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How to Use Problem Solving

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How to Use Problem Solving. Lorraine Wizda, M.A. Baltimore City Public Schools ... program Early Reading Intervention (ERI) by Kame'enui and Simmons (2002) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How to Use Problem Solving


1
How to Use Problem Solving
  • Lorraine Wizda, M.A.
  • Baltimore City Public Schools
  • Lynne O. Thies, Ph.D., NCSP
  • North Merrick Public Schools, Merrick, NY
  • St. John's University Adelphi University

2
Module Overview
  • Problem Solving Process
  • Considerations
  • Case Example
  • Summary
  • Review Questions

3
Problem Solving Process
  • Identify area of concern
  • Define problem in observable/measurable terms
  • Determine baseline
  • Determine what skills and/or environmental
    conditions are needed to resolve problem
  • Design intervention
  • Implement intervention and track progress through
    data collection
  • If data do not show progress, redesign
    intervention
  • If data shows progress, continue intervention

4
Identify Areas of Concern
  • There is a gap between what is expected and what
    is occurring
  • The gap is causing problems with learning and/or
    behavior
  • Problem solving can determine instructional
    and/or environmental modifications to help
    student meet goals

5
Define Concern in Measurable Terms
  • Determine if additional data is needed to do this
  • Decide how to collect additional data and who
    will collect
  • Use collected data to develop definition of
    problem in observable/measurable terms
  • Be specific break concerns into smallest
    components
  • Make definition measurable, easy to count, e.g.,
    of words read, digits correct in math problems
    or of times out of seat

6
Determine Baseline
  • Based on observable/measurable definition of
    problem, collect data on current performance
  • Use at least three data points
  • State in measurable terms, e.g., student
    currently identifies 12 of 26 letters correctly
    or student is currently out of seat 14 times
    during the 30 minute math period

7
Determine Skills Needed
  • What is the expectation/goal for the area of
    concern?
  • What skills are needed for the student to meet
    the expected goal?
  • Which of these skills have already been mastered?
  • Which skills need to be mastered or strengthened?

8
Determine Necessary Environmental Conditions
  • Are certain environmental conditions needed to
    attain the goal?
  • Which of the environmental conditions are already
    in place?
  • Based on this information, can identify
    skills/conditions which will be target of
    intervention

9
Design Intervention
  • How can instruction be modified to support goal
    attainment?
  • How can environmental conditions be manipulated
    to supported goal attainment?
  • Describe intervention in clear, easily
    understandable terms.

10
Set up Progress Monitoring
  • Determine how data will be collected to determine
    effectiveness of intervention
  • Determine who will collect data and when
  • Determine when and how often data will be
    reviewed (should be at least weekly)

11
Implement and Evaluate Intervention
  • Insure that intervention is implemented with
    integrity
  • Monitor data collection regularly
  • Make decisions based on data collected
  • If data shows progress, continue intervention
  • If data does not show progress, redesign
    intervention

12
Important Considerations
  • When working on a problem with behavior, always
    look at what the student is being asked to do
    when the behavior occurs. Academic failure fuels
    inappropriate behavior
  • Focus interventions on the areas where we have
    the most control, i.e., instruction and school
    environmental conditions
  • Make decisions based on data
  • Collaborate with teachers to design and implement
    interventions

13
Case Example
  • The following example compares a traditional, and
    then a problem solving approach to school-based
    assessment
  • Problem solving assessment offers instructional
    solutions that teachers can use to help a student
    find success.

14
Student Jody
  • Jody lives with both his parents and little
    sister in a northeastern town. When Jody was an
    infant and toddler he spent his day at home with
    his mom. At age 3 he enrolled in a private
    preschool which focused on allowing students to
    explore and learn from self-directed inquiry.
    Jody began Kindergarten in the same town where he
    attended preschool. The Kindergarten classes
    were half day sessions and his teacher reported
    that he made good progress but was very shy and
    quiet in group settings. During the summer
    between Kindergarten and first grade, Jodys
    family moved to Iowa. Jody enrolled in first
    grade alongside students who had primarily
    attended the local districts full-day
    kindergarten program. The district used the
    DIBELS as a measure of all students literacy
    development and Jody participated in Fall DIBELS
    benchmarks.

