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Literacy Development in the Early Years


Birth to One ... Chinese, Hebrew, and Arabic are written from right to left, or vertically. ... Signs. Labels. Birthday cards ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Literacy Development in the Early Years

Literacy Development in the Early Years
  • Morrow
  • Chapter 4

Theory and Research on How Children Acquire
  • Behaviorist Theory
  • Nativist Theory
  • Piagetian and Vygotskian Theories
  • Constructivist Theory

Behaviorist Theory
  • Skinner defined language as the observed and
    produced speech that occurs in the interaction of
    speaker and listener.
  • Children learn through imitation.
  • Acquisition of language is enhanced and
    encouraged by positive reinforcement.
  • Language is mediated by adults through

Nativist Theory
  • Language is innate.
  • Children internalize the rules of grammar without
    practice reinforcement and modeling.
  • Children learn new patterns of language and
    unconsciously generate new rules.
  • Language acquisition is motivated inside
    children learning is a natural ability.

Piagetian and Vygotskian Theories
  • Piagets theory of cognitive development is built
    on the principle that children develop through
    their activities.
  • Children's words are egocentric, or centered in
    their own actions.
  • Early language development relates to actions,
    objects and events they have experienced through
    touching, hearing, seeing, tasting, and smelling.

Vygotskys Theory of Basic Learning
  • Children learn higher mental functions by
    internalizing social relationships.
  • The zone of proximal development is a range of
    social interactions between an adult and child,
    that ends when the child can function
  • Implications for language instruction are clear
    adults need to interact with children by
    encouraging motivation and supporting them.
  • Through expansion and reinforcement of words by
    the adult, the child acquires new language.
  • Positive interactions encourage practice which
    helps continue language development.

Halladays Theory
  • Language development is based on function.
  • Instrumental personal need.
  • Regulatory control others behavior.
  • Interact ional to get along with others.
  • Personal refers to self.
  • Heuristic what, when, why, how
  • Imaginative make believe.
  • Informative communicate information.

Language Development From Birth to Age 8.
  • Neural shearing is the loss of brain cells.
    Neural shearing occurs as early as six months of
    age. When baby can no longer recognize sounds of
    language it has not heard.
  • Synaptogenesis is the rapid development of neural

The Brain
  • Motor cortex movement
  • Cerebellum motor skills
  • Temporal lobe auditory processes, learning,
    memory, and emotion.
  • Wernickes area language understanding
  • Brocas area speech production
  • Frontal lobe planning, reasoning, emotional
  • Somatosensory cortex body sensations, touch,
    and temperature.
  • Parietal lobe perceptions and processing.
  • Occipital lobe visual processing.

Stages in Language Development
  • Children acquire language by moving through
    predictable stages. In doing so they discover the
    rules that govern the structure of language.
  • Phonology sound
  • Syntax grammar
  • Semantics meaning
  • There are 44 separate sounds or phonemes in
  • They learn appropriate articulation,
    pronunciation, and intonation.
  • Intonation involves pitch, stress, and juncture
  • Pitch- how low or high a voice is when producing
    a sound.
  • Stress- how loud or soft
  • Juncture- pauses or connections between words

Birth to One
  • In the first few months of infancy, oral language
    consists of a childs experimenting with sound.
  • Eight to ten months, babbling becomes more
  • Eight to twelve months, children increase their
    comprehension of language dramatically their
    understanding of language far exceeds their
    ability to produce it.

One to Two
  • Childs oral language grows a great deal.
  • Utters many sounds with adult intonation.
  • Uses content words, such as nouns and verbs, but
    omits functions words.
  • Language grows tremendously once the child begins
    combining words.
  • 18 months most children can pronounce 4/5 of the
    English phonemes and use 9-20 words.

Two to Three
  • Between two and three is the most dramatic in
    terms of language development.
  • Oral vocabulary grows from 300 words to 1000.
  • Telegraphic sentences of two to three words
    continue to be most frequent, but syntactic
    complexity continues to develop.

Three to Four
  • Syntactic structures added to the childs
    repertoire including plurals and regular verbs.
  • As they approach age four children seem to have
    acquired all the elements of adult language.
  • Generate language and apply basic rules that
    govern it.

