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Chapter 11 The Civil War


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Title: Chapter 11 The Civil War

Chapter 11 The Civil War
Section Notes
The Civil War
Preparing for War Fighting Erupts The War behind
the Lines The War Continues The Final Phase
Secession, 18601861 The War in the West,
18611863 The War in the East, 18611863 Three
Days at Gettysburg The Battle for Vicksburg Final
Campaigns, 18641865
History Close-up
The New Weapons of War
Quick Facts
The Generals Causes and Effects of the Civil
War Visual Summary The Civil War
The Civil War African American Union
Soldiers Andersonville Women on the Home Front
Preparing for War
  • The Main Idea
  • The attack on Fort Sumter led both the North and
    the South to prepare for war in earnest.
  • Reading Focus
  • How did the fall of Fort Sumter lead to war?
  • Why did many northerners and southerners eagerly
    rush to war?
  • Why was the loyalty of the border states
    important, and how did Lincoln obtain it?
  • What were the Union and Confederate goals and
    strategies for the war?

The Fall of Fort Sumter
  • Crisis at Fort Sumter
  • Commander Robert Anderson sent the message to
    Lincoln that Confederate leaders were demanding
    surrender or would attack.
  • Low on supplies, Fort Sumter remained in Union
    hands. The fort was very symbolic to both sides.
  • Lincoln would not surrender the fort, but would
    send food and other nonmilitary supplies.
  • Jefferson Davis would decide whether to attack
    and go to war or allow the symbol of federal
    authority to remain.
  • The attack on the fort
  • Davis ordered a surprise attack before the
    supplies could arrive.
  • On April 12, 1891, the Confederate artillery
    opened fire on the fort, and an outgunned Fort
    Sumter surrendered the next day.

The Rush to War
  • Response in the North
  • Lincoln calls for 7500 volunteers
  • 90 days service to put down the rebellion
  • Lincolns political enemy Stephen Douglas
    supports the action, There can be no neutrals in
    this war, only patriotsor traitors
  • Northerners rush to enlist
  • Reaction in the South
  • With call for volunteers, the eight remaining
    Union slave states now forced to choose a side
  • Union slave states refused to provide troops to
    fight against fellow southerners
  • Confederate states ready to call up men
  • First Virginia, then Arkansas, Tennessee, and
    North Carolina secede

The Border States Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland,
Maryland criticalWashington, D.C., at risk
surrounded by Confederate territory. Martial law
declared and new elections held to ensure
pro-Union state legislature
Missouri importantstrategic access to the lower
Mississippi River. Divided loyalties but never
enough secessionist support to withdraw from the
Kentucky necessarythe Ohio River border left the
Union open to the threat of invasion. The
governor refused to take sides, but the state
sided with the Union after Confederate troops
invaded in September 1861.
These divided loyalties meant citizens fought on
both sides.
Goals and Strategies
  • Union Goals
  • Needed to be carefully defined
  • War could not center around the dispute over
    slaveryborder states pushed to secede
  • Fight for patriotic reasonsto save the Union
  • Confederate Goals
  • South wanted to be left alone with slavery
  • Prepared to defend themselves against invasion
  • Felt northerners would soon tire of war and

Goals and Strategies
  • Larger population more available soldiers
  • With more factories, could produce war supplies
  • General Winfield Scotts planslowly seal the
    South off from the rest of the worldAnaconda
  • Newspapers pushed On to Richmond, an attack on
    the Confederacy for a quick end to the war.

The Norths Strategy
  • Ardent support for the cause made up for lack of
  • Fighting for freedom and their homeland¾ of the
    population did not hold slaves
  • They were convinced of their military
    superiority many army officers were southerners.

The Souths Strategy
Goals and Strategies
Southerners were convinced that France and Great
Britain wanted a guaranteed supply of cotton and
counted on this cotton diplomacy as a
foreign-policy tool.
The Confederacy embargoed cotton to force the
issue of recognition as an independent nation
when the English and French hesitated.
Cotton diplomacy failed for many reasons - The
British resented the attempt at blackmail. -
Southern cotton was stockpiled from the year
before. - Higher prices encouraged other
countries to grow the crop.
Both sides continued to try to gain/block foreign
involvement throughout the conflict.
Fighting Erupts
  • The Main Idea
  • Widespread fighting occurred during the first two
    years of the Civil War.
  • Reading Focus
  • What factors made the major battles in the war so
  • How did the Union carry out its strategy in the
    Mississippi Valley?
  • What led to the Confederate successes in the war
    in the East?
  • Why did the Confederate forces invade the Union,
    and with what result?

