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Introduction to Computers

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What Is a Computer? ... Hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, ... or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Computers


1
Chapter 1
  • Introduction to Computers

2
OBJECTIVES
  • Recognize the importance of computer literacy
  • Identify the components of a computer
  • Discuss the uses of the Internet and World Wide
    Web
  • Identify the categories of software
  • Describe the categories of computers
  • Identify the types of computer users
  • Discuss various computer applications in society

3
A World of Computers
  • What is computer literacy?
  • Knowledge and understanding of computers and
    their uses

4
What Is a Computer?
  • Electronic device operating under the control of
    instructions stored in its own memory

Processes data into information Data that is
organized, meaningful, and useful
Accepts data Raw facts, figures, and symbols
Produces and stores results
5
Advantages of Using Computers
  • Speed
  • Reliability
  • Consistency
  • Storage
  • Communications

6
Disadvantages of Using Computers
  • Violation of Privacy
  • Impact on Labor Force
  • Health Risks
  • Impact on Environment

7
Information processing cycle
  • What is the information processing cycle?
  • Input
  • Process
  • Output
  • Storage
  • Communication

8
The Components of a Computer
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
  • System Unit
  • Storage Devices
  • Communication Devices

9
1. Input Devices
  • Hardware used to enter data and instructions
  • Widely used input devices
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Microphone
  • Scanner
  • Digital Camera
  • PC Video Camera

10
2. Output Devices
  • Hardware that conveys information to one or more
    people
  • Common output devices
  • Printer
  • Monitor
  • Speakers

11
3. System Unit
  • Case containing electronic components used to
    process data.
  • Motherboard or Circuit Board.
  • 2 Components of Motherboard
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Memory

12
CPU Memory
  • Processor
  • The electronic component that interprets and
    carries out the basic instructions that operate
    the computer.
  • Memory
  • Consists of electronic components that store
    instructions waiting to be executed and data
    needed by those instructions

13
4. Storage
  • Holds data, instructions, and information for
    future use
  • Storage media
  • Physical material on which data, instructions,
    and information are stored
  • Storage device
  • Records and retrieves items to and from a
    storage medium
  • Examples
  • Hard Disks
  • USB Flash Drives
  • CD
  • DVD

14
5. Communications device
  • Hardware component that enables a computer to
    send and receive data, instructions, and
    information
  • E.g. Modem
  • Occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular
    radio networks (wireless), satellites (wireless),
    and other transmission media.

15
Networks and the Internet
  • A network is a collection of computers and
    devices connected together.
  • Allow computers to share resources
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Data
  • Information

16
Internet
  • Worldwide collection of networks that connects
    millions of businesses, government agencies,
    educational institutions, and individuals.
  • Web
  • Billions of documents, called Web pages,
    available to anyone connected to the Internet

17
Internet Uses?
  • Communications
  • Information
  • Shopping
  • Banking Investing
  • Education
  • Entertainment
  • Sharing information

18
Software
  • Also called Program
  • Consists of a series of instructions that tells
    the computer what to do.
  • 2 Types
  • System Software
  • Application Software

19
System Software
  • Programs that control or maintain the operations
    of the computer and its devices
  • Serve as interface between user, the application
    software computers hardware
  • 2 Types
  • Operating System
  • Utility Program

20
Operating System
  • is a set of programs that coordinates all
    activities among computer hardware devices and
    allows users to run application software.
  • Examples of operating systems for personal
    computers include Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac
    OS , and Unix.

21
Utility Program
  • allow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks
    usually related to managing a computer, its
    devices or its programs
  • Control Panel
  • ISS
  • Computer Management

22
Application Software
  • Programs that perform specific tasks for users
  • Example
  • Web browsers
  • Word Processors
  • Database Management
  • Project management
  • DTP
  • Web Design

23
Computer Software
System Software
Application Software
Operating System
Utility Programs
24
Categories of Computers
  • Personal Computers
  • Mobile Computers/Devices
  • Game Consoles
  • Servers
  • Mainframes
  • Supercomputers
  • Embedded Computers

25
Personal Computers
  • What are the two most popular series of personal
    computers?

26
Mobile Computers
  • Notebooks/Laptops
  • Tablet PC
  • PDA
  • Smart Phones

27
Game Consoles
28
Servers
  • What types of servers are there?
  • A server controls access to network resources and
    provides centralized storage
  • Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that
    supports thousands of computers
  • Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most
    expensive computer. Used for applications
    requiring complex mathematical calculations

29
Embedded Computers
  • A special-purpose computer that functions as a
    component in a larger product

30
Computer Usage
  • What are five categories of computer users?
  • Home User
  • Small Office/Home Office User
  • Mobile User
  • Power User
  • Large Business User

31
Home User
  • What software is available for a home user?
  • Personal Finance Management
  • Web access
  • Communications
  • Entertainment

32
Small Office User
  • What software is available for a small
    office/home office (SOHO) user?
  • Productivity software
  • Specialty software
  • Web usage
  • E-mail

33
Mobile User
  • Hardware
  • Notebook computers
  • PDAs
  • Smart phones
  • Tablet PCs
  • Software
  • Word processing
  • Spreadsheet
  • Presentation graphicssoftware

34
Power User
  • What are the needs of a power user?
  • Speed and large amounts of storage
  • Types of power users
  • Engineers
  • Architects
  • Desktop publishers
  • Graphic artists

35
Large Business Users
  • What are the needs of the large business user?
  • Payroll
  • Inventory
  • E-commerce
  • Desktop publishing

36
Computer Applications in Society
  • Education
  • Finance
  • Government
  • Health Care
  • Science
  • Publishing
  • Travel
  • Manufacturing

37
Chapter Summary
The computer and its components
Categories of computers
What is a network?
Types of computer users
The Internet and the World Wide Web
Types of software
38
Questions?
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