Five to Six
  • Sound very much like adults
  • Vocabularies of approximately 2500 words.
  • Tendency to be creative, inventing their own
    words if they do not have one for a particular

Seven to Eight
  • Developed grammar that is almost equivalent to

Helping English Language Learners in the Classroom
  • The number of English language learners with
    different languages and different language
    proficiency is increasing rapidly.
  • A dialect is an alternative form of one
    particular language used in a different cultural,
    regional, or social group. Such differences can
    be so significant that an individual from a
    region with one English dialect may not be able
    to understand someone from another region because
    of pronunciation of letter sounds is so
  • Teachers must be aware of different dialects and
    help youngsters with the comprehension of
    standard dialects.

Strategies for Helping English Language Learners.
  • Include print in the classroom that is from
    childrens first language.
  • Suggest that ELL students create books in their
    first language and share their stories.
  • Be sure that children from different language
    backgrounds have the opportunity to read and
    write with others who speak their language, such
    as parents, aides, and other children in the

Language Experience Approach
  • It is also important to support the learning of
  • Allow children to talk.
  • Have routine story times.
  • Provide thematic instruction that elicits talk,
    reading, and writing, and heightens interests in
    exciting topics.
  • Write charts based on talk about childrens home
    life and experiences in school.
  • Encourage children to copy experience charts,
    have them dictate their ideas for you to write,
    and encourage them to write themselves.

Developing Language in the Childs First Year
  • Surround infants with sound.
  • Surround infants with sensory objects.

Language Development at Ages One and Two
  • Scaffolding- adult provides a verbal response for
    baby who is not yet capable of making response
    itself, this provides a language model.
  • New experiences help develop language.
  • Overgeneralizations
  • Materials

Strategies for Language Development in Early
Childhood Classrooms.
  • Children need constant opportunities to use
    language in social situations with adults and
    other children.
  • Teachers organize centers for learning, one for
    each content area that includes materials for
    encouraging language use.
  • Examples on pg. 91-93.

Expanding Vocabulary Word Meaning in 2nd and 3rd
  • Semantic Maps diagrams that help children see
    how words are related to one another (example on
    page 98)
  • Context clues Using clues from surrounding text
    is an important way of figuring out word
    meanings. Leaving blanks in sentences for
    children to determine the appropriate word,
    helping them to understand the meaning of that
  • Vocabulary books
  • Word parts
  • The dictionary

Informal Talk Without the Teacher
  • Aesthetic talk revolves around childrens
  • Efferent talk used to inform and persuade.
  • Dramatic activities another avenue for
    different types of talk.

  • Checklists practical and provide concise
    outlines for teachers and appropriate slots for
    individual children. (p. 102)
  • Anecdotal records
  • Tape recordings

KidwatchingCh 3
  • Print Awareness

(No Transcript)
Print Awareness Some Developmental Moments
  • Children who are aware of print will pay
    attention to
  • Environmental print
  • Shared writing
  • Story books
  • Alphabet books
  • Children recognize shapes and forms of letters

  • When children point to print and ask
  • What does that say? or when they write a few
    letter like shapes and call out
  • This says Mama!
  • They are demonstrating the understanding that
    print involves an act of meaning.
  • Reading begins at this point of awareness

Understanding What Symbols Mean
  • Reading is not alphabetic to young children
  • They do not know that symbols relate to sounds
  • Example twenty- two-month-old Jacob points to
    any print, he reads it either as Jacob or stop.
  • He knows that print means, but he hasnt yet
    developed the understanding that letters in
    English relate to sounds to make up words.

  • Three and four year old readers use colors,
    pictures, shapes, and textures to predict what he
    print might say.
  • Example they see the print on a Crest tube and
    they say toothpaste, or the print on the cover of
    a book says lion
  • Overtime they discover that print can do more
    than label

Understanding How Symbols Mean
  • Size and Length
  • Children think long strings of letters (PANOBOB)
    represent big things.
  • Barn or granddaddy.
  • Short strings of letters (BMD) represent small
  • Salamander or Rebecca
  • They are using real life objects to compare
    Barns are bigger than salamanders and
    granddaddies are bigger than little girls.

  • Unique Designs
  • Children often relate letters to people, places,
    or things.
  • Example two-year-old Zada reads the word Zoo as
    her own name.
  • She does not understand that Z makes the first
    sound in her name she sees Zada as a unique
    signature that represents, or belongs to her.
  • With time Zada will learn that the letter Z can
    be used to spell her name, as well as zoo, and
    the name of her classmate, Zia.

