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COMPUTER CONCEPTS Vocabulary

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A measurement of reliability that is applied to computer components. ... contexts today, it means a person who has gained illegal access into a computer system. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: COMPUTER CONCEPTS Vocabulary


1
COMPUTER CONCEPTS Vocabulary
  • Chapter 9
  • Data Security

2
Operator error
  • A mistake made by a computer user.

3
Power failure
  • A complete loss of power to the computer system.

4
Power spike
  • A sudden increase of power that lasts less than a
    millionth of a second.

5
Power surge
  • A sudden increase of power that can last several
    seconds.

6
UPS (uninterruptible power supply)
  • A device that contains a battery to provide a
    continuous supply of power to a computer system
    in case of a power failure and contains circuitry
    to protect a computer from power spikes and
    surges.

7
MTBF (mean time between failures)
  • A measurement of reliability that is applied to
    computer components. MTBF is derived by dividing
    the number of failures in test equipment by the
    total time they were tested.

8
Power strip
  • A device that provides multiple outlets, but no
    protection for power surges and spikes.

9
Surge strip
  • A device that protects computer equipment from
    electrical spikes and surges (also called a surge
    suppressor or surge protector).

10
Crackers
  • People who break into a computer system with
    intent to damage files or steal data.

11
Cyberpunks
  • People who break into computers, especially
    Internet computers, to steal data, modify files,
    or plant viruses.

12
Hackers
  • The term "hacker once meant a computer hobbyist
    and has also been used to describe a computer
    novice. In most contexts today, it means a person
    who has gained illegal access into a computer
    system.

13
Computer virus
  • A program designed to attach itself to a file,
    reproduce, and spread from one file to another,
    destroying data, displaying an irritating
    message, or otherwise disrupting computer
    operations.

14
File virus
  • A computer virus that infects executable files,
    that is programs with exe filename extensions.

15
Payload
  • The disruptive instructions or message delivered
    by a computer virus. Payloads can range from just
    being annoying to destroying data and files on a
    computer system.

16
Boot sector virus
  • A computer virus that infects the sectors on a
    disk that contain the data a computer uses during
    the boot process. The virus spreads every time
    the infected disk is in the computer when it
    boots.

17
Macro
  • A small set of instructions that automate a task.
    Typically, a macro is created by performing the
    task once and recording the steps. Whenever the
    macro is played back, the steps are repeated.

18
Macro virus
  • A computer virus that infects the macros that are
    attached to documents and spreadsheets.

19
Trojan horse
  • A computer program that appears to perform one
    function while actually doing something else,
    such as inserting a virus into a computer system
    or stealing a password.

20
Logic bomb
  • A computer program that is triggered by the
    appearance or disappearance of specific data (for
    example, when the word "terminated" appears in an
    employee's record or when a pass- word begins
    with the letters "DB").

21
Time bomb
  • A type of computer program that stays in a
    computer system undetected until it is triggered
    at a certain date or time.

22
Y2K bug
  • A time bomb unintentionally created by
    programmers when they wrote programs that used a
    two-digit field for the year, with the result
    that computers will read the digits 00 as 1900
    rather than as 2000.

23
Worm
  • A software program designed to enter a computer
    system, usually a network, through security
    "holes" and replicate itself.

24
Antivirus software
  • A computer program used to scan a computer's
    memory and disks to identify, isolate, and
    eliminate viruses.

25
Checksum
  • A value, calculated by combining all the bytes in
    a file, that is used by virus detection programs
    to identify whether any bytes have been altered.

26
Virus signature
  • The unique computer code contained in a virus
    that helps in its identification. Antivirus
    software searches for known virus signatures to
    identify a virus.

27
Data security
  • Techniques that provide protection for data.

28
Risk management
  • The process of weighing threats to computer data
    against the expendability of that data and the
    cost of protecting it.

29
Acceptable use policy
  • A set of rules and regulations that specify how a
    computer system should be used and set the
    penalties for misuse.

30
End-user procedures
  • A set of formalized steps that a person must
    follow to perform a computing task.

31
Biometrics
  • Biological measurements, such as fingerprinting,
    that are used in the context of computers to
    verify a person's identity.

32
Trap door
  • A way to bypass the normal security precautions
    and enter a computer system. A trap door is often
    created during computer installation and testing,
    but should be removed before the computer is
    placed into service.

33
User rights
  • Rules that specify the directories and files that
    an individual user can access.

34
Encryption
  • The process of scrambling or hiding information
    so that it cannot be understood with- out the key
    necessary to change it back into its original
    form.

35
Key
  • In the context of data encryption, a key is the
    method used to encrypt or decipher information as
    in which numbers in a code match each letter of
    the alphabet.

36
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
  • A popular public key encryption system.

37
Public key encryption (PKE)
  • An encryption method that uses a pair of keys, a
    public key (known to everyone) that encrypts the
    message, and a private key (known only to the
    recipient) that decrypts it.

38
Digital certificate
  • A security method that identifies the author of
    an ActiveX control. A computer programmer can
    "sign" a digital certificate after being
    approved.

39
Firewall
  • A method for preventing hostile pro- grams, such
    as Java applets, from entering a network, usually
    by installing firewall software that filters out
    suspicious packets.

40
Java applet
  • Small programs that add processing and
    interactive capabilities to Web pages.

41
Sandbox
  • A metaphor for the limited areas and equipment
    that a Java applet can access on a computer.

42
Cookie
  • A message sent from a Web server to a browser and
    stored on a user's hard disk, usually containing
    information about the user.

43
S-HTTP (Secure HTTP)
  • A method of encrypting data transmitted between a
    computer and a Web server by encrypting
    individual packets of data as they are
    transmitted.

44
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
  • A security protocol that uses encryption to
    establish a secure connection between a computer
    and a Web server.

45
Downtime
  • Time during which a computer system is not
    functioning.

46
Hardware redundancy
  • Maintaining equipment that duplicates the
    functions of equipment critical to computing
    activities.

47
Backup
  • A backup is a duplicate copy of a file, disk, or
    tape. Also refers to a Windows utility that
    allows you to create and restore backups.

48
Copy disk
  • A utility program that duplicates the contents of
    an entire floppy disk.

49
Copy utility
  • A program that copies one or more files.

50
Backup software
  • The software used to specify the folders and
    files that should be included when making a
    backup of hard disk data.

51
Full backup
  • A copy of all the files on a disk.

52
Differential backup
  • A copy of all the files that have changed since
    the last full backup of a disk.

53
Incremental backup
  • A copy of the files that have changed since the
    last backup.

54
Return to Title Page
  • Prepared by James Q. Jacobs
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