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2004 And Beyond STRENGTHENING THE AGENDA FOR DEMOCRACY IN UNCERTAIN TIMES

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NNER ANNUAL CONFERENCE. STRENGTHENING THE AGENDA FOR DEMOCRACY. IN UNCERTAIN TIMES ... Effects of homophobia/heterosexism on GLB students: Decrease in self-esteem ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 2004 And Beyond STRENGTHENING THE AGENDA FOR DEMOCRACY IN UNCERTAIN TIMES


1

2004 and Beyond
STRENGTHENING THE AGENDA FOR DEMOCRACY IN
UNCERTAIN TIMES
A
NNER ANNUAL CONFERENCE
October 21-23, 2004
http//www.explorestlouis.com/
St. Louis, Missouri
2
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Colleen Finegan Patricia Renick Charlotte
Harris Kelli Zaytoun
Wright State University
Dayton, Ohio
3
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
History of the Project
Patricia Renick
4
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • There was a concern at the institutional level
    about retention
    especially in the first
    two years of college at
    Wright State University
    among individuals who are
    members of
    underrepresented populations.

5
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Why are students not returning after the first
    year?
  • Typical reasons
  • Funding Family issues
  • Lack of adequate preparation in High School
  • Career change etc.
  • Also
  • Some concern over some students feeling
    disenfranchised in classes.

6
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • RFP was issued by University Diversity Advisory
    Committee (UDAC) to study the situation from
    various angles and write a resource book.
  • Because of a personal concern and interest each
    of us had, we joined together to write the
    proposal and were awarded the grant.
  • We then involved others in the University who we
    knew were committed to more inclusionary and
    welcoming classroom environments

7
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Individuals on whom we wanted to focus
  • Students with Special Needs
  • Non-traditional (aged) Students
  • Gifted / Talented
  • Student Athletes
  • Religious / Culturally Diverse.

8
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Individuals on whom we wanted to focus
  • Female students
  • Gay, Lesbian, Bi-Sexual, Transgendered or
    Questioning
  • Racial / Ethnic Diversity

9
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Research methods used
  • Collect information via
  • Small Groups Meetings
  • Women GLBT and Q
  • Honors Program Athletes
  • African-American Asian- American
  • Hispanic- American other racial/ethnic
  • Religious/Cultural Athletes
  • Non-traditional (aged) students
  • Special learning / physical needs

10
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Additional Research methods used
  • Input on specially-
  • constructed Website
  • Additional Research

11
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Diversity
Charlotte Harris
12
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Nature of Diversity Something life-affirming in
diversity must be discovered and
rediscovered, as what is
held in common becomes always more
many-facetedopen and inclusive,
drawn to
untapped possibility (Greene,
1993, p. 17)
13
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Sources of Diversity
  • Demographic characteristics
  • Personality characteristics
  • Abilities and skills

14
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Potential OutcomesPositive or Negative?
  • Decrease, or increase, stereotyping and
    prejudice
  • Increase positive, or negative, relationships
  • Increase, or lower, achievement and productivity

(Johnson Johnson, 2002)
15
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Potential OutcomesPositive or Negative?
  • Foster, or diminish, growth in cognitive and
    moral reasoning and perspective taking
  • Improve decision making and problem solving or
    create interaction strain

(Johnson Johnson, 2002)
16
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • To capitalize on the positive potential
  • Integrate diversity into personal identities
  • Reduce cognitive barriers
  • Build positive relationships
  • Establish conditions for constructive group
    interaction
  • (Johnson Johnson, 2002)

17
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Nature of Culture The ever-changing values,
traditions, social and political
relationships, and
worldview created, shared,
and transformed by a group of people
bound together by a
combination of factors that can include a
common history, geographic location,
language, social
class, and religion (Nieto, 1999, p. 48)
18
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Culture is
  • Learned
  • Transmitted through contact with various
    socialization agents
  • Manifested in various ways
  • Portable
  • Dynamic
  • ? Socially constructed

19
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Cultural identity
  • Is composed of multiple sub-identities
  • Is inherently social
  • ? Influences how we perceive the world

20
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Academic Culture
  • Information primarily transmitted through
    lectures and discussions
  • Concepts/principles presented in deductive
    manner
  • Students expected to draw conclusions and
    demonstrate application

21
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Academic Culture
  • Verbal assertiveness and active participation
    valued
  • Individual accomplishment and competition for
    grades encouraged
  • (Prenger, 1999)

22
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Multicultural Education
  • An education for freedom
  • A means by which diversity is nurtured,
    preserved, and extended
  • ? An educational response to recognizing and
    embracing cultural pluralism.
  • (Banks, 2002)

23
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Dimensions of Multicultural Education
  • Content integration
  • Knowledge construction process
  • Prejudice reduction
  • Equity pedagogy
  • Empowering school culture and social structure
  • (Banks, 2002)

