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Civil War Quick Facts

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Pre Civil War. Hinton Helper The Impending Crisis of the South ... of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil War Quick Facts


1
Civil War Quick Facts
  • Civil War
  • 1861- 1865

2
Early Timeline of the War
  • 1861- southern states leave union what triggers
    the first secession?
  • April 1861 Fort Sumter fired on results?
  • July 1861 First Battle of Bull Run (First
    Manassas)
  • Battle of the Iron Clads (March 1862)

3
Pre Civil War
  • Hinton Helper The Impending Crisis of the
    South
  • Crittenden Compromise last chance for saving
    the union (map page 429)
  • Lincoln rejected Crittenden Compromise

4
Leadership
  • General Winfield Scott offered Robert E. Lee
    field command of the entire Union Army after
    Sumter
  • Lee chose to go with the Confederacy
  • The South had the advantage of military
    leadership seven of the eight military colleges
    were in the South
  • The North had a Navy and most of the trained
    seamen

5
North v. South
  • Pop- N-22 Million S- 9 million
  • Economics- 80 N 90 clothing production. 93
    Pig iron (DuPont-Del.)
  • Farming- agricultural leader in production, more
    farmland actually in North
  • South more cotton and mules
  • Railroads- S- 1 W line (50 cap of N)
  • South- in debt.. Printed paper money that rapidly
    lost value

6
Economics of North and South
  • February 1862 Legal Tender Act allowed the
    government to issue green-colored paper money
    known as Greenbacks
  • Souths financial situation began badly, and
    became worse
  • Because of the inability to tax trade, the South
    had to tax its own people
  • The South began to print paper money which caused
    rapid inflation

7
Trent Affair
  • 1861 Confederate foreign ministers James Mason
    of Virginia and John Slidell of Louisiana were
    arrested by the Union when the federal navy
    intercepted the British ship Trent
  • Britain demanded the release of the two men and
    sent troops into Canada
  • One War at a time was Lincolns response when
    he released Slidell and Mason

8
Terms to know…..
  • Conscription-
  • Habeas Corpus-
  • CSA- Jefferson Davis/ Alex Stephens
  • Attrition- Souths defensive plan for victory
  • Trent Affair- one war at a time
  • Anaconda Plan- Winfield Scott
  • Isolate/cut-off/capture waterways, surround…

9
First Modern War
  • Mine bullets
  • By 1862, use of trenches began
  • First repeating weapons
  • Iron clad ships
  • The Hunley
  • Rifled muskets

10
Confederates Win Early in the War
  • July 1861- Confederate victory at First Bull Run
    (Manassas)
  • Irwin McDowell v. P.G.T. Beauregard
  • Militia Act 1862 authorizes Lincoln to call the
    state militias
  • 1863 Congress authorizes a national draft

11
Fall of New Orleans
  • Farragut and his gunboats steam into the mouth of
    the Mississippi and take New Orleans (April
    1862)
  • New Orleans was center of the cotton trade,
    devastating loss for the South

12
Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!"
13
Southern Response
  • Blockade runners
  • Confederacy had ships built in Britain (most
    famous Alabama commanded by Raphael Semmes)

14
Shiloh and Antietam 1862
  • Shiloh, TN (April 1862) 20,000 casualties more
    than all previous wars combined
  • Antietam MD (September 1862) the bloodiest
    one-day battle of the war
  • McClellan could have ended the war had he pursued
    Lee
  • South lost any chance of British help

15
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16
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln tried to wait for a victory before
    issuing
  • Freed all slaves as contraband of war only in
    states that were in rebellion
  • Took effect January 1, 1863
  • Changed the nature of the war from one to
    preserve the Union, to that of freeing slaves
  • Was not universally acclaimed in the North

17
Life in the North and South
  • North- did experience inflation, but economy
    remained strong manufacturing increased
  • South- food shortages, supply shortages
  • Dr. Liz Blackwell (first female graduate of
    medical school in US) trained nurses in the
    North
  • Clara Barton battlefield nurse, latter helped
    arrange decent burial at Andersonville- POW

18
A Soldiers Life
  • Hardtack- biscuit of wheat had to be soaked to
    eat
  • Grant ordered his troops to live off the land by
    foraging searching and raiding for food

19
Vicksburg and Gettysburg
  • Siege of Vicksburg by Ulysses Grant
  • South surrenders on July 4, 1863-
  • Union has command of the Mississippi River
  • Gettysburg occurs at approximately the same time
    in Pennsylvania

20
Gettysburg
  • Gettysburg battle- (Penn).
  • The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1 July 3, 1863),
    fought in and around the town of Gettysburg,
    Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign,
    was the bloodiest1 battle of the American Civil
    War and is frequently cited as the war's turning
    point.
  • 2 Union Major General George G. Meade's Army of
    the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate
    General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern
    Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North.

