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Grammar Review

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Predicate Nominative- a noun or pronoun which follows a linking verb and modifies the subject ... Subject Predicate Nominative Direct Object Indirect ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Grammar Review


1
Grammar Review
  • E101 Winter Final Exam

2
Parts of Speech
  • Noun
  • Pronoun
  • Verb- predicate
  • Adjective
  • Define each term.
  • Adverb
  • Preposition
  • Conjunction
  • Interjection
  • Remember that each word in a sentence has a part
    of speech.

3
Definitions of Parts of Speech
4
Common Prepositions
from in into like of off on over past since throug
h
aboard about above across after against
along among around at before
behind below beneath beside between beyond by down
during except for
throughout to toward under underneath until up up
on with within without
5
Kinds of Sentences
  • Declarative
  • Makes a statement
  • Today is the start of school.
  • Imperative
  • Give a command
  • Please close the door.
  • Interrogative
  • Asks a question ?
  • Who is the teacher?
  • Exclamatory
  • Expresses strong feelings
  • Ends with an exclamation point
  • What a beautiful day!

6
The Verb
A word that expresses action or otherwise helps
to make a statement
Linking
Subject
Action
7
Kinds of Verbs
  • Linking verbs make a statement by connecting the
    subject with a word that describes or explains
    it.
  • Action verbs express mental or physical action.

He rode the horse to victory.
He has been sick.
8
Sentence Patterns
  • Subject verb (SV)
  • John ran down the road.
  • Example
  • John subject ran action verb
  • down the road P.P
  • Subject Verb Complement

9
The Sentence Complements
  • Predicate Nominative- a noun or pronoun which
    follows a linking verb and modifies the subject
  • Example- Mr. Simon is a good teacher
  • Predicate Adjective- is a adjective which follows
    a linking verb
  • Example- Mr. Simon is tall.
  • These words are used with LINKING verbs

10
The Sentence Complements
  • Direct Object- is a noun, pronoun that receive
    the action of the verb
  • Indirect Object is a noun, pronoun that comes
    before the direct object and tells to whom or
    what the action of the verb
  • Example of both
  • The teacher showed my friend the section in the
    book.
  • Objects are received with ACTION verbs

11
Participle
  • A participle is used as an adjective and ends in
    various ways.
  • A present participle always ends with ing as does
    the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective.
  • A past participle ends with ed, n, or
    irregularly..
  • Participles modify nouns and pronouns and can
    precede or follow the word modified.
  • Do not confuse participles that end in ing with
    gerunds. Participles are used as adjectives
    gerunds are used as nouns.

12
Gerund
  • A Gerund is a verb form ending in ing that is
    used as a noun.
  • The Gerund may be used/function as
  • Subject Predicate Nominative Direct Object
    Indirect Object and Object of the Preposition
  • Example Teaching is a noble profession.
    Subject
  • My favorite pastime is stargazing. P.N
  • One should never stop dreaming. D.O
  • Do not confuse a gerund with a participle which
    both could end in ing but function differently

13
Infinitive and Appositive
  • An Infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by
    to and can be used as a Noun, Adjective or
    Adverb.
  • Example My sister likes to swim.
  • To travel in space is dangerous.
  • An Appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside
    an other noun or pronoun modifies it.
  • Example My brother Richard attend Duke
    University.
  • Note that the appositive is not the subject of
    the sentence.

14
Phrase
  • A phrase is a group of words but is it does not
    contain a verb or subject
  • A Prepositional phrase include a preposition,
    object and any modifiers
  • Example Of America- about the stamp
  • Again check the list of common prepositions
  • The subject of a sentence can not be in a
    prepositional phrase

15
Phrases
  • A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition
    and is followed by an object.
  • An adjective prepositional phrase will come right
    after the noun or pronoun that it modifies.
  • An Adverb prepositional phrases can come anywhere
    in the sentence and can be moved within the
    sentence without changing the meaning.

16
Clauses
  • A group of words that contains both a subject and
    a verb and is used as a sentence or part of a
    sentence
  • Independent?a clause that expresses a complete
    thought and can stand alone
  • Examples The boy is hungry.
  • The team prepares for the game.
  • Subordinate?a clause that does not express a
    complete thought and cannot stand alone
  • Examples that you are wearing
  • If I go to the store

17
Clauses
  • Adjective Clause? a subordinate clause that
    modifies a noun or pronoun
  • Examples
  • The girl who has the curly hair is my friend.
  • The movie that I like the best is The Sound of
    Music. Chocolate ice cream, which is my
    favorite, was served at the party.
  • Adverb Clause?a subordinate clause that modifies
    a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
  • Examples
  • She is tired because she was up late writing a
    paper.
  • If you want a good grade, you need to study.
  • I enjoy grammar more than you do.

18
Clauses
  • Noun Clause? a subordinate clause that is used as
    a noun (subject, p.n., d.o., i.o., o.p.)
  • Examples
  • What the teacher did was admirable.
  • Susie thought that she was finished with her
    test.
  • The challenging vocab quiz was not what he was
    expecting.
  • .

19
The Tongue UntiedReference tools
  • Use this web site for practice exercises and
    quizzes. Click on weeks 1-5.
  • http//grammar.uoregon.edu/toc.html

20
Review Pages in the Text
  • Linking and helping verbs p. 14-15, 45
  • Prepositions- p. 29
  • Subordinating Conjunctions- p. 105
  • Other good review website
  • http//grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/
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