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Codes. Nazis. The need for regulation and codes of behavio

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Title: Codes. Nazis. The need for regulation and codes of behavio


1
Ethical Issues in Research
  • Research Methods and Data
  • College of Advancing Studies
  • Brendan Rapple

2
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3
McGill University Study
  • 1957-60
  • Ewan Cameron (McGill U. in Montreal) administered
    psychedelic drugs to 52 unsuspecting patients in
    order to carry out brainwashing experiments for
    the CIA.
  • Experiments disclosed publicly for the first time
    in 1977 in the New York Times.
  • Not until 1988 that the survivors received
    settlement.

4
Tuskegee Study
  • Beginning in the 1930s, 399 men signed up with
    the U.S. Public Health Service for free medical
    care. The service was conducting a study on the
    effects of syphilis on the human body. The men
    were never told they had syphilis. They were told
    they had "bad blood" and were denied access to
    treatment, even for years after penicillin came
    into use in 1947. By the time the study was
    exposed in 1972, 28 men had died of syphilis, 100
    others were dead of related complications, at
    least 40 wives had been infected and 19 children
    had contracted the disease at birth."
  • http//www.tuskegee.edu/global/Story.asp?s1211670

5
Codes
  • Nazis
  • The need for regulation and codes of behavior
    emerged from revelations of the research
    atrocities committed by the Nazis.
  • Nuremberg Code
  • This 1947 code for biomedical research was the
    first to focus on the importance of informed
    consent.
  • Helsinki Declaration
  • This 1964 declaration provided guidance in such
    areas as the use of animals for research
    purposes.

6
  • The American Sociological Association (ASA)
    adopted a formal code of ethics in 1969.
  • American Psychological Association (1982)
  • The Ethical Principles in the Conduct of Human
    Research with Human Participants
  • The National Research Act (1974)
  • Passed by Congress for the purpose of protecting
    human subjects participating in experiments.
  • Of course, while its essential to have codes,
    the responsibility for ethical research
    ultimately lies with the individual researcher.

7
Ethical Factors
  • No Pressure
  • Never any pressuring of participants.
  • Safety
  • Safety of participants essential.
  • Credit
  • Every researcher must receive precise,
    appropriate credit.
  • Communicate
  • One should try to make results known to
    participants.
  • Ill Usage of Research
  • One should be conscious of possible bad uses of
    research.

8
Informed Consent
  • Tell participants who is conducting study
  • Why was subject singled out for
    participation? e.g. random sample e.g.
    recently given birth to 1st child etc.
  • What is the time commitment? e.g. 45 minutes to
    complete the survey
  • Any benefits for the participant to be
    expected? Realistically, there are often few
    direct benefits.
  • Any potential risks, and how have these been
    managed?
  • Information like the following should be
    participated to participants
  • Some people may experience negative emotions
    when discussing parental alcoholism. If you
    would like to discuss these with someone, please
    feel free to call the study director at the
    number below.

9
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10
Informed Consent
  • Explain the study and offer to answer questions
  • Participation is always voluntary.
  • Provide participants with copy of informed
    consent form (if relevant).
  • Confidentiality (Anonymity, on the other hand,
    means that no one, including the researcher,
    will know the subjects identity).

11
Sometimes Consent is not Possible
  • Fake an assault in the street to gauge reaction
    of bystanders e.g. who will intervene and who
    will do nothing.
  • Element of surprise is essential.
  • Problem with the preceding
  • witnessing such an attack may be very disturbing
    to some.
  • Those who do not intervene may be upset and
    suffer feelings of low worth.
  • Those who do intervene may be injured.
  • Debriefing is mandatory.

12
Informed Consent
  • Special Populations and Coercion Difficult for
    some to give true voluntary informed consent
  • They might lack necessary competency --children
    --mentally retarded

13
Informed Consent
  • Others May be Indirectly CoercedThis is
    WRONG Students Prison Inmates Employees
    Military Personnel The Homeless Welfare
    Recipients

14
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
  • Most Colleges/universities have IRBs
  • BC has one
  • BC Institutional Review Board

15
Questions Asked by IRBs
  • About the Investigator
  • Who is the primary investigator, and who is
    supervising the study?
  • About Research Participants
  • What are general characteristics of participants
    (e.g. age, sex etc.)?
  • Any special characteristics of participants (e.g.
    children, alcoholics, mentally retarded etc.)?
  • Any other institutions/individuals
    cooperating/cosponsoring the study?
  • What is general state of health (mental and
    physical) of the participants?
  • How will subjects be selected for, or excluded
    from, participation in this study?