The Major Battles Begin
  • Union army not ready to fight
  • With 90-day volunteer enlistment nearly over, the
    decision was made to send troops to Manassas
    Junction to attack.
  • First Battle of Bull Run
  • The chaotic battle ended hope for a short war.
  • Stonewall Jackson earned his nickname and
    Confederate infantry charge caused Union troops
    to stampede.
  • There were 2,000 Confederate and 2,900 Union
  • Results
  • Lincoln called for a million more volunteers to
    serve for three years.
  • Replaced McDowell with General George McClellan,
    who set about creating a real army out of the
    volunteer force

The Major Battles Begin
  • Top generals on each side trained at West Point.
  • Old instructional methods based on infantry and
    cavalry charges, but with new weaponry these
    tactics led to huge casualties
  • Increased range and accuracy with bullet-shaped
    ammunition and rifling
  • Shrapnel replaced cannonballs, and fragments
    mowed down troops.

Tactics and Technology
  • Observation balloons were used to direct
    artillery fire, and camouflage was used to
    disguise tents and guns from view.
  • The telegraph allowed for quick communication.
  • Railroads were used to move large numbers of

New Devices of War
The Fight for the Mississippi Valley
Ironclads were used by the Union to take the
Mississippi Valley.
Ulysses S. Grant captured Forts Henry and
Donelson, opening the western Confederacy and
leaving the Mississippi River vulnerable to
attack. Grant continued south to the railroad
center of Corinth, Mississippi.
The bloody Battle of Shiloh was a Confederate
loss, but there were over 23,000 total
casualties. Grant realized the Union would be
saved only by complete conquest.
New Orleans fell to Admiral Farragut, and he
continued up the Mississippi River to capture
Baton Rouge and Natchez. Only Vicksburg remained
in Confederate hands.
The War in the East
  • General McClellan
  • Hesitant commander with 100,00-man Union army
    designated to attack Richmond
  • Fought a series of battles on the peninsula but
    always delayed action
  • Lincoln held troops back to defend Washington
  • Confederates attacked in a series of clashes, and
    McClellan retreated after four victories in five
  • 2nd Battle of Bull Run
  • Overly cautious McClellan waited outside
  • Lincoln turned to John Pope with his 50,000
    troops in northern Virginia.
  • Robert E. Lee lured Pope into battle and defeated
  • Lincoln put McClellan back in command, telling
    his cabinet members, We must use the tools we
  • Smaller Confederate forces more effective and led
    by better commanders

The Union Is Invaded
Union morale was low after defeats in Virginia
and the Confederates determined to attack on
Union soil, hoping to gain an early peace.
  • Battle of Antietam
  • McClellan caught up with Lees troops at
    Sharpsburg, Md.
  • A savage single day of fighting left 23,000
  • Lincolns order to destroy the rebel army was
  • McClellan allowed the rebels to retreat into
  • He was relieved of command.
  • The Battle of Fredericksburg
  • Ambrose Burnside named new Union commander
  • Marched massive army toward Richmond
  • Attacking Confederates head-on left 13,000 Union
  • The battle was a disaster for the Union.

The War behind the Lines
  • The Main Idea
  • The Civil War created hardships, challenges, and
    opportunities for people in the North and the
  • Reading Focus
  • How did the Emancipation Proclamation affect the
    Civil War?
  • How did African Americans contribute to the war
  • What was life like in the military?
  • What similarities and differences existed on the
    home front in the North and South?

The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Attitudes about the war changed with increased
  • No longer about just saving the Union, the South
    needed to be punished for the bloodshed of the
  • Lincoln convinced to use constitutional power to
    end slavery, denying the South the labor needed
    to continue the war
  • Emancipation Proclamation issued on January 1,
  • It freed the slaves in all areas in rebellion
    against the U.S.
  • Abolitionists were upset slavery continued in the
  • Riots broke out with increased competition for
    jobs in the North.
  • Supporters felt it would shorten the war.
  • Overseas reaction
  • The British felt Lincoln should have freed all of
    the slaves.
  • With war now about ending slavery, Britain would
    side with the Union.

African Americans and the War
In the South, African American farm and
plantation labor released white males for the war
effort. Slaves performed many non-combat jobs in
the Confederate army.
Escaped slaves worked for the Union army in
various jobs. They formed Union army regiments in
Louisiana, South Carolina, and Kansas, serving in
segregated units. Initially used for labor and
guard duty, when allowed into battle they fought
heroically. The 54th Massachusetts Infantry was
the most famous unit.
180,000 African Americans served in Union armies,
taking part in 200 battles. More than 38,00 died
serving the Union.
Life in the Military
  • Disease was responsible for most deaths, and
    various epidemics swept through the camps.
  • Sanitary Commission worked to improve conditions.

