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Asia

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More than 400 signs were used to represent symbols and words ... His Chinese name was Kongzi ... that only the same birth group can marry the same birth group. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Asia


1
Asia
2
The Rise of Complex Early Civilizations
(3500-1000 BCE)
  • By Yama K, Kathy A, Ivan T, Steve Y, and Erin M

3
Indus Valley
  • Technology
  • More than 400 signs were used to represent
    symbols and words
  • Tools/Weapons were made of gold, silver, copper,
    and tin
  • High brick thick walls
  • Streets laid out in rectangular grid
  • Covered drain pipes carried waste away
  • Mud bricks used for construction
  • Well-ventilated structures for food storage
  • Barracks
  • Irrigation
  • Pottery Wheel
  • Tools

4
Indus Valley Continuation
  • Social Gender Structure
  • Class System- elites, rulers, merchants, farmers,
    the poor
  • Male Female- Male brought food, power, and
    wealth to family (Head leader of family)
  • Female was caretaker of family
  • Political Structure
  • Success- agriculture, strong bonds with other
    civilization
  • Decline- invader and Hakra river system dried up
  • Interaction With Other Societies
  • Trade- merchants
  • War- invaders
  • Diffusion of Ideas- diversity of male and female,
    differences of economical and political views

5
Indus Valley Continued
  • Demography
  • Population- over 35,000 citizens lived in Harappa
  • Mohenjo-Daro was several times larger the
    Harappa
  • Growth/ Decline- Growth prospering city, much
    agriculture, cultivation irrigation, language/
    written work, structured military, growing farm
    loads
  • Decline drying up of the Hakra river, system
    failure (breakdown of political, social, and
    economical systems), ecological changes
    (earthquakes and floods), invaders
  • Manufacturing- food goods, domesticated animals,
    tools, weapons
  • Migrations- descendants of Dravidian language
  • Agriculture- irrigation, cultivation,
    domesticated animals, growing and prosperous
    farmlands
  • Weaponry- metal weapons made of gold, copper,
    tin, silver

6
Shang Dynasty
  • The Shang went through many wars to unite the
    little tribes in Chinas First dynasty in China
    with a written record
  • Leading class was the warriors
  • Bronze was in much demand
  • They had a similar afterlife religion as the
    Egyptians the Shang Dynasty had tombs and had
    numerous objects in their tombs.
  • Domination lasted more than six hundred years

7
Zhou Dynasty
  • Took over the Shang dynasty
  • Zhou dynasty kept many of the Shang cultures
  • Emperors rule it was called the mandate of
    heaven
  • During the Zhou rule in china new religious
    became popular in Zhou dynasty Legalism, Daoism,
    and Confucianism

8
The Classical Period (1000 BCE 600 CE)
9
Imperial China
  • In the late 3rd century B.C.E., a warring state
    named Qin defeated its rivals and created
    Chinas first empire
  • The Qin empire built many roads and barricades,
    abolished slavery primogeniture, and rebellion
    broke out because of the oppression, which
    toppled the Qin
  • After the short-lived Qin empire, the Han took
    over as Chinas governing power for the next four
    centuries
  • This marks the beginning of Imperial China-- an
    era of political/cultural unity

10
The Han Empire
  • Liu Bang established the Han empire in 206 B.C.E.
  • The Han Empire was divided into a series of areas
    governed by beaucratic officials, which was so
    successful that the empire expanded
  • The Han Empire was divided into two parts- the
    former, or western Han, with its capital at
    Changan, and then the later or Eastern half,
    with its capitol at Luoyang.
  • Xiongnu was the Han Empires biggest threat, and
    exerted a lot of pressure.
  • Many things were traded between the Han Empire
    and other parts of Asia, such as horses, silk,
    gold objects, and mirrors.
  • A great canal was built between the Yangzi and
    Yellow Rivers
  • The Han maintained security of the perimeter,
    which was the primary concern for them
  • This proved faulty, and they eventually declined
    because of nomadic pressure

11
The Han Empire Continued
  • The imperial state had trouble overcoming
    obstacles in long-distance communications and
    creating a uniform/easy lifestyle.
  • Human labor gave rise to government/economy.
  • Both the Roman and Chinese governments took
    advantage of their large peasant population by
    forcing them in the military/community service.

