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Wood Usage for the Mitigation of Climate Change

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Title: Wood Usage for the Mitigation of Climate Change


1
Wood Usage for the Mitigation of Climate Change
  • Robert Beauregard
  • Dean
  • Faculty of Forestry and Geomatics
  • LEaF London
  • 24 January 2008

2
Wood Usage for the Mitigation of Climate Change
  • Gobal Warming, Current Status?
  • Wood and the Boreal Forest Dynamics
  • Conditions to be Respected for Wood to Contribute
    to the Mitigation of Climate Change
  • Wood, Concrete and Steel from a Carbon Emission
    Standpoint
  • A Wood-based Green Building

3
Ice Cores from Vostok have been used to
Reconstruct CO2 Levels in the Atmosphere
4
Levels of Atmospheric CO2 are Higher than at any
Time in the Last 430 000 yrs
Source  Met Office http//www.metoffice.gov.uk/co
rporate/pressoffice/myths/figures.htmlatmos
5
Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases
Source  IPCC AR4 WG1 2007
6
Temperature Variations over the Past 1000 years
Source  IPCC AR4 WG1 2007
7
Our Understanding of Climate Change from IPCC 4th
Assessment Report
  • The understanding of climate evolution has
    improved over the last few years, leading to a
    very high confidence that the globally averaged
    net effect of human activities since 1750 has
    been one of warming
  • In 2006 the temperature was 0,46oC warmer than
    the 1860-2006 average
  • Eleven of the last twelve years (1995-2006) rank
    among the 12 warmest years in the instrumental
    record (since 1850) of global air temperature
  • According to the IPCC forecasts, the temperature
    in 2100, should increase on average within a
    range of 1,4oC to 5,8oC.

Source  IPCC-AR4-WG1 2007 and Kurz 2007
8
The Global Carbon Exchange Situation
Source  IPCC AR4 WG3 2007
9
Main Causes of Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions
  • Fossil fuel combustion
  • Deforestation
  • Concrete production

Source  IPCC AR4 WG3 2007
10
Forests, Trees and the Carbon Emission Issue
Atmospheric Carbon
End of the Plant Life
Carbon Fixation in Trees through Photosynthesis
(Sink)
Atmospheric Carbon
Carbon in Soil Biomass (Reservoir)
11
Global carbon Stocks in Vegetation and Top 1 m of
Soil
Source  IPCC Special Report on Land Use
http//www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/land_use/019.htm
table1-1
12
Forest Management Dynamics in Relation to Carbon
Source  Perez-Garcia et al. 2005
13
Forest Management and Usage Dynamics in Relation
to Carbon
Source  Perez-Garcia et al. 2005
14
Long Term Impact of Concrete and Fossil Fuel
Substitution through Proper Forest Management
15
Net change in forest area between 2000 and 2005
Red gt 0,5 Annual Decrease Green gt 0,5 Annual
Increase Grey Change rate below 0,5 per year
Source FAO 2006
16
Canadian Forests as Sinks and Sources1990-2005
Source  Natural Resource Canada
http//cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/news/544
17
Trees, Wood and the Carbon Emission Issue
  • Substituting concrete with wood is one way of
    decreasing anthropogenic carbon emissions 1,1 ton
    of C02/m3 of wood used (important)
  • Using wood in construction is one way of creating
    a carbon sink for the building lifespan 0,9 ton
    of C02/m3 of wood used (marginal systemic
    positive impact)
  • Consuming wood to generate energy at the end of
    wood product life cycle and thus substituting
    fossil fuels is a key wood usage to be developed
    (major cumulative systemic positive impact)

Source  Frühwald and Sharai-Rad, 2003 and IPCC
AR4 WG3 2007
18
The Conditions to be Respected to be Able to
Sustain Climate Change Mitigation
  • Improve forest protection against insects and
    fire
  • Use wood wastes, both from forest harvesting and
    at the end of products life cycle, to produce
    bioenergy and substitute fossil fuels
  • Implement public policies to prevent wood
    products from getting into landfills
  • Stop deforestation and support afforestation,
    everywhere but mostly in tropical countries.

