewing
  • Peer coaching
  • Skits
  • Role Playing
  • (Source http//

Plan for Different Learning Styles
  • Every class represents the spectrum of different
    learning styles.
  • Incorporate this consideration into your
    instructional design process (e.g. Include
    activities relevant for all four styles when
    developing lesson plans)
  • Assess the possible bias of your own learning
    style when planning instructional approaches.
  • Encourage students to learn more about their own
    learning style.
  • Allow students to have input in
    creating/revising/choosing course activities.

Discussion Question/Activity 7
  • What is the biggest obstacle you face in
    attempting to address multiple learning styles in
    the classroom?

Topic 6
  • Reflective Activity

Reflective Activity
  • A variety of activities can be used to facilitate
    student reflection.
  • Student journals
  • Student presentations (portfolios)
  • Interviews
  • Asynchronous threaded discussions
  • Classroom discussions

Reflective Activity
  • What does reflect activity do to stimulate
  • Challenges students to make connections between
    experiences and concepts
  • Encourages students to contemplate the process
    in addition to the content
  • Makes the student the determiner of learning
  • Improves critical thinking and writing skills.

Reflective Activity
  • Examples of reflective questions
  • Discuss the key differences between the roles of
    online instructor and face-to-face instructor.
    What aspects of effective online teaching do you
    feel pose the biggest challenge for you given
    your own personal style and attributes as a
  • Discuss your own personal experience with online
    learning to date. This can include participation
    as learner and/or instructor. What were the
    strengths and weaknesses of the online learning
    you participated in? Highlight specific aspects
    that were particularly effective or ineffective.
    What do you think is the biggest obstacle to
    success in an online learning environment?
  • Consider your own characteristics as an adult
    learner. What are some strategies that could be
    used in an online course to maximize the value of
    the experience for you? What strategies might
    frustrate you? Discuss any modifications to your
    own behavior that you might need to make in order
    to become an effective distance learner

Questions and Comments
  • The floor is yours!

  • Facilitation A Different Pedagogy? CDTLink at
  • Pedicases at http//
  • Learning Styles at http//
  • Life Tips Homework Tips, at http//
  • Explorations in Learning and Instruction Theory
    Into Practice (TIP) Database at
  • Learning and Teaching Website, James Atherton at
  • CDT Link at http//
  • at http//www.teachervision.fen
  • Center for Teaching and Learning Website at
    Georgia State University. Available at
  • Instructional Design Knowledge Base at George
    Mason University at http//

Resources, continued.
  • UMUC-Verizon Virtual Resource Site for Teaching
    with Technology http//
  • Web Teacher at http//
  • Concept to Classroom at http//
  • Multimedia Cases (Situated Learning), Mable
    Kinzie UVA at http//
  • Moodle (freeware course management system) at
  • Big Dogs ISD page at http//
  • Yahoo Web Beginners Guides at
  • Distance Education Clearinghouse
  • University of Hawaii, Faculty Development
    Teaching Tips Index at http//

  • ATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching 
    Learning Contracts On-line UK Available
    tracts.htm Accessed 1 April 2006
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