12
Confucius
  • Confucius was one of the greatest moral teachers
    and philosphers of China (551-479 BC
  • His Chinese name was Kongzi
  • He grew up in poverty, and did not make much of
    an impact in his life.
  • He introduced Dont do to others what you would
    not wish them to do to you,
  • and Thou shalt love they neighbor as thyself.
  • He enforced that the Chinese family included all
    members living and dead.
  • The father was the leader of the Chinese family
  • Confucianism regarded hierarchy as a natural
    aspect of human society, and assigned specific
    tasks to each person, and layed down rules of
    appropriate conduct.
  • Confucinism preached that people could be guided
    to the right path through education, imitation of
    proper role models, and self-improvement.
  • Loyalty, obedience to authority, honor,
    appropriate conduct, and respect for elders and
    ancestors were all important characteristics of
    Confucianism.

13
Vedic Age
  • From the year 1500 to 500 B.C.E India is referred
    to the Vedic Age
  • Social class system was called the Varna meaning
    color
  • There was a rule called Jati implying that only
    the same birth group can marry the same birth
    group.

14
Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism
  • After 700 B.C.E many went against the Brahmin
    power and privilege.
  • Buddhism and Jainism
  • After Buddhas death the religion split into two,
    to Mahayana and Theravada
  • Hinduism was a transfer from the Vedic religion.
  • Over 330 million of gods, sects and local
    practices in Hinduism,
  • Another ritual was to go to Ganges River and bath
    in it (they thought the Ganges river was sacred).
  • The successful transformation from the Vedic
    religion has kicked Buddhism out of India,
  • Buddhism is still popular in Central, East, and
    Southeast Asia.

15
Imperial Expansion Collapse of India
  • Political unity in India, on the rare occasions
    when it had been successful, had not lasted long
  • The extreme variation of the landscape, and of
    social hierarchy in each society. Led to the vast
    diversity between culture
  • Two empires arose in Ganges Plains, the Mauryan
    and the Gupta Empires
  • Chandra Gupta Maurya gained control at the
    Magadha Empire and changed it into the long
    lasting Mauryan Empire- Indians first
    centralized power
  • After Alexanders collapse of Greek rule in
    Punjab, the Mauryans were able to extend their
    empire
  • A document named Arthashusta provides us with
    incites of Mauryan philosophy, My enemys enemy
    is my friend
  • Taxes supported the government and military also
    provided use of ship building coinage began
    circulate
  • Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, took over as
    king and set out many violent conquests.

16
Southeast Asia
  • Chinese and Indian cultures greatly influenced
    societies in this region.
  • Rose to prosperity as a result of its strategic
    location in trade and the abundance of natural
    resources.
  • Malay people were the dominant population.
  • Inhabitants clustered along riverbanks/volcanic
    plains to be near to the resources.
  • First civilization was named Funnan which was
    located in the Mekong River delta. It soon took
    over trade by capturing the Isthmus of Kru. They
    might have fell as a result of changes in trade
    routes.
  • In the 6th century, a new sea route linking India
    and South China through the Strait of Malacca was
    discovered. This led to the rise of the
    Srivijayan civilization.
  • They had good natural harbors along navigable
    rivers.
  • The Srivijayans were known as a theater-state
    similar to that of the Gupta.

17
Southeast Asia Continued
  • The Srivijayan capital assumed power over several
    other sea ports by fusing together the 4
    different ecological zones into an interdependent
    network.
  • Core area (agricultural plain)
  • Upland regions of interior Sumatra (commercial
    forest products)
  • Srivijayans rival river ports.
  • Fertile rice bowl located on Java.
  • Kings were thought to have magical powers.
  • Indian influence on society.
  • Fell because of invasion from the Chola kingdom
    in 1025 CE.
  • Java was the successor of the Srivijayans.