Wartime medicine
  • Conditions were poor, tents were crowded, and the
    ground muddy or dusty depending on the weather.
  • Camp rations were good, but while on the march
    soldiers relied on hardtack and coffee.

Camp life
  • Prisoner exchanges ended in 1863, and both sides
    were guilty of inhumane treatment of prisoners.
  • Most notorious campsAndersonville and Elmira

Prison camps
Life on the Home Front
  • Southern Home Front
  • Shortages made life difficult.
  • There were few factories, and food production
    dropped because of war.
  • War was fought on credit, and inflation resulted.
  • High prices and shortages led to food riots.
  • Soldiers deserted to take care of their families.
  • Poor men were patriotic, but their families came
  • Confederate Draft
  • Needed to maintain the army
  • Confederate Congress enacted 1st military draft
    in American historyApril 1862
  • Unpopular conscription contradicted states
  • Governors of Georgia and North Carolina tried to
    block the draft.
  • Slaveholders were exempted from the draft.
  • Some areas were placed under martial law.

Copperheads and the Union Draft
No shortages, but the Union needed to draft more
Union draft law allowed the wealthy to hire
substitutes or pay a 300 feemaking the war a
poor mans fight. Antidraft riots fueled an
existing antiwar movement, called Peace Democrats
by supporters, Copperheads by critics.
Vocal critics who opposed the war, the draft, or
emancipation were arrested and jailed without
trials. This was possible because Lincoln
suspended habeas corpus across the entire
country, saying he was willing to violate the
constitution in order to save the nation.
Women in the Civil War
  • Southern Women
  • Spied for the Confederacy
  • Took over farms, stores, and plantations
  • Worked in the few factories and made ammunition
    for the troops
  • Formed societies to make bandages, shirts and
  • Acted as volunteer nurses before Confederate
    Congress passed law allowing them to be hired as
    army nurses
  • Northern Women
  • Stepped into jobs so men could go fight
  • Produced huge amounts of food with the aid of new
    farm equipment
  • Female teachers went south to educate former
    slaves after the war
  • Became the first women to hold federal clerical
  • Served in the Union army as nurses and
    volunteered to work in hospitals

The War Continues
  • The Main Idea
  • Important fighting occurred in all sections of
    the country as well as at sea.
  • Reading Focus
  • In what ways was the war at sea an important part
    of the Civil War?
  • What were each sides goals in the West and how
    were events there influenced by the rest of the
  • What three major battles took place in 1863, and
    why was each important?
  • Why was the fighting around Chattanooga,
    Tennessee, important to the outcome of the war?

The Civil War at Sea
  • Boats built for speed that brought cotton out and
    silk, soap, pepper, and other goods into the

Blockade Runners
  • Confederates hoped to destroy the Union blockade
    with a captured Union ironclad ship, the
    Merrimack, rebuilt and renamed the Virginia.
  • Union attacked with new vessel, the Monitor. The
    first battle between ironclads had no winner, but
    it changed naval warfare.

The Monitor and the Merrimac
  • Confederates used unconventional tactics to
    combat stronger Union navy.
  • Had 29 commerce raider ships roaming the oceans,
    successfully attacking Union merchant ships and
    disrupting the Norths foreign trade

Confederate Raiders
The War in the West
  • California and the territories
  • Kansas was admitted as a free state in 1861, and
    six more western territories were added. Lincoln
    appointed pro-Union officials to head the
  • The draft was not enforced in the West, but
    California supplied volunteers and territorial
    mines provided vast amounts of gold and silver.
  • The Battle of Glorieta Pass secured the west for
    the Union.
  • Native Americans and the war
  • War divided the Cherokee and the other nations
    over the issues of loyalty and slavery, and they
    fought on both sides.
  • Cherokee leader Stand Watie was the last
    Confederate general to surrender at wars end.

