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Designing the Future of Embedded Systems at DARPA IXO

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Title: Designing the Future of Embedded Systems at DARPA IXO


1
Designing the Future of Embedded Systems at DARPA
IXO
Dr. Douglas C. Schmidt dschmidt_at_darpa.mil
Program Manager Information Exploitation Office
Authorized for Public Release Distribution
Unlimited
2
DARPA IXO Embedded Systems Programs
Small Grain
Large Grain
ARMS
NEST
System Technology
Design Technology
3
Technology Transition ProcessInitial DARPA IXO
Program Structure
OEP-2
Technology domain spanned
OEP-1
Funding/ Directing/ Advising
DARPA/DoD
GROW A COMMERCIAL MARKET
4
Technology Transition ProcessAfter DARPA Exits
Expanded Technology Domain
Commercial Applications
DoD Programs
SELF-SUSTAINING COMMERCIAL MARKET
DARPA Leave-Behinds
National Experimental Platforms
Tool Vendors
Tool Vendors
Large vendorsSmall companies/ Startups Universiti
es
Tool Vendors
  • Reference Solutions
  • Open Tool Integration Framework
  • Open Code Bases Repository
  • Open Tool Repository

Technology Developers
COTS tools
5
ARMS Adaptive Reflective Middleware Systems
  • The objective of ARMS is to create the new
    generation of middleware technologies for
    distributed real-time embedded (DRE) combat
    systems to enable
  • Simultaneous control of multiple QoS properties
  • Composable customizable DoD common technology
    bases

Dr. Douglas C. Schmidt DARPA IXO
6
ARMS Technical Focus Real-time Control of
Distributed Resources
Create new generation of middleware to
simultaneously control multiple QoS properties
Distributed security
Distributed fault tolerance
  • Distributed
  • resource
  • management
  • Allocation/reservations, caching, scheduling,
    monitoring, load balancing

Control Vars.
Workload Replicas
Workload Replicas
Workload Replicas

Local middleware
Connections priority bands
Connections priority bands
Connections priority bands
CPU memory
CPU memory
CPU memory
Ship-wide QoS Doctrine Readiness Display
Network latency bandwidth
Network latency bandwidth
Network latency bandwidth
7
ARMS Technical AgendaAdaptive Reflective
Middleware
  • Research Challenges
  • Assuring dynamic flexibility and QoS
    simultaneously
  • Devise middleware to formally specify
    QoS-constrained global resource management plans
    model, reason about and refine them
    monitor/enforce these plans automatically at
    run-time
  • Problem
  • Existing DRE systems are rigidly designed with
    fixed QoS parameters that limit their utility for
    new missions
  • Solution Approach
  • Meta-programming techniques that
  • Decouple functional QoS paths to allow more
    degrees of freedom
  • Specify QoS doctrine declaratively
  • Support dynamic QoS adaptation optimizations
  • Secure multi-level distributed resource management

Applications
Applications
Interceptor
Interceptor
Sys Cond
Sys Cond
Sys Cond
Sys Cond
Mechanism Property Managers


Local Resource Managers
Local Resource Managers
QoS Doctrine
QoS Doctrine
Endsystem
Endsystem
8
Applications of ARMS Technology
Target Application Total Ship Computing
Environments
  • Key System Functionality
  • Sensor systems
  • Command control systems
  • Engagement systems
  • Weapons control systems
  • Weapons systems
  • Navy Benefits
  • Load-invariant tactical performance
  • Information access
  • Dynamic mission flexibility
  • Continuous availability
  • Rapid upgrades
  • Low ownership cost
  • Reduced manning
  • ARMS Middleware Technologies
  • Distributed real-time processing
  • QoS-enabled open systems
  • Portability
  • Scalability
  • Secure fault tolerance
  • Shared resource management
  • Self-adaptive
  • Program Impact
  • Important DoD systems will be more assurable,
    adaptable, affordable
  • e.g., network-centric warfare, total ship
    computing environments, theater ballistic missile
    defense
  • Researchers will have higher-level techniques
    tools to enhance future RD

9
MoBIESModel-Based Integration of Embedded Systems
The objective of MoBIES is to develop technology
to flexibly integrate the physics of the
underlying domain with the embedded software
design tools in order to custom-tailor the
software process to the application
Dr. John S. Bay DARPA IXO
10
MoBIES Technical Agenda
for
Embedded Systems

11
MoBIES Technical Focus Model-Based Integration
of Embedded Software
Complex Operational Embedded System
Complex but Inert Machine
Embedded Software
if (inactiveInterval ! -1) int
thisInterval (int)(System.curren
tTimeMillis() - lastAccessed) / 1000
if (thisInterval gt inactiveInterval)
invalidate()
ServerSessionManager ssm
ServerSessionManager.getManager()
ssm.removeSession(this)
private long lastAccessedTime
creationTime / Return the last
time the client sent a request associated with
this session, as the number of
milliseconds since midnight, January 1, 1970
GMT. Actions that your application takes, such
as getting or setting a value associated
with the session, do not affect the access time.
/ public long getLastAccessedTime()
return (this.lastAccessedTime)
this.lastAccessedTime time /
Update the accessed time information for this
session. This method should be called by
the context when a request comes in for a
particular session, even if the
application does not reference it. /
public void access()
this.lastAccessedTime this.thisAccessedTime
this.thisAccessedTime System.currentTimeMil
lis() this.isNewfalse
lastAccessedTime 0L lastAccessedTime
((Long) stream.readObject()).longValue()
maxInactiveInterval ((Integer)
stream.readObject()).intValue() isNew
((Boolean) stream.readObject()).booleanValue()


