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Hypnosis a state of heightened suggestibility people experience imagined suggestions as if they were

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Hypnosis a state of heightened suggestibility people experience imagined ... (Spanos et al., 1991; Vickery & Kirsch, 1991). Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hypnosis a state of heightened suggestibility people experience imagined suggestions as if they were


1
Hypnosis a state of heightened suggestibility
people experience imagined suggestions as
if they were real.
2
(No Transcript)
3
Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815)
Austrian physician who developed technique
animal magnetism (later renamed mesmerism).
Noticed patients enter trance-like state.
Apparent miracle cures
1841 Scottish surgeon James Braid witnessed
mesmerism /developed own technique Braid held
bright object in front of patients eyes while
making verbal suggestions Renamed it hypnosis
after Hypnos, Greek god of sleep.
4
Hypnotic Induction
  • Process by which one person leads another
    into hypnosis.
  • Not necessary to swing watch in front of eyes or
    say you are feeling sleepy!
  • The goal gtto relax subject and
    increase attention
  • Essential feature of procedure is subject must
    realize they are being hypnotized
  • Not possible to be hypnotized against your will

5
Hypnotic SusceptibilityHilgards Hypnosis
  • According to Hilgard (1977),
    in average testing session
  • 10 of subjects will be completely nonresponsive
  • 10 will pass all or nearly all items
  • Rest will fall in between.
  • Susceptibility enhanced by increasing peoples
    expectations
  • (Spanos et al., 1991 Vickery Kirsch,
    1991).

6
Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale
7
Behavior under Hypnosis
  • Hypnotized people are suggestible
  • Behavior will conform with what hypnotist tells
    them
  • Typical behaviour that can be induced
    include
  • Acting out imaginary scenes.
  • Pretending to be an animal.
  • Believing a limb cannot move or is insensitive to
    pain.
  • Positive and negative hallucinations seeing
    things that are not really there, or not seeing
    objects that really are present.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8CUHSoFUHTc
8
  • Posthypnotic suggestibility subject given
    instructions under hypnosis and follows them
    after returning to non-hypnotized state
  • Posthypnotic amnesia subject is instructed to
    not remember suggested behavior after leaving
    hypnotic state.

Brain under hypnosis
9
Hypnosis and changes in perception
  • Does hypnosis change persons perception during
    positive and negative hallucinations?
  • Miller et al. (1973) tested hypothesis using
    Ponzo illusion

10
  • Via hypnotic suggestion participants told slanted
    lines disappeared
  • Subjectively they reported only seeing horizontal
    lines
  • They still reported upper
    line longer than lower
  • Shows visual system still
    processing sensory information
  • Effect of hypnosis solely on conscious awareness

11
Hypnosis and Involuntary Control
  • When under hypnosis people subjectively
    experience their actions to be involuntary
  • Can people be made to perform acts that are
    harmful to themselves or others?
  • Evans Orne (1965) told hypnotized subjects that
    cup of foaming liquid was acid
  • Subjects could be induced to dip their hands in
    liquid and throw it in someones face

12
  • However, control group when asked to simply
    pretend they were hypnotized
    behaved in same way
  • This behaviour can be explained in terms of
    destructive obedience i.e., psychological
    compliance with an authority figure
  • (Milgram, 1974)
  • No evidence that hypnosis has a unique power to
    coerce people against their will

13
Why does hypnosis work?
  • There are two main competing explanations for how
    hypnosis works
  • Dissociation (state hypothesis) Theory
  • Social Cognitive (non-state hypothesis) Theory

14
Dissociation Theory
  • An altered state of consciousness
  • Best known example is neo-dissociation theory
    proposed by Ernst Hilgard (1978)
  • Cognition involves multiple systems of control
    not all conscious at same time
  • These systems are controlled
    and motivated by central
    executive ego

15
Neo-dissociation Theory
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  • Hilgard argued that during hypnosis, hypnotist
    gains control of executive ego, and has access to
    various subsidiary control systems
  • Hypnosis creates division of awareness/ person
    simultaneously experiences two streams of
    consciousness cut off from one another
  • One stream responds to
    hypnotists suggestions,
    while second stream remains
    hidden observer of everything
    that occurs

17
Hidden Observer Phenomenon
  • Hilgard (1977) hypnotized subjects and suggested
    they would not feel pain
  • Placed arm in ice-cold water for 45 seconds and
    reported level of pain
  • Another group Hilgard said Perhaps there is
    another part of you that is more aware than your
    hypnotised part. If so, would that part of you
    report the amount of pain.

18
Hidden Observer Study (Hilgard, 1977)
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  • Hilgard argued dissociation between streams of
    consciousness accounts for why hypnotism appears
    to produce involuntary actions
  • Subject intentionally carries out actions, but
    only hidden observer is aware
  • Primary consciousness stream is cut off from this
    awareness and therefore action appears
    involuntary to subject

20
PAIN IMAGINED, PAIN PERCEIVED shows regions
activated during physically induced pain (left),
hypnotically induced pain (middle), and imagined
pain (right). In contrast to physically and
hypnotically induced pain, imagined condition
provided minimal activation in anterior
cingulated cortex, insula, and secondary
somatosensory cortex. Activation in primary
somatosensory cortex was observed only during
hypnotically induced pain. (S.W.G. Derbyshire et
al., Neuroimage, 2004.)
21
Social Cognitive theory
  • Social cognitive theories deny that hypnosis
    produces an altered state of consciousness.
  • Instead hypnotic experiences result from
    expectations of people motivated to take on role
    of being hypnotized.
  • Subjects develop a perceptual set readiness to
    respond to suggestions and to perceive hypnotic
    experiences as real and involuntary

22
  • Orne (1959) subjects told prior to being
    hypnotized that common feature of trance is
    stiffening of muscles in dominant hand
  • Information false
  • When subjects were hypnotized, 55 spontaneously
    displayed hand stiffening
  • No subjects in control group showed this behavior
  • Social Cognitive theory does not claim hypnotized
    people are pretending Expectations can
    influence behavior without conscious awareness
    (e.g., placebo effects)

23
Hypersuggestibility theorem
hypnotist's words are gradually accepted without
subjects censorship of what is being said.
  • Unhypnotized persons can also do this

24
Summary
  • Hypnosis produces increased receptiveness to
    suggestions
  • Hypnotized people subjectively experience their
    actions to be involuntary.
  • Dissociation Theory attributes to divided streams
    of consciousness.
  • Social Cognitive theory attributes this to
    subjects expectation as to what effect hypnosis
    will have on them

25
Hypnotherapy
  • cessation of smoking (often in single session)
  • weight loss (body sculpting)
  • suppression of pain
  • hypnodontia use of hypnosis in dentistry
  • enhance learning
  • reduce anxiety
  • Hypnodermatology - treating skin diseases with
    hypnosis.

Self-hypnosis can be an alternative method of
breast augmentation, preferable to surgical
methods and certainly a lot easier, safer and
less expensive. advertisement
Wow!
26
What Hypnosis Wont Do!
Breast Enlargement
Wont tell any secrets!
Make You Dance the Funky Chicken Unless you want
to
http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid151
1
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