The Concept of Word
  • Children will gain more information about written
    language, as they do this they will develop a
    hypothesis about what makes a word a word.
  • They notice that words are certain lengths and
    have internal variation.
  • They will realize that words can only be words if
    they look a certain way.
  • Very young children will begin to realize that
    written symbols have conditions that make them
  • Children do not grasp that words must look
    different if they are to say different things.
  • Example Carlos wrote a sign and read it aloud
    (No Girls Allowed in My Bedroom. When asked if
    this applies to his mother, Carlos revised the
    meaning without changing the writing It says,
    No Girls Allowed Except My Mom.
  • Overtime children will realize that words are
    going to say different things, they must look
    different. Children who dont know many letters
    they may use an few letters but change the order
    of the letters to represent different words.
  • Example Aster wrote P R i W Pencil, R P
    iPaper, P E I OEnvelope
  • Aster understands that graphic differences
    support different intentions. She uses the 10-12
    different letters she knows to write anything she

  • As adults we read left to right, top to bottom
  • Young children may read bottom to top, right to
    left, or diagonal.
  • Spanish and English print is read left, to right.
  • Chinese, Hebrew, and Arabic are written from
    right to left, or vertically.
  • Teachers need to take into consideration
    childrens varied literacy experiences,
    especially when they ask children to look at the
    first letter or write the first sound you hear.

Understanding How Letters Relate to Sounds
  • Children will start to recognize that there is a
    relationship between letters and sounds.
  • Example C-R-E-S-T could not spell toothpaste
    because it starts with a C.
  • Children will start to focus more strategically
    on the print rather than the context.
  • Over time, children become increasingly sensitive
    to letter-sound relationships and to words.

Guidelines for Evaluation
  • Taking stock of students print awareness formally
    and informally will help you understand each
    student and where their coming from.
  • Knowledge about the print in the local
  • Hypothesis about what and how symbols mean
  • Understanding of written language functions
  • Understanding of written language features,
    including graphic characteristics, letter-sound
    relationships, and phonics.
  • Views of self as a reader/author/literate

Informal Print Awareness Evaluation
  • In preschool and kindergarten classrooms,
    informal evaluation of print awareness takes
    place on a daily basis.
  • Questions to think about while recording your
  • What does the child know about print?
  • What evidence is there that print awareness is
    developing ?
  • When a child produces something unexpected or
    unconventional what does it tell about the
    childs knowledge?
  • This will help teachers plan instruction and
    activities that are within your students zones
    of proximal development or that connect with what
    children already know and challenge them into new
  • Examples of ways to set up informal situations
    that enrich the curriculum and at the same time
    promote children's development
  • Print from Home
  • Environmental Print Walks
  • Photo Shoots
  • Print Scrapbooks
  • Print Displays
  • Word Study Centers
  • Play

Formal Print Awareness Evaluation
  • To more formally evaluate childrens print
    awareness, carefully collect a set of print items
    that reflects elements of the popular culture of
    your local area.
  • Collect items that children are familiar with and
    relates to their culture environment.
  • These items are not used to compare children or
    to count how many pieces of print they recognize.
  • The pieces are used to help you learn how your
    students respond to various kinds of print.

Techniques for Questioning and Interaction
  • Print awareness procedures may be implemented
    with varying degrees of formality and may be used
    in one-on-one situations or adapted for small
    groups or whole-group settings.
  • Look on page 34

I already know how to read Ch 4
  • By Prisca Martens

How do we read and write?
  • Sarah started reading
  • Books
  • Signs
  • Labels
  • Birthday cards
  • She and learned the rules of reading and writing
    left to right, the letters of the alphabet, and

  • Sarah is 3 yrs old, and her reading and writing
    is not conventional.
  • Her sophistication and understanding, had
    authenticity, power, and legitimacy of her
  • Sarah had two significant experiences in the
    alphabet and writing her name.

Sarah Writes Her Name
  • Sarah went to preschool and was determined to
  • First, she wanted to spell her name.
  • She practiced learning the letters in her name,
    and recognizing them on signs, menus, candy
    wrappers, all forms of print.
  • A week later, Sarah tries to write her name.

  • Sarah has trouble writing letters correctly, the
    S is in uppercase and the rest is in lower case.
  • She writes her name backwards for 4 days, then
    she turns it around but now the S is reversed.
    This went one for one year.
  • Now she learned how to write Matthew, Mommy, and
  • These were personal to Sarah.

Sarah Discovers the Alphabetic Principle
  • Sarah wanted to a thank you note, and invented
    her own language.
  • I love you was ILU.
  • 2 was to
  • She read books she already knew, not reading any
    new ones.
  • She used her finger, with landmark pictures to
    keep the story moving.