15
Jodys Grade 1 DIBELS Scores
16
Traditional Assessment
  • A traditional school psychology approach to
    assessment of Jody would likely focus on
    identifying whether his reading difficulties were
    related to a learning disability or, perhaps, a
    specific anxiety.
  • The assessments could include an IQ test, anxiety
    assessment (rating scales and interviews), and
    measures of memory or other cognitive processes

17
Jodys Evaluation Report
  • IQ score is average
  • Phonological awareness and memory are below
    average
  • Internalizing symptoms are elevated
  • Math is average but reading and writing are below
    average
  • A case could be made for the presence of LD

18
Another Approach
  • Instead of being evaluated, Jody was provided
    with specific instruction in the area of reading
  • This approach was based on the use of
    problem-solving procedures and development of a
    hypothesis that Jody needed more reading
    instruction
  • The assumption was made that Jody could learn to
    read if given the right instruction

19
Problem-Solving Steps
  • Problem identification Jodys teacher reports
    that Jodys has reading problems
  • Problem definition Jodys DIBELS scores are
    compared to national and local norms
  • Exploring solutions It is hypothesized that Jody
    needs additional specific reading instruction and
    this is provided daily
  • Monitoring progress Jodys progress is measured
    weekly
  • Problem solution Jody meets the winter DIBELS
    benchmarks!

20
Jodys Reading Instruction
  • Jodys DIBELS scores showed that when compared to
    other first graders, his scores reflected
    considerable risk of his not learning how to
    read.
  • Jody was placed in daily 30 minute reading
    lessons with 3 other students who had low DIBELS
    scores.
  • The intervention included use of the
    evidence-based reading instruction program Early
    Reading Intervention (ERI) by Kameenui and
    Simmons (2002).
  • Jodys progress in learning to read was monitored
    using the nonsense word fluency DIBELS measure.
  • Jodys progress data showed that he began to
    develop the word attack skills necessary for
    reading.

21
Jodys Graph
22
Next Steps for Jody
  • Jodys initial progress was quite strong
  • It may be he would make the same progress with
    fewer ERI sessions per week
  • It was decided to reduce his program to 2 days
    per week
  • Data were still collected on his progress

23
Jodys Ongoing Progress
24
Jodys Grade 1 DIBELS Scores
25
Reviewing Jodys Progress
  • Was the intervention successful? Yes!
  • The intervention used to help Jody learn to read
    worked and by the end of the year his DIBELS
    scores improved
  • Theres no evidence to suggest Jody has a
    learning disability
  • Jodys end of year NWF score suggests he may need
    ongoing classroom supports to keep him on track

26
What is the School Psychologists Role in Problem
Solving?
  • Issues to review
  • Current practice
  • Readiness for change
  • Need for paradigm shift

27
CURRENT PRACTICES
  • The role of the building team test and place?
    Backdoor for services? True IST or
    problem-solving approach?
  • Role of the school psychologist function tied
    primarily to special education? Viewed as
    integral member of the problem-solving team?

28
CURRENT PRACTICES
  • Administrative support status quo (get all of
    the special ed students out of general ed) vs.
    for progress (supports differentiated instruction
    and tiered intervention model)
  • School districts priorities - (top level scores
    on state NCLB exam students going to Ivy League
    colleges vs. meeting the needs of all students)

29
READINESS FOR CHANGE
  • School Psychologist as change agent
  • Whats needed
  • Knowledge of the problem-solving process
  • Knowledge of related skills (CBM, progress
    monitoring/graphing, research-validated
    interventions, etc.)
  • Time availability
  • Staff availability and receptivity
  • Administrative support

30
NEED FOR PARADIGM SHIFT
  • Medical model in place and test and place is
    a priority?
  • School psychologist must be willing to shift the
    focus of the job from assessment to prevention
    and intervention
  • As leaders in research and measurement, school
    psychologists are the ones who should be leading
    the charge

31
Summary
  • Problem solving starts with identifying if there
    is a problem
  • Baseline data show the students starting point
  • Interventions are used to improve students
    skills
  • Progress data indicate if an intervention is
    working

32
Review Questions
  • The following slides include review questions
    about the information contained in this module
  • Click to advance to the next slide
  • After reading the slide and questions, click
    again to see the correct answer

33
A) What is the first step in problem solving?
  • Make a referral to special education
  • Collect baseline data
  • Identify the area of concern
  • Implement intervention

34
A) Answer 3
  • Identify the area of concern

35
B) How many baseline data points are needed?
  • At least 3 data points
  • 10 or more data points
  • 5 data points
  • Only 1 data point

36
B) Answer 1
  • At least 3 data points

37
C) How should interventions be described?
  • Interventions do not need to be described
  • In complex detail
  • As briefly as possible
  • Interventions should be described in clear,
    easily understandable terms

38
C) Answer 4
  • Interventions should be described in clear,
    easily understandable terms

39
D) How often should progress be monitored?
  • Every 6 months
  • Weekly
  • Every other week
  • Monthly

40
D) Answer 2
  • Progress should be monitored weekly

41
E) When designing interventions it is important
to
  • Use only methods the teacher has already tried
  • Develop the intervention without teacher input
  • Collaborate with the teacher(s)
  • Create complex and thorough interventions

42
E) Answer 3
  • Collaborate with the teacher(s)

43
For More Information
  • To learn more about selecting interventions, view
    the module entitled Research-Based Academic
    Interventions.
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