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Removal of selected heavy metals by sorption in batch and packed bed reactor

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... rate, batch Isotherm and column ... Isotherm Experiment Results ... Results of using different isotherm models in the single-metal experiment with bone char ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Removal of selected heavy metals by sorption in batch and packed bed reactor


1
United Arab Emirates UniversityCollege of
EngineeringREMOVAL OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS BY
SORPTION IN BATCH AND PACKED BED REACTORS
Submitted by Ali Al Darei
200101560 Mahmood Abdul Ghafar
200101604 Murshed Al Murer
200005066 Obaid Sultan
200101699 Waleed Al Hammadi
200000376 Advisor Dr. Munjed Maraqa
Examination Committee Prof. Abdulrazaq
Zekri Dr. Walid El-Shorbagy Dr. Mohamed Moustafa
2
Preview
  • Problem Definition and Project Objectives
  • Literature Review
  • Laboratory Experiments
  • Results and Discussions
  • Design Alternatives
  • Feasibility Study
  • Environmental Considerations
  • Conclusion

3
Literature review heavy metals impact for health
and environment, theory of reactor
Problem Definition Objectives
Laboratory experiments batch rate, batch
Isotherm and column study
Paints industry Cadmium batteries
coatings Power lines
Select sorbent ( activated carbon or bone char)
Packed Bed Reactor
Batch Reactor
Q 10 m3/day
C (Discharge Regulation)
Contaminated water contains heavy metals Co
5-10 mg/l of Cd,Cu, Co and Cr(VI)
4
Definitions
  • Bone Char
  • Granular black material produced by calcinating
    of animal bones at high temperatures in the
    absence of air to drive off volatile substances
  • Activated Carbon
  • Covers carbon material mostly derived from
    charcoal and also called activated charcoal or
    activated coal.
  • Produced by steam activation where the carbonized
    material is mixed with gases at high temperature
    to activate it.

5
Laboratory Experiments Objectives
6
Laboratory Experiments Objectives (cont.)
7
Batch Experiment Results
Rate of change of Cd Cu in solution
8
Isotherm Experiment Results
Sorption isotherm of Cd, Cu, Co, and Cr(VI) in
the single-metal isotherm experiment with bones
9
Isotherm Experiment Results (cont.)
Results of using different isotherm models in the
single-metal experiment with bone char
10
Column Experiment
  • Effluent samples were collected from the other
    end of the column at different time intervals

( 20 g)
11
Parameters of the column experiment
12
Column Experiment Results
  • The Cd start to appear in the solution after 9
    days ( Closely to expected)

V treated 6500 ml

Breakthrough curve of Cd through the bone char
column
13
Column Experiment Results ( Cont.)
  • The Cu start to appear in the solution after 7.
    3 days ( closely to expected)

C/Co 0.05
V treated 5250 ml
Breakthrough curve of Cu through the bone char
column
14
Column Experiment Results (Cont.)
  • The Co start to appear in the solution after
    1.54 days

C/Co 0.057
V treated 1100 ml
Breakthrough curve of Co through the bone char
column
15
Column Experiment Results (Cont.)
  • The Cr ( VI) has weak interaction with bones
  • so, the packed bed reactors with bones is not
    efficient
  • to remove Cr (VI)

Breakthrough curve of C r(VI) through the bone
char column
16
Different pH Experiment Results
  • The removal of heavy metals increase by the
    increase in the pH value using bones

17
Isotherm experiments with and without heavy
metals
  • The release of Ca from bones increase by adding
    heavy metals which emphasis the ion exchange
    process

18
Transfer Laboratory Data to the Field
  • Two approach
  • Scale-up approach.
  • kinetic approach.

19
Transfer Laboratory Data to the Field (cont.)
  • Scale-up approach.


20
Required Conditions to Translate Laboratory Data
to Field
  • There are two conditions-
  • The bulk density in the laboratory and the field
    should be the same
  • The hydraulic detention time in the laboratory
    and the field should also be the same
  • where, Q is the flow rate.

21
Field Design(Cd)

  • Scale-up approach.
  • The hydraulic detention time in the laboratory
    and the field should also be the same

22
Field Design (Cd)

By assume L1 m
C 0.05 mg/l from standard discharge
regulation Co 10 mg/l From results of column
experiment for Cd V treated
6500 ml
D0.56 m
V 0.25 m3
23
Field Design (Cd)
  • The bulk density in the laboratory and the field
    should be the same

24
Field Design (Cd)
  • The flow rate in the field is 10 m3/day
  • The column need to be replaced after

25
Batch Design (Alternative 1)
  • The bones must be changed every 2 days
  • This design needs 2 tanks only

26
Batch Design (Alternative 2)
  • Two tanks are added in series to avoid storage of
    bones in every cycle. Tank 3 and tank 4 work in
    the same manner as tank 1 and 2.
  • The bones are replaced every 22 days

27
Batch Design (Alternative 2)
28
Packed Bed Design (Alternative 1)
  • By using one column only
  • This design can treat 92 m3 volume of water
    contains Cd
  • The column must be replaced after 9 days

Vtreated
29
Packed Bed Design (Alternative 2)
Vtreated
V av 110 m3
V max 127 m3
30
Packed Bed Design (Alternative 2)
Q1 Q2 10 m3/day Q1 C1 Q2 C2 Q C Q1 (0)
Q2 (10) 10 (m3) 0.05(mg/l) Q2 0.05 m3/day
Q1 10 - Q2 9.95 m3/day
31
Feasibility Study
  • 4 Tanks
  • 11631317 2480 kg of bones in 22 days
  • The amount of bone char needed to treat 1 m3
    wastewater 2480 kg/110 m3 22.55 kg/m3

32
Feasibility Study
33
Feasibility Study
34
Environmental Considerations
  • Classification of this solid waste as hazardous
    or non hazardous should be based on testing its
    leaching characteristics (TCLP)

Yes
No
Is the waste Hazardous
Either, Or
Discarded as any domestic solid waste
Regeneration of bones using high concentration
of NaCl or CaCl2
Special land fill
35
Conclusion
  • The bone char has higher removal of heavy metals
    than activated carbon
  • The removal of the heavy metals by bone char
    takes the order Cdgt CugtCogtCr(VI) under both
    multiple and single metals setups. (No
    competition)
  • For the activated carbon, the removal of heavy
    metals takes the order Cr(VI)gt CugtCdgtCo in case
    of multiple metals
  • The removal takes the order Cugt CdgtCr(VI)gtCo in
    case of single metals which means there is
    competition between these metals.

36
Conclusion (Cont.)
  • The release of cations from bone char increases
    by adding heavy metals which emphasis the ion
    exchange interaction mechanism
  • The packed bed reactor is more economical than
    batch reactor
  • It is not recommended to use activated carbon to
    remove heavy metals because it was found to be
    moderately effective for removal of some heavy
    metals

37
Special Thanks to
  • Graduation project examination committee
  • CLU
  • Dr. Qurban Ali ( coordinator)
  • Deepest appreciation to our advisor Dr. Munjed
    Maraqa
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