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Codes. The need for regulation and codes of behavior emerge

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Title: Codes. The need for regulation and codes of behavior emerge


1
Ethical Issues in Research
2
McGill University Study
  • During the period 1957-60 Ewan Cameron at McGill
    U. in Montreal administered psychedelic drugs to
    52 unsuspecting patients in order to carry out
    brainwashing experiments for the CIA. These
    experiments were disclosed publicly for the first
    time in 1977 in the New York Times. But it was
    not until 1988 that the survivors received
    settlement.

3
Tuskegee Study
  • "Beginning in the 1930s, 399 men signed up with
    the U.S. Public Health Service for free medical
    care. The service was conducting a study on the
    effects of syphilis on the human body. The men
    were never told they had syphilis. They were told
    they had "bad blood" and were denied access to
    treatment, even for years after penicillin came
    into use in 1947. By the time the study was
    exposed in 1972, 28 men had died of syphilis, 100
    others were dead of related complications, at
    least 40 wives had been infected and 19 children
    had contracted the disease at birth."

4
Codes
  • The need for regulation and codes of behavior
    emerged from revelations of the research
    atrocities committed by the Nazis.
  • The Nuremberg Code of 1947 for biomedical
    research was the first to focus on the importance
    of informed consent.
  • The Helsinki Declaration of 1964 provided
    guidance in such areas as the use of animals for
    research purposes.
  • Perhaps the earliest code in the social sciences
    was the 1953 code relating to research, teaching,
    and professional practices developed from over
    1000 case studies submitted by members of the
    Amer. Psych. Association (APA) through a research
    study launched in 1948.

5
  • The Amer. Sociol. Assn. (ASA) adopted a formal
    code of ethics in 1969.
  • American Psychological Association (1982)
  • The Ethical Principles in the Conduct of Human
    Research with Human Participants
  • The National Research Act (1974)
  • Passed by Congress for the purpose of protecting
    human subjects participating in experiments.

6
However, the responsibility for ethical research
ultimately lies with the individual researcher.
7
Letter of Introduction
  • Perhaps Signed By
  • Boss
  • CEO
  • Professor
  • Letter Should Specify
  • Precise rationale for research
  • How exactly it will involve participants
  • How results will help participants

8
Other Ethical Factors
  • Never Any Pressuring of Participants
  • Safety of Participants Essential
  • Every researcher must receive precise,
    appropriate credit.
  • One Should Use Ones Research in Some Way
  • One Should Try to Make Results Known to
    Participants
  • One Should be Conscious of Possible Bad Uses of
    Research

9
  • Failure to do a Literature Review May be Seen as
    Unethical

10
  • One Should Not Cheat
  • One Should Not Plagiarize

11
Research Proposal
  • Consideration of ethical issues is an important
    part of many research proposals.

12
Elements of Informed Consent
  • Tell participants who is conducting study
  • Why was subject singled out for
    participation? e.g. random sample e.g.
    recently given birth to 1st child etc.
  • What is the time commitment? e.g. 45 minutes to
    complete the survey

13
  • Any benefits to be expected? Realistically,
    there are often few direct benefits.
  • Any potential risks, and how have these been
    managed? Some people may experience negative
    emotions when discussing parental alcoholism.
    If you would like to discuss these with someone,
    please feel free to call the study director at
    the number below.

14
Informed Consent
  • Explain the Study and Offer to Answer
    Questions It is possible that telling all might
    compromise the integrity of the research.
    However, at the end debriefing is essential.
  • Participation is always voluntary.
  • Provide Participants with Copy of Informed
    Consent Form (if relevant).

15
Informed Consent
  • Payment Participant must know of any
    compensation
  • Confidentiality (Anonymity, on the other hand,
    means that no one, including the researcher,
    will know the subjects identity)
  • Debriefing

16
INFORMED CONSENT
  • Special Populations and CoercionDifficult for
    Some to Give True Voluntary Informed
    Consent They might lack necessary
    competency --children --mentally retarded

17
INFORMED CONSENT
  • Others May be Indirectly Coerced Students P
    rison Inmates Employees Military
    Personnel The Homeless Welfare Recipients

18
INFORMED CONSENT
  • Factors Such As Higher grades Early
    Parole Promotions Fear from
    refusing Expectations of other benefitsMay
    Play a Part

19
Sometimes Consent is not Possible
  • Fake an assault in the street to gauge reaction
    of bystanders -- who will intervene, who will do
    nothing.
  • Element of surprise is essential
  • Problem
  • witnessing such an attack may be very disturbing
    to some.
  • Those who do not intervene may be upset and
    suffer feelings of low worth.
  • Those who do intervene may be injured.
  • Debriefing is mandatory.

20
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
  • Sample Questions for Ethics ReviewInvestigator
    Who is the primary investigator, and who is
    supervising the study?

21
Research Participants
  • What are general characteristics of the research
    participants (e.g. age, sex etc.)?
  • Any special characteristics of research
    participants (e.g. children, alcoholics, mentally
    retarded etc.)?
  • Any other institutions/individuals cooperating or
    cosponsoring the study?
  • What is general state of health (mental and
    physical) of the research participants?
  • How will subjects be selected for, or excluded
    from, participation in this study?

22
Procedure
  • What will the subjects be asked to do, or what
    behaviors will be observed by the researchers?
  • Will deception be used? If yes, why is it
    necessary?
  • What is nature of the deception, and when will
    the debriefing take place?

23
Material
  • If electrical or mechanical equipment will be
    used, how has it been checked for safety?
  • What standardized tests, if any, will be used?
    What info. will be provided to the subjects
    about their scores on these tests?

24
Confidentiality
  • What procedure will you use to ensure the
    confidentiality of the data?

25
Anonymity
  • Sometimes its impossible to have anonymity
  • face to face interviews
  • direct observation of behavior
  • Important that you tell participants that their
    participation will not be anonymous.
  • However, confidentiality may be safeguarded.

26
Risks
  • Any immediate risks to the subjects, including
    possibly causing them embarrassment,
    inconvenience, or discomfort?
  • Are there any long-range risks to the subjects?
  • If there are risks, what is the necessity for
    them, and how will subjects be compensated for
    facing such risks?

27
Psychological Harm
  • Interviewing of women whove been raped.
  • Obviously consent must be obtained.
  • Theyre free to withdraw at any time.
  • Perhaps have psychological counseling available
    in case of distress.

28
Bias-Free Writing
  • No implication that it is normal or
    right To belong to a specific ethnic
    group Have a particular sexual
    preference Engage in a particular life-style

29
Language is Particularly Important
  • As far as possible use gender-neutral
    words e.g. PARENTING rather than MOTHERING
  • Careful about assuming that certain professions
    are gender-related e.g. The physician . . .
    he The scientist . . . he

30
Avoid Sexual Stereotyping
  • e.g. A bright and beautiful female professor

31
Careful with too many gender-biased pronouns
  • e.g. A consultant may not always be able to see
    HIS clients.
  • Other possibilities
  • use the plural form Consultants . . . their
    clients
  • Delete the adjective . . . to see clients
  • Vary female and male adjectives, i.e. sometimes
    write her clients, sometimes his clients.

32
Avoid language that reinforces stereotypes
  • e.g. African-American students, NOT
    SURPRISINGLY, won the athletic events.
  • The Irish contingent, as we might expect,
    drank very heavily at the party.

33
Dont make unsupported assumptions about
various age groups.e.g. that the elderly are
less intellectually able.
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