  • Requirements
  • Real-time control
  • Network connectivity
  • Fault tolerant/fail safe
  • Harsh environment
  • Size/weight/power/thermal constraints
  • Mathematical Models
  • Structural analysis
  • Dynamic equations
  • CAD modeling and simulation
  • Part interaction analysis
  • Sensor and actuator circuits
  • MoBIES Tools
  • Intelligent programming tools
  • Smart process schedulers
  • Communications configuration
  • On-line resource allocation
  • User interfaces
  • Automatic code generation

PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
DEVICE PHYSICS
  • MoBIES finds the underlying Application-Specific
    Mathematical Principles of the Embedded Software,
    enabling us to
  • Generate complex software automatically not
    through laborious manual coding
  • Guarantee that generated code is correct do not
    rely on after-the-fact testing
  • Provide application engineers programming
    interfaces using their own terminology
  • Tailor and specialize programming tools to the
    systems they are designing

Over 99 of all microprocessors manufactured
today are destined for embedded applications we
need software tools tailored to those special
needs.
12
Potential Applications of MoBIES Technology
JOINT DARPA/ SERVICE PROGRAMS
MAJOR WEAPONS PROGRAMS
COMMERCIAL USERS
SOFTWARE TOOL VENDORS
STANDARDS BODIES
13
NEST
Networked Embedded Software
Technology
The objective of NEST is to develop robust
coordination synthesis services to support
networked embedded systems of 100 to 1,000,000
nodes
Dr. Vijay Raghavan DARPA IXO

14
NEST Technical Focus Robust Coordination
Services
Distributed Control of Fine-grain Network of MEMS
devices
Missions for Coordinated Fleets of UAV-s
Coordination Services

  • Mathematical Models
  • Distributed Control Algorithms
  • Stability, dynamics
  • Network models
  • Device models
  • Requirements
  • Physical power, dynamics
  • Communication quality
  • Coordination Service Requirements
  • Mission modality
  • NEST Tools
  • Micro-protocols for coordination
  • Time-bounded synthesis methods
  • Service package synthesis tools
  • Reference solutions

COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS
CONTROLDISTRIBUTED ALGORITHMS
  • NEST provides the computational foundation for
    building large-scale distributed control
    applications by implementing services for
    coordination such that
  • Control algorithms may assume guarantees for
    time, consensus, and other requirements
  • The service packages are customized to the needs
    of applications

Networked embedded systems represent a new wave
in technology. NEST provides the groundwork for
making new applications feasible.
15
NEST Technical Agenda
Applications Acoustic damping, Motes
Distributed Network of Sensor Motes

Tasks Coordination, Synthesis, Composition
Berkeley OEP
Extreme Scaling
Determinism, real-time constraints
Resource Constraints, non-determinism, dynamism
16
Applications of NEST Technology
Distributed Network of sensor motes for
environmental monitoring,tracking, surveillance
(1,000 nodes) An experimental platform in the
NEST program
Distributed Active Control Vibration Damping on
Delta-4Rocket Payload Fairing (1,000 nodes)An
experimental platform in the NEST program
100 1,000,000 node fusion of physicaland
informationsystems
Actuators for Vortex Control (10,000 nodes)
Gossamer Space Reflector (1,000,000 nodes) High
resolution reconnaissance, GMTI
Noiseless sonar onsubmarines to
providecamouflage (3,000 nodes)
Smart reconfigurable engines (100 nodes)
17
PCES Program Composition for Embedded Systems
The objective of PCES is to create programming
language compiler technology that enables
developers to safely productively weave
cross-cutting aspects with real-time (RT)
embedded program functionality
Dr. Douglas C. Schmidt DARPA IXO
Dr. Douglas C. Schmidt DARPA IXO
18
PCES Technical Focus Real-time Plug Play
Avionics Systems
PCES provides language compiler technology to
safely productively program evolve
cross-cutting aspects to support real-time
middleware plug play avionics applications
  • Key Cross-cutting Systemic Aspects
  • Synchronization
  • Memory management persistence
  • Fault tolerance error handling
  • Real-time deadlines
  • Bandwidth CPU management
  • Key System Functionality
  • Weapons targeting systems (WTS)
  • Airframe navigation (Nav)
  • Sensor control (GPS, IFF, FLIR)
  • Heads-up display (HUD)
  • Auto-pilot (AP)

Data Links
Nav Sensors
Mission Computer
Vehicle Mgmt
Radar
Weapon Management
Weapons
First Generation Free form Spaghetti
Air Frame
Nav
WTS
AP
FLIR
GPS
IFF
Cyclic Exec
Small changes can break everything
19
PCES Technical AgendaSystemic Aspects for
Real-time Avionics
Program/Aspect Representations
PROGRAM ANALYZER
ASPECT ANALYZER
PCES Architecture
  • Issues
  • Binding time
  • Order of specialization
  • Scope of properties
  • Conservative analysis
  • Staging Controller
  • Compile time
  • Link time
  • Download time
  • Run time

WEAVER
20
Applications of PCES Technology
Unmanned Systems
Hot Rolling Mill
Tactical Aircraft
Shipboard Computing
MilitaryCommunications
21
Characteristics of Successful DARPA Embedded
System Technology Transitions
  • Program structure conveys enforces endstate
    vision(s)
  • e.g., OEPs help to guide RD efforts build
    end-user alliances to Services industry
    integrators/vendors
  • Explicit focus on constraints of transition
    environment(s)
  • Performance, footprint, languages, tools,
    commercial trends

THROUGHPUT
LATENCY
  • Provide decomposible easily customizable
    component interfaces implementations
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