18
The Post-Classical Era (600-1450 CE)
19
Silk Road
  • Was a trade route linking the Mediterranean with
    China
  • It was started because of the Chinese eagerness
    for Western Horses
  • The Chinese exported silk, pottery, and paper,
    among other things
  • Stirrups were also brought along the Silk road,
    as were Central Asian military techniques

20
Indian Ocean Maritime System
  • Was a trade network across the Indian Ocean and
    the South China Sea
  • There were three coast of regions of trade
  • - South China Sea to China and Malaysia
  • - East coast of India to the islands of
    Southeast Asia
  • - West Coast of India to Persian Golf,
    and the east of Africa
  • Some of the more common goods exchanged were
    copper, tin, wine olive oil, and pottery.

21
Sui Empire
  • Built 1,100 miles of thee Grand Canal, linked
    the Yellow River (North) to the Yangzi River
    (South)
  • Improved the Great Wall
  • Irrigation systems constructed
  • Massive military campaigns against Korea/ Vietnam
  • Military expansion/ public works could not
    sustain Sui
  • Overextension weakened Sui
  • 618 C.E., Li Family ended Sui, began Tang Empire

22
Tang Empire
  • Maintained the eastern borders of the Sui and
    expanded westward.
  • Avoided over centralization by allowing local
    nobles, gentry, and officials to exercise power.
  • Tang armies were the most formidable in world
    (650 C.E.-750 C.E.) because of horsemanship,
    crossbow, armor, and iron stirrups.
  • Believed protecting spirits would aid ruler in
    governing and prevent harm from coming to the
    people.
  • Princes competing for political power enlisted
    monastic leader to pray for them, preach openly
    about them, counsel aristocrats to support them,
    and contribute part of monasteries wealth to
    prince war chest.
  • Monasteries in return got tax exemptions, land
    privileges and gifts.
  • Buddhism expanded along with the expansion of
    Tang borders.
  • Due to the Tangs diversity, they became known as
    a cosmopolitan empire.
  • The tributary system acknowledged the supremacy
    of emperor in China by sending regular embassies
    to capital to pay tribute.
  • Changan kept running because of market
    networks. This brought people and commerce to
    Changan. It also led to spreading of the
    plague.
  • After 2 years of Buddhist influence, the Tang
    began to distrust monasteries. In 840 C.E.,
    government moved to destroy the economic power
    and influence of Buddhist monasteries.
  • Expansion in 7th century left the empire
    large/powerful but dependant on local
    militaries/complex tax collection. This led to
    the decline of the Tang Empire.

23
Tang Empire Continued
  • Buddhism expanded along with the expansion of
    Tang borders.
  • Due to the Tangs diversity, they became known as
    a cosmopolitan empire.
  • The tributary system acknowledged the supremacy
    of emperor in China by sending regular embassies
    to capital to pay tribute.
  • Changan kept running because of market
    networks. This brought people and commerce to
    Changan. It also led to spreading of the
    plague.
  • After 2 years of Buddhist influence, the Tang
    began to distrust monasteries. In 840 C.E.,
    government moved to destroy the economic power
    and influence of Buddhist monasteries.
  • Expansion in 7th century left the empire
    large/powerful but dependant on local
    militaries/complex tax collection. This led to
    the decline of the Tang Empire.

24
Tibet and the Uigurs
  • During most of the period of disunion between the
    Han and Tang Empires, Central Asia was controlled
    various Turkic groups.
  • In mid 600s, Turkic power split in two allowing
    the Tang to control Central Asia until the Uigurs
    took control again.
  • During the time of Li Shimin, rulers of Tang and
    Tibet were friendly and declared an alliance when
    Tang princess Kongjo, married a Tibetan king. She
    brought along Mahayana Buddhism.
  • Tibet encouraged Buddhism until the 800s when a
    new king in Tibet decided to eradicate the
    political and social influence of monasteries.
  • Monks assassinated the king which lead to
    monastic domination of Tibet.

