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Special Education Paraeducator Weekend Seminar Saturday, May 5, 2007

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Special Education Paraeducator Weekend Seminar. Saturday, May 5, 2007 ... they bully others with some frequency (Melton et al, 1998: Nansel et al, 2001) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Special Education Paraeducator Weekend Seminar Saturday, May 5, 2007


1
Special Education Paraeducator Weekend
SeminarSaturday, May 5, 2007
  • Building a Positive Environment in School How to
    Deal with Bullying

2
Paraeducator Development Plan Menu
Directions This menu is a tool for you to use as
you progress through the Paraeducator Course.
Whenever you come across topics about which you
would like more information, place a checkmark
next to the topic and indicate in the Notes
column any specifics (for example, in 1 indicate
which disability). For each topic checked make an
entry in the Paraeducator Personal Development
Plan.
3
Paraeducator Development Plan
4
Questions
  • para_at_pattan.net

5
Local Policy
  • Your local districts policies regarding
    paraeducator job descriptions, duties, and
    responsibilities provide the final word!

6
Agenda
  • Discuss the learner outcomes.
  • What is bullying and what do we know about it?
  • Who are the players in the bullying circle?
  • What are some common characteristics and roles of
    bullies, victims and bystanders?
  • As paraeducators, how can we help prevent
    bullying in our schools?

7
Learner Outcomes
  • Define bullying.
  • Discuss the members of the bullying circle.
  • Discuss characteristics and roles of a bully a
    victim and potential victims.
  • Examine the role of the bystander and their
    responsibilities.
  • Review prevention procedures to decrease bullying
    and victim behaviors.
  • Discuss the paraeducators role in preventing
    bullying in the school environment.

8
Bullying Quiz
  • Pretest

9
  • What is Bullying?
  • What Do We Know About Bullying?

10
For Your Consideration
What is Bullying?
  • Bullying poisons the educational environment and
    affects the learning of every child. (Olweus)

11
The Bully Defined
What is Bullying?
  • A bully is a person who hurts or browbeats those
    who are weaker
  • Browbeat means to intimidate with harsh, stern
    looks and talk.

12
Common Characteristics of Bullying
  • Types and Kinds

13
Types of Bullying
Common Characteristics of Bullying
  • Physical bullying hitting or punching
  • Verbal bullying-teasing and name calling
  • Nonverbal or emotional bullying-intimidating
    through gestures, exclusion
  • Cyber bullying-insulting e-mail messages, text
    messages

14
Subtle and Not-So-Subtle Ways to Bully
Common Characteristics of Bullying
  • Direct Bullying
  • hitting, kicking, shoving, teasing, racial slurs,
    threatening, obscene gestures
  • Indirect Bullying
  • getting someone to bully for you, spreading
    rumors, exclusion, cyber-bullying

15
The Bullying Circle
The Players
16
The Bullying Circle
  • Victim
  • I am the one they
  • are picking on!!

17
The Bullying Circle
  • Bully/Bullies
  • I start the bullying
  • and take an active part in it!
  • Follower/Henchman
  • I take an active part,
  • but I didnt start it!

18
The Bullying Circle
  • Supporter/Passive Bully
  • I support the bullying but
  • do not take an active part
  • Passive Supporter/Possible Bully
  • I like the bullying but
  • do not display open support

19
The Bullying Circle
  • Disengaged Onlooker
  • I watch what happens. Its none of my business so
    I dont take a stand.
  • Possible Defender
  • I dislike the bullying and think someone ought to
    help, but not me.

20
The Bullying Circle
  • Defender of the Victim
  • I dislike the bullying and
  • help or try to help the one who is exposed to the
    bullying--the victim.

21
Characteristics of a Bully, a Victim and
Potential Victims
  • The Bully Profile

22
Children who bully are more likely to
Characteristics of a Bully
The Bully Profile
  • get into frequent fights
  • be injured in a fight
  • steal, vandalize property
  • drink alcohol, smoke
  • be truant, drop out of school
  • report poorer academic grades
  • perceive a negative climate in school
  • carry a weapon

23
Bullies are typically
Characteristics of a Bully
  • Hyperactive, have difficulty concentrating
  • Quick tempered, try to fight back if provoked

24
Longitudinal Study of Children Who Bullied
Characteristics of a Bully
  • 60 of boys who bullied in middle school had at
    least one conviction by age 24.
  • 40 had three or more convictions.
  • (Olweus, 1993)

25
Being Bullied/Victimized Defined
Characteristics of a Victim
  • A person is bullied when he or she is exposed
    repeatedly and over time to negative actions on
    the part of one or more other persons (Olweus
    1986, 1993).

