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STC 383 KNOWLEDGE

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Title: STC 383 KNOWLEDGE


1
STC 383 KNOWLEDGE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND
ADOPTION aka Knowledge, Innovation Technology
Transfer, Diffusion and Adoption
  • Theory and Practice

2
STC 383 Session 1 Agenda
  • Detailed Introduction to STC 383
  • Definitions of KTT
  • Introduction to Modeling
  • Discussion of RD as a precursor to KTT and of
    Sourcing RD for innovation initiatives.
  • 2 Breaks 245 and 415

3
STC 383 Teaching Team
  • Dr. David Gibson, Director, Research Programs,
    Fellow, IC2 MSSTC Faculty world traveler,
    boating and lighthouses, practices yoga, dancing
    and music, plays the guitar, and dear pet, Helen
  • Ms. Meg Wilson, IC2 Fellow MSSTC Faculty, globe
    traveler, weaver, gardener, gourmet cook. Perfect
    spouse, Fred Chriswell.
  • Darius Mahdjoubi, UT Austin Ph.D. Candidate,
    (Topic Atlas of Innovation). P.E. MSSTC TA
    Member, Association of Professional Engineers
    Ontario. Hobbies Travel, Swimming, Mountain
    Climbing, Classic Music, Cartography.

4
Course Overview
  • STC 383 will introduce you to
  • state-of-the-art theory and practice on knowledge
    and technology transfer (KTT) and adoption,
  • focused on transfer and adoption of knowledge
    technology across organizational boundaries,
  • including business, academia, and government at
    regional, national, and international levels of
    analysis.

5
Course Overview
  • STC 383 will introduce
  • established and innovative models
  • concepts and best practices of innovation and
    knowledge management
  • organization behavior
  • governmental policies and
  • communication theory
  • as all pertain to knowledge technology
  • transfer, adoption, and diffusion.

6
Course Overview
  • Course efforts will focus on analyzing the
  • barriers, challenges, facilitators and metrics on
  • knowledge/technology transfer and adoption
  • through
  • Intrapreneurship, entrepreneurship, spin-outs and
    spin-ins.
  • Industry, government, and academic organizations
    including RD consortia, national labs and
    university research centers
  • Regional and global implications of
    knowledge/technology transfer and application in
    the digital age

7
STC 383 Sessions
  • 1 Overview Introduction to RD (Wilson)
  • 2 KTT Modeling Critical Success Factors
    (Gibson)
  • 3 KTT and Marco Issues The Context of
    Innovation (Gibson)
  • 4 Innovation Policies Public and Private
    (Wilson)

8
STC 383 Sessions
  • 5 KTT Support Structures Incubators and
    Benchmarking (Wilson Gibson)
  • 6 KTT and Global Perspectives (Gibson)
  • 7 University Research Commercialization
    Processes (Wilson)
  • 8 Consortial And National Laboratory
    Commercialization Processes (Wilson)
  • 9 Indirect Policies Affect on KTT and Course
    Wrap-up (Wilson)

9
Assignments and Grading
  • Overall Class Participation (including Blackboard
    discussions critiques, chats, teamwork, and
    other contributions to class success)
  • Critique of Readings 1
  • Critique of Readings 2
  • Individual KTT Model
  • Team KTT Model
  • Analysis of Direct Government Policy
  • Ideal Path Analysis
  • Final KTT Model
  • 15
  • 7
  • 8
  • 10
  • 15
  • 15
  • 15
  • 15

10
Assignments and Due Dates
  • Individual KTT Model June 24
  • Critique of Readings July 8
  • Team KTT Model July 11
  • Analysis of Direct Government Policy Aug 22
  • Critique of Readings 2 Aug 28
  • Ideal Path Analysis Sept 16
  • Final KTT Model Sept 16

11
First Assigment Looming...
  • Individual KTT Model This model should be
    developed as a power point or word document,
    identifying key elements of your own work or
    professional experience with a KTT effort and
    should include a brief ranked list of barriers,
    challenges and facilitators.

12
Housekeeping
  • Syllabus READ IT Use It
  • Filenames crucial
  • Team assignments STC383 team name assignment
    name. Example STC383 GroupW final KTT model
  • Individual assignments STC383 last name
    assignment name. Example STC383 Wilson
    Individual KTT model

13
Housekeeping
  • Filenames Use em!
  • Evaluations Do em!
  • Assignments Email em!
  • New Info Post em!
  • Questions Ask em!
  • Suggestions Make em!
  • Late Assignment (points) Lose em!