25
Liao Empire
  • The earliest of the states to emerge after the
    collapse of the Tang Empire was the Liao Empire.
  • Lasted from 916 to 1121 CE
  • Was an insuperable military competitor for the
    Song Empire which agreed to a truce that included
    payments of cash and silk each year to the Liao
    in order to avoid war in 1005 CE.
  • The Song eventually had a secret alliance with
    the Jurchens of northeastern Asia, also under
    Liao rule.
  • In 1125 CE, the Jurchens destroyed the Liao
    capital in Mongolia and created the Jin Empire.

26
Jin and Southern Song Empires
  • Jurchens were hunters, fishers, and
    semi-agricultural.
  • Liao Empire influenced Jurchens in military arts
    and political organization.
  • After destroying the Liao capital and creating
    the Jin Empire, they turned against the Song and
    became formidable enemies.
  • In 1127 CE, they brought the Song capital under
    their control, captured the Song emperor, and
    forced the Song to withdraw south of the Yellow
    River. This period is known as the Southern
    Song.
  • Song forced to make annual payments to the Jin
    Empire to avoid warfare and were confined to
    southern China.
  • Southern Song Period 1127-1279 CE.

27
Song Empire
  • Song Empire founded in 960 CE
  • Famous for advancements in mathematics,
    astronomy, medicine, and technology that were
    based on information from other civilizations.
  • Technology includes the celestial clock, lunar
    calendar, and production of compasses.
  • Large volume of Song mining and iron production.
  • Examinations were used to determine officials, if
    one failed exam, it could bankrupt a family and
    ruin a man, but if one succeeded it brought good
    marriage, a high salary, and enormous prestige.

28
Song Empire Continued
  • Prosperity and vibrant trade of Song era
    stimulated population growth.
  • Idea of credit was widely applied during the
    Song period.
  • Song economy grew so rapidly that the government
    could not maintain the huge monopolies and strict
    regulations.
  • Confucianism made women play a lowly role and in
    only a few cases could women hold a high stature
    of education.
  • Footbinding was a womans sign of high social
    status.

29
Korea
  • The Mongols attacked Korea or the Koryo Dynasty
    in year 1231
  • Great military commander managed to wage
    defensive war for 20 long years
  • Kings of Koryo actually lived in Beijing during
    the Mongol rule
  • celestial clocks that are built for the royal
    observatory in Seoul
  • Koryo collapsed as the Yi kingdom gave rise in
    year 1392.
  • Invented instruments to measure wind speed and
    rainfall, the first of their kind.
  • Guttenberg was not the first to create the
    woodblock printings in the year 1000, and that it
    was actually the Koreans and the Chinese in the
    700s.
  • Social class divisions rich officials who work
    for the King, Land owners and the rich, then the
    peasants and then the slaves.
  • The women were much more free then some of the
    before civilizations

30
Japan
  • Japan defended against the Mongol attacks
  • With a huge disaster the Mongols left never to
    attack the Japanese ever again.
  • The attacks of the Mongols led to a unified
    country between many tribes, and soon maintained
    a strong military.
  • Started the development of a united
    infrastructure for trade and communication
  • As the Shoguns powers weakened rich imperial
    families to these opportunities and destroyed the
    Kamakura system and the Ashinkaga was
    established. During this rule water wheels
    improved plows and Champa rice increased in the
    Japanese lands.

31
Vietnam
  • There were two states called Annam and Champa
    these two states were heavily influenced by the
    Indian trade, Song Empire, and the Yuan Empire.
  • When the Yuan Empire started to deteriorate, the
    Annam states attack Champa to unite Vietnam.
  • This united country was still called Annam.

32
Overarching Themes
  • All empires of Asia during the post-classical
    period were affected by Buddhism.
  • Almost all Chinese empires had a low position for
    women.
  • In all Asian empires, religion played a social
    and political influence.
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