16
Questions Asked by IRBs
  • Procedure
  • What will the subjects be asked to do, or what
    behaviors will be observed by the researchers?
  • Will deception be used? If yes, why is it
    necessary?
  • What is nature of the deception, and when will
    the debriefing take place?
  • Material
  • E.g., if electrical or mechanical equipment will
    be used, how has it been checked for safety?

17
Questions Asked by IRBs
  • Risks
  • Any immediate risks to the subjects, including
    possibly causing them embarrassment,
    inconvenience, or discomfort?
  • Are there any long-range risks to the subjects?
  • If there are risks, what is the necessity for
    them, and how will subjects be compensated for
    facing such risks?

18
IRBs are very Concerned about Possible
Psychological Harm
  • E.g. a project involving interviewing of women
    whove been raped.
  • Obviously consent must be obtained.
  • Theyre free to withdraw at any time.
  • Perhaps have psychological counseling available
    in case of distress.

19
Other Ethical Issues
  • One should not cheat, falsify data etc.
  • One should not plagiarize.

20
Plagiarism
  • Plagiarism is taking anothers work and passing
    it off as your own.
  • In a broad sense we are all guilty of plagiarism
    many times each day.
  • We often take ideas from others and dont
    attribute them to their original source.
  • More often than not we dont even know the
    original source!
  • When we talk about the decline and fall of the
    Roman Empire or say, To be or not to be, that is
    the question in normal conversation, we rarely
    attribute the words to Gibbon and Shakespeare
    respectively.

21
Plagiarism in Research is Usually Quite Different
  • True plagiarism is, quite bluntly, stealing.
  • Sometimes a person just copies text word for word
    from a book or article and pretends that he is
    the author.
  • Or buys an already written paper on the web.
  • These are quite deliberate aims to deceive.

22
Plagiarism Extends to More than Words
  • One should always provide references for any
  • statistics
  • graphs
  • tables
  • numbers, etc.
  • that one wishes to use in one's own paper.
  • Thus, it isnt just the words of another persons
    ideas that one should reference.

23
Copy Direct Quotations Exactly
  • Make sure that you write it precisely,
    word-for-word as in the original.
  • Also essential that you enclose the quoted text
    in quotation marks.
  • Failing to put someone elses direct text in
    quotation marks and crediting the author, may
    lead to accusations of plagiarism.

24
Paraphrasing is often Preferable to Taking Direct
Quotations
  • Its often preferable to take down the substance
    of an authors idea in your own words, i.e. to
    paraphrase.
  • The greater part of your paper should be in your
    own words with appropriate documentation of the
    ideas of others.
  • Of course, some direct quotation is fine but
    always with citation.

25
Plagiarism Sometimes Not Intentional
  • Many instances of plagiarism stem from sloppy
    research rather than through a deliberate desire
    to cheat.
  • Many students during the research process take
    bad notes, e.g. they write down someone elses
    text verbatim but forget to include the quotation
    marks.
  • Later when they are writing the actual paper and
    they refer to their notes, they fail to remember
    that the text is another authors and not their
    own.
  • A reader who recognizes the original text might
    think that the student has cheated. And this may
    lead to tough penalties.
  • So, the golden rule is to take excellent notes,
    write your whole paper yourself and to document
    your sources as well and as honestly as possible.

26
Common Knowledge and Plagiarism
  • It is not necessary to document every single
    statement.
  • One need not give a reference for stating that
    President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in
    1963.
  • This fact is common knowledge and belongs in the
    public domain.
  • However, if you are referring to Historian Xs
    thesis that Kennedy was killed by a crime
    syndicate and not by Lee Harvey Oswald, proper
    citation to such a theory is requisite.
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