21
Gettysburg
  • Largest battle ever to occur in the Western
    Hemisphere
  • Col. Joshua Chamberlin may have saved the Union
    by his unusual maneuver
  • Picketts Charge lost 7000 Confederate troops
    in 30 minutes

22
Gettysburg Address
23
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24
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25
Chickamauga
  • Davis approved Longstreets corps. being removed
    from Lee to assist CSA General Braxton Bragg
  • Battle that took place at Chickamauga, GA was
    reportedly second only to Gettysburg in
    casualties (approximately 35,000)
  • Confederate victory Union forces were driven
    back to Chattanooga whereupon the Confederate
    Army occupied Missionary Ridge (part of Lookout
    Mountain)
  • Grant was dispatched to assist with the Unions
    situation

26
Grant moves--
  • Grant secures Tenn. Assumes Command
  • Confederates driven from Missionary Ridge due to
    flanking maneuvers of Sherman (Grant goes north
    leaving Sherman in charge Sherman I can make
    Georgia howl.)
  • Sherman advances on Atlanta- Sherman advocates
    Total WAR…
  • Chattanooga-Lookout Mountain

27
Sherman Marches Through Georgia
  • Atlanta falls- Sherman advances to Savannah.
    Pillaged supplies in countryside, burns what
    cannot be used, slaves freed along the way. Many
    travel with the army numbers grew so large
    Sherman looked for ways to be rid of them
  • Mobile falls to Farragut.
  • Election of 1864-
  • McClelland (D) vs. Lincoln (R)-
  • Negotiations w/ south? Ceasefire??
  • Fall of Atlanta guarantees Lincolns election

28
End of war…
  • 13th Amendment added to the Constitution.-
    banning slavery. proposed January 1865.
  • Lee is surrounded and cut off from
    reinforcements
  • Appomattox Courthouse Surrender
  • LeeGrant.
  • Within a week Lincoln killed by JW BOOTH
  • Ended slavery not problems….

29
The War Winds Down
  • December 1864 Sherman wires Lincoln, gives
    Savannah as a Christmas present
  • Lee is finally cornered by Grant near Appomattox
    Courthouse
  • Supporters of extreme states rights were crushed
  • Victory for Union championed liberalism and
    democracy the world over 1867 England became
    true democracy

30
Surrender
  • Appomattox Courthouse

31
Aftermath of the War
  • Lincoln assassinated 4-14-65, 5 days after the
    surrender

32
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33
Death of John Wilkes Booth
  • Your name is Mudd

34
Andersonville prison
35
Aftermath
  • Henry Wirz- executed for war Crimes…
  • Clara Barton helps to arrange burial and
    identification of bodies
  • Andersonville, Georgia is now a historic site and
    National Cemetery

36
Andersonville
  • Located in Sumner County, just outside of
    Americus, GA

37
Andersonville
  • 12,913 Union prisoners died there, mostly of
    diseases .

Andersonville National Cemetery,

National Prisoner of War Museum.
38
Hanging of Henry Wirz, commandant of Anderson
Prison
39
Terms
  • Habeas Corpus
  • War of attrition
  • Anaconda Plan
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Trent Affair
  • Hardtack
  • Mine ball (bullet)
  • Secession
  • Insurrection
  • Forage
  • Thirteenth Amendment
  • Green backs
  • Cotton (importance as export)

40
Battles
  • Sumter
  • First Bull Run (Manassas)
  • Shiloh
  • Antietam
  • Vicksburg
  • Chancellorsville
  • Gettysburg
  • Vicksburg
  • Fall of Atlanta (significance)

41
Significant Places and Events
  • Andersonville
  • Thirteenth Amendment
  • Southern food shortages (breakdown in
    transportation system)
  • Trent Affair
  • Shermans March Through GA
  • Appomattox Courthouse

42
People
  • George McClellan
  • Ulysses Grant
  • William T. Sherman
  • Jefferson Davis
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • John Wilkes Boothe
  • Thomas Stonewall Jackson
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Clara Barton
  • David Farragut
  • Winfield Scott
  • Henry Wirz

43
Know
  • Why Robert E. Lee did not accept command of the
    Union Army from Scott
  • Why Lincoln suspended habeas corpus
  • Why the south suffered food shortages
  • The Confederate POW camp for Union soldiers
  • What George McClellan promised in the election of
    1864

44
Know
  • What the Trent affair almost did (but didnt)
  • What all the parts of the Anaconda Plan were
  • Why the Commander at Vicksburg surrendered (and
    why on that particular day)
  • Why Farraguts victory at New Orleans was
    important

45
Know
  • The battle that is considered to be the turning
    point of the war
  • Why the Union considered the capture of
    Chattanooga strategically important
  • What were Northern advantages in the war?
  • What were Southern advantages?
  • How far is the distance between Richmond Va and
    Washington DC

46
Know
  • Bleeding Kansas
  • Dred Scott influence
  • Copperheads
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