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Normal distribution

Assessment of normality

- Outliers
- Skewness Platycurtic and leptocurtic
- Kurtosis peakedness
- Dichotomies

Assessment of normality Visual assessment

- Histograms
- A graph of empirical by theoretical cumulative

distribution functions (cdf's) - P-P plot

Assessment of normality Tests

- Shapiro-Wilks W test is the standard test of

normality (offered in the SPSS and SAS). - Kolmogorov-Smirnov D test or K-S Lilliefors test,

is an alternative test of normality for large

samples (also available in SPSS and SAS)

Transformations

Outliers

- 1) Errors of data entry proofread your data

for out-of-range entries and other errors. - 2) Not defining missing values?
- 3) Unintended sampling eliminate

non- population members from the sample. - 4) True non-normal distribution.
- 5) Simple outliers

Experiments

- Mensurative
- Manipulative

- Advantage of mensurative experiment
- Relevant biological variation (we have not

altered it) - Disadvantage of mensurative experiment
- We may conclude that there is a link between

factors when there is no direct link

- Advantages of manipulative experiment
- Avoids problems of mensurative experiments
- Disadvantages of manipulative experiment
- Experiment may not be biologically realistic

Pseudoreplication

- Pseudoreplication is defined as the use of

inferential statistics to test for treatment

effects with data from experiments where either

treatments are not replicated (though samples

maybe) or replicates are not statistically

independent. - Remember to take a look at Hurlberts paper when
- you have time.

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presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!

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