Three Major Battles
  • Battle of Chancellorsville
  • General Joseph Hooker was in command of Union
  • Lee sent Stonewall Jackson in a surprise attack,
    nearly destroying the Union army on the first
  • Battle was General Lees greatest victory,
    defeating a force twice its size. Lee determined
    to invade the North again, hoping a victory there
    would end the war.
  • Lee marched north, and Lincoln replaced Hooker
    with General George Meade.
  • Confederates on the lookout for a rumored shoe
    supply skirmished with Union cavalry.
  • Both sides rushed troops to Gettysburg,
  • The Battle of Gettysburg
  • Overconfident after his great victory, Lee pushed
    his troops into battle here against the advice of
    James Longstreet.
  • Half the men in Picketts Charge perished, and
    Lee finally gave up the fight and retreated back
    to Virginia.
  • The Siege of Vicksburg
  • General Grant began the Union siege of Vicksburg
    in May 1863.
  • With constant shelling of the city, citizens were
    forced to dig into hillsides to try to escape the
  • After forty-eight days, the city surrendered.
    Four days later the last Confederate fort on the
    Mississippi surrendered as well.

The Chattanooga Campaign
The string of Confederate losses ended with
Braxton Braggs victory at the Battle of
Chickamauga. But the retreating Union army
discovered the road to Chattanooga had been left
unprotected, and they fled to the city.
Bragg pursued, but the Union soldiers were ready
to defend the city. Confederate troops prepared
to starve them out.
Grant arrived and opened a supply line to feed
the trapped Union troops. The siege ended, and
the Union won the two battles that followed. This
gave the Union control of the railroad center at
Chattanooga and would allow Grant access to
Georgia, the heart of the Lower South.
The Final Phase
  • The Main Idea
  • Southerners continued to hope for victory in
    1864, but military and political events caused
    those hopes to fade.
  • Reading Focus
  • What tactics did Grant use against Lee to change
    the course of the war?
  • How did the election of 1864 affect Confederate
    hopes for victory in the Civil War?
  • How did the actions of Sherman and Grant help
    bring the war to an end?

Grant versus Lee
  • General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Lincoln gave him command of Union armies in March
    1864, and Grant made William Tecumseh Sherman
    commander on the western front of the war.
  • Grant wanted to take advantage of the Confederate
    shortages of men and supplies to end the war
    before the November election.
  • Ordered Sherman to get into the interior of the
    enemys country as far as you can and inflict all
    the damage you can against their war resources
  • General Robert E. Lee
  • South could not win the war, but a new president
    might accept southern independence in return for
  • Lee planned to make the cost of fighting so high
    for the North that Lincoln would lose the
    upcoming election.

Fierce Fighting
Grant kept his troops on the attack, winning the
Battle of the Wilderness and pushing south. The
Battle of Spotsylvania cost many casualties on
both sides, but Grant continued toward Richmond.
Wilderness and Spotsylvania
During the Battle of Cold Harbor men pinned their
names and addresses on uniforms for
identification. With this loss and after failing
to capture the rail center at Petersburg, Grant
began a siege of that city to put pressure on
Cold Harbor and Petersburg
Meanwhile, Sherman won the Battle of Atlanta and
laid siege to Atlantas defenses. He took the
city after closing down the last railroad line,
one month before the Union presidential elections.
Sherman on the move
Confederate Hopes Fade
Democrats nominated George McClellan and adopted
a party platform calling for an immediate end to
the war.
Southerners found new hope, but the Republicans
tried to broaden Lincolns appeal by picking
Tennessees Andrew Johnson for the ticket.
Lincoln expected to lose the election.
Shermans capture of Atlanta allowed Lincoln to
easily defeat McClellan. Congress passed the 13th
Amendment ending slavery, and the war seemed
nearly over to all but die-hard secessionists.
Lincoln announced his intention to be forgiving,
but the bloody war continued.
The War Comes to an End
  • Shermans March
  • After the election, Sherman marched across
    Georgia in what came to be known as the March to
    the Sea.
  • Sherman cut a swath of destruction 300 miles long
    and 5060 miles wide.
  • After taking Savannah, Sherman turned north
    through South Carolina, destroying civilian
    property all along the way.
  • The fall of Richmond
  • Lee only had 35,000 defenders at Petersburg, and
    they were low on supplies.
  • Grant decided not to wait for Shermans troops.
  • Instead, he broke through Lees defenses at
    Petersburg and went on to take Richmond.
  • Lee tried to escape with his few remaining
    troops, but Grant blocked their way.

Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lee and Grant
  • With Union forces surrounding them, Lee decided
    to surrender.
  • Grant presented the terms of the surrender to
    Lee. Extremely generous for such a bloody
    conflict, Lees troops merely had to turn over
    their weapons and leave.
  • Grant announced, The war is over. The rebels are
    our countrymen again.
  • The war is over
  • News of Lees surrender brought joyful
    celebrations in the north.
  • Lincoln requested Dixie be played at the White
  • The last of the Confederate forces surrendered on
    May 26, 1865.
  • Sadly, President Lincoln would not live to see
    the official end of the war.

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