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Cross-Connections

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Control of plumbing cross-connections is possible through thorough knowledge and ... Cross-Connections. Education is essential even for those experienced in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cross-Connections


1
Cross-Connections
  • Gary Carlson
  • Drinking Water Program
  • U.S. EPA Region 8

2
Cross-Connections
  • Plumbing Cross Connections
  • - defined as actual or potential connections
    between a potable and non-potable water supply
  • - constitute a serious public health hazard
  • - have been responsible for contamination of
    drinking water, and have resulted in the spread
    of disease

3
Cross-Connections
  • Plumbing cross-connections are a dynamic problem
    because piping systems are continually being
    installed, altered or extended
  • Control of plumbing cross-connections is possible
    through thorough knowledge and vigilance

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6
Cross-Connections
  • Education is essential even for those experienced
    in piping installations
  • - failure to recognize cross-connections and
    dangers

7
Cross-Connections
  • All municipalities with public water supply
    systems should have cross-connection control
    programs.
  • - Required by some regulators
  • Institutional and private water supplies should
    also be familiar with the dangers of
    cross-connections and should exercise careful
    surveillance of their systems

8
Cross-Connections
  • Cross-connections are the links through which it
    is possible for contaminating materials to enter
    a potable water supply
  • Contaminants enter the potable water system when
    the pressure of the polluted source exceeds the
    pressure of the potable source
  • - backsiphonage
  • - backflow

9
Cross-Connections
  • Cross-connections may appear in many subtle forms
    and in unsuspected places
  • The probability is great of contamination of a
    drinking water through a cross-connection within
    a single plumbing system

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16
Cross-Connections
  • Problems
  • - plumbing is frequently installed by persons
    who are unaware of the inherent dangers of
    cross-connections
  • - connections are made as a simple matter of
    convenience without regard to the dangerous
    situation that might be created
  • fire protection sprinkler systems
  • lawn irrigation systems
  • hose bibs

17
Cross-Connections
  • Plumbing installers must know that hydraulic and
    pollution factors may combine to produce a
    sanitary hazard if a cross-connection is present.
  • Plumbing installers and others must realize that
    there are available reliable and simple standard
    backflow prevention devices and methods that can
    be substituted for dangerous direct connection.

18
Cross-Connections
  • Hazards resulting from direct connections greatly
    outweigh the convenience gained.

19
Cross-Connections
  • Backflow
  • - reversed flow due to backpressure other than
    siphonic action
  • - any interconnected fluid systems in which the
    pressure of one exceeds the pressure of the other
    may have flow from one to the other as a result
    of the pressure differential
  • - flow occurs from the zone of higher pressure
    to the zone of lower pressure

20
Cross-Connections
  • Backflow and back-siphonage prevention
  • - one method to avoid certain types of backflow
    is to totally separate the systems

21
Cross-Connections
  • Install mechanical devices
  • - air gap
  • - barometric loops
  • - vacuum breakers - both atmospheric and
    pressure
  • - double check with intermediate atmospheric
    vent
  • - double check valve assemblies
  • - reduced pressure principle devices

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24
Cross-Connections
  • Backflow devices must be inspected and tested by
    certified technicians.
  • Under the provisions of the Safe Drinking Water
    Act of 1974 and subsequent Amendments, the water
    purveyor is held responsible for providing water
    that meets all applicable National Primary
    Drinking Water Standards
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