26
Its Time for School! Do you have
Characteristics of a Victim
  • a headache
  • sleep problems
  • abdominal pain
  • feeling tense
  • anxiety
  • feeling unhappy
  • depressed
  • plus you have to go to school and pay attention

27
Health Consequences of Bullying (Fekkes et al.,
2003)
Characteristics of a Victim
28
Impact on the Victim
Characteristics of a Victim
  • Every day approximately 160,000 students stay
    home from school because they are afraid of being
    bullied (Vail, 1999)

29
Children who are bullied are more likely to have
Characteristics of a Victim
  • Lower self esteem
  • Higher rates of depression
  • Higher absenteeism rates
  • More suicidal thoughts

30
Characteristics of a Victim
  • May be bullied by many children
  • Try to bully younger, weaker children
  • Have poor relationships with classmates
  • Loner
  • Low academic achievement
  • Higher rates of smoking and alcohol use
  • Fight more frequently

31
Characteristics of a Victim
  • Studies show that between 15-25 of U.S.
    students are bullied with some frequency, while
    15-20 report that they bully others with some
    frequency (Melton et al, 1998 Nansel et al, 2001)

32
Students at Risk
Characteristics of a Potential Victim
  • The new kid
  • The younger kid
  • The kid we all pick on
  • Students with special needs

33
Students at RiskAspergers Syndrome/Autism
Characteristics of a Potential Victim
  • Appear to lack empathy
  • Lack of understanding of unwritten rules of
    play
  • Limited ability to form friendships
  • Misunderstanding non-verbal communication
  • Preoccupied with one or more interests

34
Students at RiskADHD
Characteristics of a Potential Victim
  • Children with ADHD tend to be restless and often
    tease and irritate others.
  • They do not pick up on cues as to when to stop
    this behavior.

35
Putting it altogether.What is Bullying?
Activity Think-Pair-Share
  • Complete the following sentences
  • Bullying is the act of
  • Being a bully is when
  • Being bullied is when

36
  • Bystanders Turning Onlookers into
    Bully-Prevention Agents

37
Role of the Bystander
  • Train Students to Play an Active Role in
    Intervening in Bullying
  • Introduce the term 'bullying'.
  • Tell students that bullying hurts the entire
    school and that everybody has a responsibility to
    help prevent it.
  • Draw a distinction for the students between
    'tattling' and 'telling'.
  • Tell students that, when they witness bullying,
    they should never encourage the bully or join in
    the bullying.

38
Role of the Bystander
  • Have the group think of other positive ways that
    a student could respond if they witness bullying
    and list those ideas on the board.
  • Hold Bystanders Accountable for Their Actions
  • Build 'Bonds of Caring' Between Bystanders and
    Potential Victims
  • Help guard against group bullying

39
What are some common characteristics and roles of
bullies victims and bystanders?Think-Pair-Share
40
Bullying Prevention Procedures
41
Safe School Initiative Report (2002)
Bullying Prevention Procedures
  • Studied 37 incidents of targeted school violence
    involving 41 attackers (1974-2000)
  • 3/4 of attackers felt persecuted, bullied prior
    to incident
  • 1/3 of attackers were characterized loners
  • 1/4 socialized with students who were disliked by
    most mainstream students
  • Many had considered suicide

42
What works in Bullying Prevention?
Bullying Prevention Procedures
  • Schoolwide Bullying
  • Prevention Program

43
What works in Bullying Prevention?
Bullying Prevention Procedures
  • Classroom rules against bullying
  • We will not bully other students
  • We will try to help students who are bullied
  • We will make it a point to include ALL students
    who are easily left out
  • When we know somebody is being bullied, we will
    tell a teacher or an adult

44
  • The Paraeducators Role in
  • Preventing Bullying

45
What Can I do?
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Confront Students Engaged in Bullying in a Firm
    But Fair Manner
  • Tell your class you are offended when you witness
    certain types of behavior
  • Immediately approach the child responsible
  • Impose more consequences if necessary

46
What Can I do?
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Provide Appropriate and Consistent Consequences
    for Bullying
  • Assemble a list of appropriate behavioral
    consequences for bullying
  • Be sure not to remove the victim from the
    situation
  • Supervise the bully who may be leaving class
    bully in the hallway or bathroom

47
What Can I do?
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Take Steps to Ensure the Victim's Safety
  • Some victims may be reluctant to come forward
  • Help to create a safe space
  • Examine the victims daily schedule

48
What Can I do?
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Help the Victim to Develop Positive Connections
    With Others
  • Try to pair students off randomly for fun,
    interactive learning or leisure activities
  • Enlist one or more adults in the school to spend
    time with the child as 'mentors'.
  • Enlist one or more older student volunteers to
    spend time with the child as mentors.