14
Keys to Class Success
  • Active Participation in class and online
  • Active blackboard use for class integration
  • Sharing knowledge and experiences
  • Creative Modeling
  • Knowledge Integration

15
Integrated Courses
  • The courses of MSSTC are integrated They are
    interwoven to elucidate the deep and broad
    concept of commercialization of technological
    innovation.
  • The courses of MSSTC - unlike conventional
    academic programs such as MBA or MS - are not
    parallel courses with substantial overlaps and
    holes.

How might we model this difference?
16
MBA Courses
17
MSSTC Courses
1st Trimester
2st Trimester
3st Trimester
TEAMS
TEAMS
TEAMS
18
MSSTC Students Need to be able to
  • become familiar with the integrated process of
    commercialization of technological innovation.
  • analyze and develop models to explore, explain
    and organize the integrated process of
    commercialization of technological innovation.
  • work in team-organization that are needed for the
    integrated process.
  • analyze cases proper for the integrated process.

19
You Need to be able to
  • develop strategies that nurture the integrated
    process of technology commercialization and share
    and integrate this vision in internal reports
    (strategies).
  • develop, as external reports (business plans)
    that let you acquire the support needed for the
    development of a technology commercialization.
  • develop presentations (elevator pitch, VC
    presentation) to secure the financial and
    administrative support needed for the development
    of a technology commercialization.

20
Models and Integration
  • Developing shared views is essential for the
    team- members to transcend geographic zones,
    professional backgrounds and modes of learning
    and to follow the path of integrate courses.
  • Proper models play a key role in creating and
    developing shared views and in sustaining the
    integration inside teams, companies, courses, etc!

21
Modeling Fundamentals
  • Models can show
  • Actors, stakeholders, key players
  • Actions, reactions, process flows
  • Timing Relationships between and among actors,
    factors and actions.

22
The Commercialization Process
Source Vijay Jolly. Commercializing New
Technologies
23
Jollys Model of Technology Commercialization
Sub-Processes Building the Value of a New
Technology
Venture Analysis
Tech Assessment
Business Plan
3. Incubate to define
Commercializability
1.Imagine the dual (techno-market) insight
9. Sustain commercialization
2. Mobilize Interest and endorse-ment
8. Mobilize complimentary assets for delivery
4. Mobilize resource for Demo
6. Mobilize market constituents
7. Promote adoption
Bridges Mobilizing the Stakeholders
Source Jolly, Vijay. 1997. From Mind to Market.
24
A Global Challenge
Education
Mechanisms
Creativity
Innovation
T2
Metrics
Processes
Government
Industry
25
Two Basic Forms of Technology Transfer to
Commercial Applications
private sector federal labs universities consortia
private sector federal labs universities consortia
1
process application RD/Mfg. Marketing/Sales
corporate labs
ROI
2
start-up company
spin-out technologies
technology incubator
26
What do we mean by all of this
  • What do you think knowledge is?
  • What do you think innovation is?
  • What do you think RD is?
  • What do you think technology is?

27
Darius View of Knowledge, Innovation and
Technology
Technological Innovation
INNOVATION
Market Innovation
KNOWLEDGE
Organizational Innovation
TECHNOLOGY
Creativity and Human Innovation
28
Components of Knowledge? (Webster Leif Edvinsson
and Michael S. Malone, Intellectual Capital,
1997)
  • factual information used as a basis for
    reasoning, and calculation
  • the communication or reception of knowledge or
    intelligence
  • knowledge obtained from investigation, study, or
    instruction
  • intelligence, news

Data Information
29
Definitions/Concepts to Think About and to
Discuss
Knowledge
  • the fact or condition of knowing something with
    familiarity gained through experience or
    association
  • acquaintance or understanding of science, art,
    or technique
  • the fact or condition of being aware of something

30
Views on Innovation and Knowledge
Innovation is the ability to build on previous
knowledge and generate new knowledge. Leif
Edvinnson
Successful innovation depends on converting
knowledge flows into goods and services. Debra
Amidon
Knowledge creation is the key source of
innovation in any company. George von Krogh
31
Definitions/Concepts to Think About and to
Discuss
Technology
  • technical language
  • applied science
  • a technical method of achieving a practical
    purpose
  • totality of the means employed to provide objects
    necessary for human sustenance and comfort