19
Construction Materials Compared on the Basis of
CO2 Emissions
Comparison of the CO2 emissions linked to the
design of a beam made of Aluminium, Steel,
Concrete and Solid Wood
Absorbed Emitted CO2
100 0 100 200 300
400
Kg kg
327
Aluminium
101
Concrete
Beam designed for Permanent load of 75
kg/m Exploitation load of 300 kg/m Span 7.5 m
76
Steel
101
6
Wood
Source  Triboulot 2005
20
Source  Canadian Wood Council Sustainable
Buildings Series no. 4
21
Athena Institute Case Study
  • A Toronto Single-family House
  • 240 m3 building area
  • Comparison of Wood, vs Concrete and Steel
  • The Athena Environmental Impact Estimator
    software was used
  • At the end of its Life Cycle, the house was
    demolished and the wastes were sent to a landfill

Source  Canadian Wood Council, Sustainable
Buildings Series, no. 4
22
Embodied Effects Relative to the Wood Design
across all Measures
Source  Canadian Wood Council, Sustainable
Buildings Series, no. 4
23
Using Wood to Reduce CO2 Emissions
  • Swedish research shows that building in wood
    instead of concrete has the potential to reduce
    net emissions by between 110 and 470 Kg of CO2/m2
    of building area.

Source  Gustavsson et al. 2006
24
Green Building Certification and Wood
  • In North America, LEED dominates Green Building
    Certification activities
  • BREEAM has a more rationale certification
    approach
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework

25
The Gene-H.-Kruger Building
  • The Bioclimatic Approach
  • Conciliate the biological requirements (peoples
    comfort) with the climatic conditions
  • Use methods as simple as possible
  • Wind orientation
  • Natural light
  • Light sinks
  • Use of Solarwalls

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27
Le Pavillon Gene-H.-Kruger
  • Murs Solarwall et dispositifs doccultation
    solaire

28
The Gene-H.-Kruger Building
  • A Green Building
  • Wood is the only renewable building material and
    it is a carbon sink
  • A water retention tank allows for night and day,
    as well as seasonal energy exchange, and it
    prevents fluvial utilities overflow
  • Energy consumption is reduced by 30
  • Built according to LEED requirements but not
    certified

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36
Des questions?
  • Nhésitez pas à communiquer
  • avec nous si vous avez des
  • questions!
  • Visitez notre site web www.crb.ulaval.ca

37
Des questions?
  • Nhésitez pas à communiquer
  • avec nous si vous avez des
  • questions!
  • Visitez notre site web www.crb.ulaval.ca

38
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39
List of References
  • FAO 2006. Global Forest Resource Assessment
    Progress Towards Sustainable Forest Management.
    FAO Forestry Paper 147320.
  • Frühwald W. and M. Sharai-Rad 2003 Comparison of
    wood products and major substitutes with respect
    to environmental and energy balances ECE/FAO
    seminar Strategies for the sound use of wood,
    Poiana Brasov, Romania, 24-27 March 2003
  • Gustavsson et al. 2006. Carbon dioxide balance of
    wood substitutioncomparing concrete and wood
    frame buildings. Mitigation and adaptation
    strategies for global change, 11667-691.
  • IPCC 2007 Fourth assessment report Working group
    I report The physical science report,
    http//www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm
  • IPCC 2007 Fourth assessment report Working group
    III report Mitigation of climate change,
    http//www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg3.htm
  • Kurz, W., 2007. Forests, Carbon and Climate
    Change. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest
    Service, Ottawa, July 19th 2007.
  • NRCAN, 2007. Is Canadas Forest Carbon Sink or
    Source? Science-Policy Notes, October 2007,
    http//cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/news/544
  • Perez-Garcia J. et al. 2005. An Assessment of
    Carbon Pools, Storage and Wood Products Market
    Substitution Using Life Cycle Analysis Results.
    Wood and Fiber Science 37(2005)140-148
  • Triboulot P. 2005. Penser forêt, agir bois Un
    concept durable visant à réconcilier lavenir de
    la forêt et lindustrie du bois. Conference UQAC,
    Saguenay, Qc, 28 October 2005
  • UK Public Weather Service, 2007.
    http//www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/pressoffice/
    myths/figures.htmlatmos

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