49
What Can I do?
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Teach Assertiveness Skills
  • A few simple assertiveness rules to go over
    with students are
  • Respond to taunts, insults, or teasing with a
    bland response ("Oh". "That's your opinion."
    "Maybe.") Don't let bullies see that they have
    upset you.
  • Get away from the situation if you start to get
    very angry.

50
What Can I do?
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Teach Assertiveness Skills (Continued)
  • A few simple assertiveness rules to go over
    with students are
  • Say "No" firmly and loudly if you don't want to
    do something that someone tells you to do. Stand
    straight up and look that person in the eye when
    you say it.
  • Refuse to let others talk you into doing
    something that you will be sorry for--even if
    they dare you!
  • Report incidents of bullying to adults.

51
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
What can I do to reinforce/ encourage the victim?
  • Avoidance
  • Act confident
  • Walk away
  • Say Stop It!
  • Say Leave me alone!
  • Tell an adult

52
What Can I do?
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Be very observant
  • Watch for patterns of bullying by individuals or
    groups of students
  • Watch for pushing, hitting, kicking
  • Prolonged teasing, name-calling/
  • other forms of verbal harassment
  • Report it!
  • Increase supervision of students

53
Increased Supervision
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Are you present during high-risk time slots?
  • When you take a break is it during a high risk
    time?
  • When you are absent, what occurs?
  • Can high risk settings be restructured?

54
How to Increase Supervision
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Staff chooses teams, not students
  • Always face the class
  • Watch seating arrangements
  • Where are coats /lockers
  • Intervene early
  • Follow procedures in your setting

55
How to Increase Supervision
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Intervene when one or more students bully another
    student
  • Help to mobilize bystanders
  • Eliminate malicious teasing/ kidding in the
    classroom or during recess/breaks
  • Take the side and defend a student who is being
    teased
  • Eliminate use of hurtful nicknames
  • Alert teacher/ staff on bullying situation
  • Use a predetermined common phrase

56
How to Increase Supervision
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • How is seating, is the bully at the head of the
    table or cluster of desks?
  • For example Are there round tables as compared
    to rectangular?
  • How does the bully hand things to others?
  • Have you seen the bully at lunch, recess, in
    between classes ?
  • Can students share food from their lunches ?

57
How to Increase Supervision
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Activities should not exclude anyone
  • Be sure your student is included in activities in
    the regular classroom
  • Take initiative to draw lonely students into
    joint activities
  • Show helpful and friendly behavior especially
    toward those to be bullied or socially isolated

58
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • Do some students shutter when the
  • bully is near ?
  • Does the bully act up and cause
  • anxiety to others ?

59
Being a Friend
The Paraeducators Role in Preventing Bullying
  • 12 Tips for making and keeping friends
  • Use a students strengths to help make friends
    (e.g. share an art project)

60
Bullying Quiz
  • Answers

61
Learner Outcomes
  • Define bullying.
  • Discuss the members of the bullying circle.
  • Discuss characteristics and roles of a bully a
    victim and potential victims.
  • Examine the role of the bystander and their
    responsibilities.
  • Review prevention procedures to decrease bullying
    and victim behaviors.
  • Discuss the paraeducators role in preventing
    bullying in the school environment.

62
Resources and References
  • www.interventioncentral.org
  • www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov
  • Beane, Allan, The Bully Free Classroom
    (Minnesota Free Spirit, 1999).
  • Olweus, Dan. Bullying at School ,What we know and
    what we can do (OxfordBlackwell, 1993).
  • National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals
    (www.nrcpara.org)

63
Resources
  • P.L. 108-446 posted at www.pattan.net
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report
    available _at_ http//www.pennyhill.com/education/rl3
    2716.html
  • Go to regulations and forms
  • Then to IDEA 04

64
Wrap Up
  • Complete the Paraeducator Development Plan
  • Complete Session Evaluation

65
Upcoming Paraeducator Trainings
  • Please check the PaTTAN website www.pattan.net
  • for upcoming trainings
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