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Claude E' Boyd

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Claude E' Boyd – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Claude E' Boyd


1
Overcoming Environmental Barriers to Aquacultural
Development
  • Claude E. Boyd
  • Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
  • Auburn University, Alabama 36849 USA

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Global farmed shrimp production (FAO, 2002)
4
US CHANNEL CATFISH PRODUCTION
5
WORLD POPULATION ESTIMATES
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Concerns Expressed About Aquaculture
  • Destruction of mangrove, wetlands, and other
  • sensitive aquatic habitat by aquaculture
    projects
  • Conversion of agricultural land to ponds
  • Water pollution resulting from pond effluents
  • Excessive use of drugs, antibiotics, and other
  • chemicalsor aquatic animal disease control
  • Inefficient utilization of fish meal and other
    natural
  • resources for fish and shrimp production
  • Salinization of land and water by effluents,
    seepage,
  • and sediment from brackishwater ponds

10
Concerns Expressed About Aquaculture
  • Excessive use of ground water and other
    freshwater
  • supplies for filling ponds
  • Spread of aquatic animal diseases from culture
    of
  • organisms to native populations
  • Negative effects on biodiversity caused by
    escape of
  • non-native species introduced for
    aquaculture,
  • destruction of birds and other predators,
    and
  • entrainment of aquatic organisms in pumps
    and
  • Conflicts with other resource users and
    disruption of
  • nearby communities.

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CODES OF CONDUCT
  • A system of principles or rules about how some
    activity (in this case, aquaculture) should be
    conducted. Codes usually are adopted
    voluntarily. They should be supplemented by
    Codes of Practice.

19
CODES OF PRACTICE
  • Provide a list of management practices
    considered appropriate for fulfilling the
    objectives of a Code of Conduct. Codes of
    Practice should be supplemented with a Operating
    Guidelines and Procedures Manual.

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Loads of nitrogen and phosphorus released per
1,000 kg feed in different aquaculture systems.
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Nitrogen budget of catfish ponds.
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Phosphorus budget of catfish ponds.
30
Warm Water CAAPF
  • Includes ponds, raceways, or other similar
    structures which discharge at least 30 days per
    year but does not include
  • Closed ponds which discharge only during
  • periods of excess runoff
  • Facilities which produce less than 45,454
  • harvest weight kilograms per year (about
  • 100,000 lbs/year)

31
Exclusion of Species and Production Systems
  • Ponds
  • Lobster Pounds
  • Crawfish
  • Molluscan shellfish production in open water
  • Aquariums
  • Alligators
  • Alaskan Net Pen Systems

32
Basis for Exclusions
  • EPA does not believe that the species/production
  • systems add more than trivial amounts of
  • pollutants to waters of the nation
  • EPA does not believe that there are feasible
  • pollutant control technologies to reduce
  • pollutant loads in more than minimal amounts

33
Alabama Catfish Farming BMP Guide Sheets
  • Reducing Storm Runoff into Ponds
  • Managing Ponds to Reduce Effluent Volume
  • Erosion Control on Watersheds and Pond
    Embankments
  • Pond Management to Minimize Erosion
  • Control of Erosion by Effluents
  • Settling Basins and Wetlands
  • Feed Management
  • Pond Fertilization

34
Alabama Catfish Farming BMP Guide Sheets
(continued)
  • 8. Pond Fertilization
  • 9. Managing Ponds to Improve Quality of Overflow
    Effluent
  • 10. Managing Ponds to Improve Quality of
    Draining Effluent
  • 11. Therapeutic Agents
  • 12. Water Quality Enhancers
  • 13. Fish Mortality Management
  • 14. General Operations and Worker Safety
  • 15. Emergency Response and Management

35
Process for Preparing Alabama Catfish Farming
BMPs
  • Environmental assessment 1997-1999
  • Meeting with farmers Oct. 1999
  • Environmental audit 1999-2000
  • First draft of BMPs Apr. 2000
  • Review of draft BMPs by committee July 2000
  • Second draft of BMPs Sept. 2000
  • Meeting with farmers Oct. 2000
  • Third draft of BMPs Dec. 2000

36
Process for Preparing Alabama Catfish Farming
BMPs (continued)
EPA/ADEM site visit Mar. 2001 Review of
draft BMPs by committee, ADEM, NRCS, and
EPA Apr. 2001 Fourth draft of BMPs Aug.
2001 Farmers meeting Oct. 2001 Fifth draft of
BMPs Dec. 2001 Final editing and NRCS website
Feb. 2002 Publication of manual Mar. 2003
37
FEED MANAGEMENT BMPs
  • Select high quality feeds that contain adequate,
    but not excessive, nitrogen and phosphorus.
  • Store feed in well-ventilated, dry bins, or if
    bagged, in a well-ventilated, dry room. The feed
    should be used by the expiration date suggested
    by the manufacturer.
  • Apply feed uniformly with a mechanical feeder.
  • Do not apply more feed than fish will eat.
  • Feeding rates should not exceed 30 lb/acre per
    day in un-aerated ponds. In ponds with 2 hp of
    aeration per acre, feeding rates usually can be
    increased to 100 to 120 lb/acre per day.
  • When uneaten feed accumulates in corners of
    ponds, it should be manually removed.

38
WATER QUALITY ENHANCER BMPs
  • Store water quality enhancers under a roof where
    rainfall will not wash them into surface waters.
  • Copper sulfate applications in parts per million
    (ppm) should not exceed one-one hundredth (0.01)
    of total alkalinity also measured in ppm or a
    maximum dose of 1.0 ppm. Pond water should not
    be released for 72 hours after application of
    copper sulfate.
  • Sodium chloride applications should not exceed
    100 ppm.
  • Lime (calcium oxide or hydroxide) applications
    should not exceed 100 ppm.
  • Agricultural limestone and gypsum (calcium
    sulfate) applications should not exceed 5,000
    lb/acre and 2,000 lb/acre, respectively.
  • Calcium hypochlorite or other chlorine compounds
    should not be applied to catfish ponds.

39
X 87.1 SD 36.5
Number of samples
Chloride (mg/L)
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Big Prairie Creek Watershed
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CATFISH FARMS ON BIG PRAIRIE CREEK WATERSHED
Area of Big Prairie Creek Watershed 66,396 ha
Area of catfish farms 5,001 ha
Percentage of watershed area is 7.5
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Reference streams
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