Sarahs Placeholder Stick
  • Sarah uses verbal placeholders when not knowing
    how to write a word and she moved on.
  • It gave her strategy when she was unsure of a
  • Her figures had heads, arms, legs, bodies, and
    hair that covered the head.
  • Large heads in her drawings, reflected her
    positive self image.

  • She used her place holder stick for four mounts.
  • This reinforced her confidence that not knowing
    will not prevent her from writing.
  • The place holder stick gives her central focus on
    making meaning, with out paralyzing her writing.

Refining Writing Through Names
  • Sarah knew how to spell her family names, and now
    shifted her focus on friends names.
  • She began writing lists of her friends names.
  • She began writing beyond syllabic-alphabetically,
    to more detail.
  • Katie was Kb.
  • Chelsea was Tlce.
  • Jesse was jse
  • Alex was Alzxs
  • Belinda was Plid

Refining the graphophonic System
  • Sarah focused on spelling and punctuation, thus
    gaining knowledge with her experiences.
  • She spelled mommy as mime, daddy as dade, and
    matthew as mavu.
  • Spelling involves learning to integrate both
    graphic and phonological cues.

Integrating the Graphophonic System into Writing
  • Her invention of the syllabic hypothesis focused
    on her phonics.
  • Her spelling inventions were systematic and
  • Sarah was inventing her own personal system of
  • Children perceive patterns of sound in a context
    which determines the representation of sound
  • She continued interchanging letters, and writing
    them backwards.

  • She pronounce Matthew as Ma-few, Three and free,
    r as w, Terri as Te-Wee, Sarah as Sa-wah, gorilla
    as gowilla.
  • Y representing R, tickets for TAKc.
  • Teacher was tehr
  • House as Yays
  • She referred foo-foo to the letter Y.
  • She invented a sophisticated writing system and
    understood about phonics, phonology.

  • Saras art improved with dominate focus on
    animals, snowmen, airplanes, angles, the church,
    the pastor, flowers, and curved sidewalks.
  • Her figures had improved details
  • Children write by drawing on orthographic
    information they perceive in their environment
  • There are two principles deciding if something is
    readable. Quantitative meaning the word has two
    to four letters, and qualitative meaning there in
    a variation in those letters.
  • Phonics provides a logic comprehensible spelling
    for a particular speller, it cant be counted on
    to provide a conventional spelling standard.

  • Punctuation is the means by which authors share
    with readers necessary information about meaning
    or language structure not contained in the words
    of a written text.
  • Sarah invented ways to use fonts and graphics to
    enrich and punctuate her meanings.
  • She used the size of to indicate volume, and
    invented puffy letters as well as incorporating
    color into her writing.

  • Sarah didnt incorporate spacing into her writing
    until she was well into kindergarten.
  • Instead of spacing, Sarah used segmenting in her
    written language with periods.
  • She was aware that a period mend stop or end and
    used them at the end of segments of her writing.
  • Now she started to use commas, question marks and
    exclamation points.
  • She demonstrated awareness that periods mark the
    end of linguistic units.

  • She demonstrated awareness that periods mark the
    end of linguistic units.
  • As her experiences with reading, writing, and
    literature continued to grow , she refined those
    spellings to their standard forms.

Integrating the Graphophonic System into Reading
  • Sarahs reading made sense and sounded like
    language, now she wanted to connect her reading
    with the print.
  • Sarah had several self-initiated strategies for
    integrating print and reading.
  • She read like a writer and wrote like a reader,
    inventing how the systems relate and refining her
  • Sarah uses familiar landmarks such as I, no,
    Mommy, or yes, as she read, pacing her reading so
    her finger and voice reached the landmarks at the
    same time. .

  • Sarahs awareness of visual cues increased and
    she integrated the visual information in the test
    with the nonvisual information in her head.
  • She started to follow the print intensely, she
    occasionally over relied on it and did not
    produce a response that sounded like language.
  • Sarah learned to be an independent responsible
    reader, who takes risks, monitors, and solves
    problems for herself.

  • Sarah continued to refine her literacy, expanding
    her understanding of what we do with written
    language and inventing how she can read and
  • The more Sarah wove reading and writing into her
    everyday life, the more reasons she found to read
    and write.
  • Without hesitation she invented not only reading
    and writing but the forms, particularly of
    writing to fill functions and purposes she

  • Sarahs writing expanded quickly and her
    inquiries What are you doing with that written
  • Sarah entered kindergarten as a sophisticated
    reader and writer in need of opportunities to
    continue to test and refine her inventions for
    functional authentic proposes in a literacy-rich
    environment and community.