32
Human Capital The combined knowledge, skill,
innovativeness, and ability of the companys
individual employees to meet the task at hand -
including company values, culture, philosophy.
Human capital cannot be owned by the
company Wetware/tacit knowledge/intangibles/ k
now-how
33
Structural Capital The hardware, software,
databases, organizational structure, patents,
trademarks, and everything else of organizational
capability that supports employee
productivity Customer capital and
relationships Everything left in the office when
the employees go home (unlike Human Capital)
can be owned and traded Codified knowledge.
34
Intellectual Capital Human brainpower, brand
names, intellectual property that is protected,
trademarks, Assets often/traditionally valued as
zero on the balance sheet
Human Structural Intellectual Capital Capit
al Capital
(Leif Edvinsson and Michael S. Malone,
Intellectual Capital, 1997)
35
The Knowledge-Based Economy
KNOWLEDGE
  • books
  • discs
  • goods

talent skills know-how
36
Technology Transfer the adoption of knowledge
(commercialization and processes)
A (the?) new source of wealth is
information/knowledge applied to work to create
value
Walter Wriston, The Twilight of Sovereignty, 1992
37
Technology Transfer Was Is ?
  • Prime the RD pump.
  • Over the wall.
  • Part of a serial process (linear, sequential,
    ordered).
  • Involves a deliverable productthe more fully
    formed the better.
  • Expert to usertechnology marketing.
  • Trickle out over time.

38
Technology Transfer Perspectives
Joint Venture
Technology Integration
Product Launch
RD
Prototype Development
Investment of Time and Resources
Product Licensing
IP Protection
Seminars, workshops, conferences
Trade shows, Invention Fairs
Most Passive
Most Active
Information Transfer
Knowledge Capture and Protection
Application Development
Commercialization Productization
39
Commercialization Utilization Deployment
Application
Technology Transfer
  • The Adoption of Knowledge

Other Relevant Labels
  • Management of Innovation
  • Diffusion of Innovation
  • Management of Technology
  • Knowledge Management

40
Technology Transfer Definitions...
  • "The business transactions or processes, such
    as patent licenses or start-up companies, by
    which innovations are moved from one place (such
    as a university), development stage or
    application to another place (such as a company)
    for a commercial purpose. (We include defense
    conversion as a special case under this
    definition.)
  • Michael Odza, Celebrating ten years of assisting
    tech transfer professionals via Technology Access
    Report and Intellectual Property Advice (for
    researchers)

41
Another Definition...
  • "Technology transfer - the dissemination of all
    the information necessary so that one party may
    duplicate the work of another party. The
    information is of two types, technical
    (engineering, scientific, standards) and the
    second is procedural (legal, non-disclosure
    agreements, patent rights, licensing). Andy
    Gluck

42
Another
  • Technology transfer is an umbrella term that
    encompasses the range of processes from most
    passive to most active info transfer (what
    universities do so well) intellectual property
    protection (allows for legal transfers)
    technology development lassoing resources
    technology integration and technology adoption
    through to the sale of new or innovative products
    or processes based on a new application of
    scientific knowledge or technology (and
    increasingly on innovative business structures).
    Meg Wilson on former Pax Website

43
and.
  • Technology Transfer The range of processes, from
    knowledge transfer to product or process
    commercialization, that facilitate the
    development and adoption of knowledge and
    technology.
  • Meg Wilson on former Pax Website

44
Perspectives on RD Public Private

45
Basic research is what I am doing when I dont
know what I am doing Werner Von Braun
46
Perpetual Tension...
  • Vannevar Bush believed that Basic research leads
    to new knowledge. It provides scientific
    capital. It creates the fund from which the
    practical applications of knowledge must be
    drawn
  • He also cited a perverse law that applied
    research invariably drives out the pure.

Lost at the Frontier, US Science and Technology
Policy Adrift, Deborah Shapley Rustum Roy, ISI
Press, 1985, pgs 14 15.
47
Science Policy Foundation and Features
Source Lost at the Frontier U.S. Science and
Technology Policy Adrift, Deborah Shapley/ Rustum
Roy
Technological Fruit Tree
Contemporary Basic Science Flowering Tree
Applied Science and Engineering


Skilled Labor
On the Shelf Science
Regional Planning
Instrumentation
Venture Capital
Public Support
48
RD Definitions
  • Basic Research Objective
  • Government/Academic to gain more comprehensive
    knowledge or understanding of the subject under
    study, without specific applications in mind
  • Private Sector research that advances
    scientific knowledge but does not have specific
    immediate commercial objectivesmay be in fields
    of commercial interest.

49
RD Definitions
  • Applied Research
  • General Gaining the knowledge or understanding
    to meet a specific, recognized need.
  • In Industry includes investigations oriented to
    discovering new scientific knowledge that has
    specific commercial objectives with respect to
    products, processes, or services

50
RD Definitions
  • Development
  • the systematic use of the knowledge or
    understanding gained from research directed
    toward the production of useful materials,
    devices, systems, or methods, including the
    design and development of prototypes and
    processes.

51
RD is the Key
  • RD is the key precursor to technology knowledge,
    developments and commercialization.
  • The source, sponsor, purpose, documentation and
    RD processes affect commercialization paths and
    thus need to be acknowledged and better yet, be
    understood.

52
US RD Funding by Source Millions of Current
53
So What? Who Cares?
Billions
  • 1. Your government spends of dollars
    on RD. So, you might care about that because
    they
  • Are funding research in an area of your expertise
    and you need to keep up with the latest
    technology
  • Are funding your competitor to do that research
    putting you at a disadvantage
  • Have an open competition for performance of the
    RD and you might want to get funded to do that
    work (supports your agenda and gives you new
    funding)

54
More Reasons...
  • You ...
  • Are pumping millions of dollars into a new area
    of RD and it suggests a new market opportunity
    to you!
  • Have developed a hot new technology and the
    government allows you to license needed
    integration components
  • Need to procure services or RD efforts or
    components/equipment and you could get into the
    government procurement business or find RD
    partners.

55
Final Reasons...
  • 2. Your government might provide tax credits
    for RD goes to your bottom line
  • 3. Your government may regulate private RD
    (e.g. medical and pharmaceutical research) and
    you must operate under those regulations
  • 4. Other governments may regulate that RD
    differently (e.g. less stringently) and it may
    provide you an opportunity to conduct RD less
    expensively and at lower risk initially or,
    conversely, may inhibit your ability to enter a
    market if the policy barriers are high.

56
Understanding How to Unlock RD Resources
  • For any of this to happen, you need to
  • Understand the Context, Players and Programs
  • Understand the Processes
  • Understand the Information Resources

57
Taking Advantage of RD Resources
  • You also need to understand those factors as they
    relate to
  • National, state/provincial, and local funding
    research organizations
  • Agency/national mission-oriented RD
  • University research structures, roles and funding
  • Private RD investments and the role they play in
    national economies
  • RD as a measure of competitiveness and economic
    health
  • The relationship between RD and innovation (or
    lack thereof)

Sourcing RD....
58
Understanding How to Unlock RD Resources
  • For any of this to happen, you need to
  • Understand the Context, Players and Programs
  • Understand the Processes
  • Understand the Information Resources

59
1800 to 1940 Characterization
  • Creation of the US University Land Grant System
    (Ag Engineering Morrill Act, 1862), and the
    general proliferation of universities in the US
    -- few academic institutions had any kind of
    scientific program until late in the 19th
    century.
  • Dominance in Science and RD by European
    universities
  • Independent inventors -- Angel funding (e.g.
    Tesla)
  • Development of Corporate RD Labs (e.g.
    Westinghouse, Bell, Edison) there were 4 in the
    US in 1890 and 1030 by 1930
  • Industrial funding of individual inventors and
    universities

60
RD And Science POLICY the CONTEXT
  • Primary NEW 20th Century Player
  • FEDERAL GOVERNMENTS
  • WHY
  • World War II
  • Then the cold war
  • Space Race

61
1940-present Characterized by Dramatic Changes
  • Government funding grew phenomenally into
    todays multi Billion enterprise
  • University RD industrially funded Research
    Centers were supplemented (sometimes
    supplanted) by government sponsored Scientific
    Centers of Excellence and support of individual
    principal investigators (PIs)

62
Three Competing RD Policy Models
63
Changes in 70-90s
  • Industry funding surged into the 70s, 80s and
    90s. The mainstay players, manufacturers,
    declined in their RD investment while
    information-related technologies more than made
    up their decline in recent years.

64
Shares of national RD expenditures, by source of
funds 1953-2000
65
Changes in 70s and 80s
  • The 1970-1990s have seen an inventor/
    entrepreneur resurgence and a major shift from
    general manufacturing-based businesses to
    technology service, information and advanced
    manufacturing businesses.
  • We also see an explosion of innovative RD
    support structures such as science RD parks
    and technology incubators.

66
Privatization Policy Impacts
  • Federal Governments in many countries have been
    THE primary source of RD
  • Centralized government
  • Government owned industries and utilities

Privatization in the 80s and 90s has led to an
explosion of industrial research and increase in
overall research in many developing and emerging
market countries
67
Global Trends 80s-90s
  • Privatization promotes industry RD
  • Cooperative Research programs in EU (now funding
    the 5th Framework) -- consortial research expands
    worldwide
  • Japan RD enterprise expanded significantly.
  • South Korea builds an RD infrastructure from
    scratch in 40 years
  • Technopolis development becomes a conscious
    policy, globally

68
Private Sector Growth
  • European Research Council endorsed EU target,
    recommending that businesses help increase RD to
    equal 3 of GDP in each member State by 2010.

69
Private Sector Perspectives
  • Corporate RD labs now a vestigial part of former
    RD empires.
  • RD moved to divisional responsibility -- RD
    seen as a tax on Divisions...
  • Outsourcing an increasing strategy for conduct of
    RD
  • Joint ventures now common

70
What is the prospect for the 2000s?
  • Continued erosion of public investments in RD?
  • Less basic RD through companies more attention
    to applied research?
  • Universities become the bastions of basic RD
    controversy explodes over their role in RD
  • Private sector horns in on key RD areas formerly
    conducted wholly by public/university sources
  • RD still seen as an engine to economic
    development (rightly or wrongly)
  • New ethical issues arising to change landscape

71
Understanding How to Unlock RD Resources
  • For any of this to happen, you need to
  • Understand the Context, Players and Programs
  • Understand the Processes
  • Understand the Information Resources

72
Federal RD support, by performing sector
1953-2000
73
U.S., G-7, and OECD countries RD expenditures
74
Total RD as a percentage of GDP
75
RD as a of GDP
Australian Ministry for Industry Science and
Resources claims Australia has worlds 3rd
highest ratio, 1999
NSF National Patterns in RD Resources, 1998,
Science Indicators, 1998
76
Changes in share of Federal academic research
obligations, by field 1990-99
77
Industrial RD spending flows of U.S. and foreign
affiliates, by world region 1998
78
U.S. patents granted 198699
79
RD Spending by 5 major Latin American Countries,
1990, 1996
80
US Total Industrial RD Billions of Current

81
Selected US Industry Sectors
1996 Constant Billions
82
Understanding How to Unlock RD Resources
  • For any of this to happen, you need to
  • Understand the Context, Players and Programs
  • Understand the Processes
  • Understand the Information Resources

83
RD Sources/Indicators
  • Data Sources NSF, OECD, UN, World Bank,
    country-by-country
  • Indicators Ph.D. production, publications,
    patents filed, patents granted, educational
    science competitions, workforce data
  • OTHER Sources and Indicators?

84
RD Programs
  • Agencies NSF, DOD, EPA, NIH, etc.
  • Private Sector Industry Roadmaps, special RD,
    Consortial RD
  • Programs SBIR, ATP, Homeland Security, DARPA
    grants, EPCORE
  • Processes Grants Contracts, appropriations
    program White Papers and Congressional Studies,
    RD procurement, SBIR/STTR partnering,
    state-level RD (e.g. Texas ARP and ATP
    programs)

85
Session Theses Wrap Up
  • Modeling Concept and Practice
  • Modeling integrates the two
  • Modeling is a key methodology of the program
  • KTT definitions are not static, nor understood
    uniformally
  • RD is the precursor to technology and tracking
    it allows for more effective RD prospecting,
    forecasting, and sourcing which can lead to new
    and/or better KTT!
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