24
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Categories of Knowledge
  • Personal/cultural knowledge
  • Popular knowledge
  • Mainstream academic knowledge
  • Transformational academic knowledge
  • School knowledge
  • (Banks, 1993)

25
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • To create and sustain a safe, supportive, and
    empowering classroom community
  • Heightened sociocultural consciousness
  • An affirming attitude towards students whose
    cultural backgrounds and experiences are
    different
  • Curriculum and pedagogy that recognizes
    multiple perspectives and different learning
    styles, patterns of interaction, and cultural
    histories

26
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • To create and sustain a safe, supportive, and
    empowering classroom community
  • Awareness of how our cultural identities affect
    the learning environment
  • ? Awareness of the attitudes, values, and
    beliefs we bring into the classroom

27
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
A truly emancipatory multicultural classroom
community goes beyond the language of
inclusivity by emphasizing relationality and
multivocality as the central intellectual forces
in the production of knowledge (McCarthy,
1990, p. 119)
28
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Building Community
Colleen Finegan
29
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Common terminology used to refer to a class of
    students is community of learners.
  • Term community connotes commonalities
  • Common goal Common foe / enemy
  • Common good Common interests

30
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • QUESTION
  • Is a class of students
    automatically a Community
    just because
    they are all
    in the same physical space
    at
    the same time?

31
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • In the first couple years of higher education,
    students are in general education classes and
    often have little in common other than being in
    the same physical space at the
    same time.
  • Classes- required
  • Sections- fit around work / life schedule

32
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • After students declare their majors, they have
    much more in common.
  • Community building may be easier.
  • This doesnt mean that having a sense of
    community is impossible in the first two years,
    but it is harder to build since there are fewer
    commonalities.

33
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Becoming a community of learners is not
    automatic - it must be valued, built and
    nourished.
  • The strength of this community depends on the
    purposeful efforts of those who teach in or
    administer the program, as well as the students
    in the program.

34
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Determinants
  • The students perception of the attitude and
    personal qualities of the professor contributes
    much to the atmosphere.
  • Respect for students
  • Personal values / commitments
  • Degree of openness
  • Fairness
  • Consistency

35
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • How is respect for each / all students shown?
  • Physical and psychological safety
  • Valuing each person and his/her contributions
  • Freedom to talk about parameters of the class
  • Right to freely express opinions which may differ
    from teachers, peers or politically-correct
    viewpoint
    (with no repercussions).

36
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • External Influences
  • scheduling problems,
  • changes in instructors, books or rooms,
  • overcrowding,
  • world events,
  • holidays,
  • the weather, etc.

37
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Even these types of changes can be better
    tolerated depending on the attitude and empathy
    and flexibility of the instructor.

38
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Students must feel
  • heard, respected and safe
  • if they are going to be involved and take the
    chance
    to display their vulnerability
    and offer a potentially incorrect answer in
    front of their peers.

39
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • SUGGESTIONS
  • To increase student involvement and interest in
    learning
  • cooperative and/or collaborative learning,
    problem-based learning,
  • service learning,
  • classroom assessment,
  • supplemental instruction
    and/or study groups
  • (Tinto, 2002)

40
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • SUGGESTIONS
  • Foster a cooperative learning environment, as
    opposed to a traditionally competitive one,
  • (Rishi, 1998)

41
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • SUGGESTIONS
  • A carefully structured
  • cooperative learning environment
  • can often produce higher student
    achievement and facilitate positive relationships
    among students.
  • (Johnson, Johnson
    Smith, 1991)

42
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Gender Issues
Kelli Zaytoun
43
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Gender Issues in the University
Classroom Classroom dynamics Curricular
issues Pedagogical issues
44
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
A Brief Look at Numbers Women are now 57 of
those earning college degrees, but they are still
clustered in traditionally female-dominated
majors (Bae, et al. 2000 King, 2003 Persaud,
1999) Differences among women and among men
45
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Recommendations
  • Attention to sex segregation by
    major/college
  • More efforts to recruit and retain those
    from underrepresented groups
  • ? Conduct exit interviews when students change
    majors

46
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Classroom Dynamics Microinequities Communicati
on patterns Classroom power implications
47
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Recommendations
  • prohibit sexist comments and behaviors
  • establish group norms
  • do not ask students to speak on behalf of those
    in the group/s they represent
  • ask a colleague to observe your classrooms for
    gender-related patterns in interactions
  • ? adjust teaching styles so as to not reward
    particular students over others

48
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Outside the Classroom Issues that impact womens
    success
  • Safety/sexual harassment and assault
  • Parenting and birth control
  • Money
  • Discrimination
  • Relationship issues
  • Body image
  • Health/Alcohol and drug concerns

49
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Recommendations
  • stay informed about current gender-related
    student issues/needs
  • assess campus climate for women
  • ? advocate for university response to needs

50
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered Issues
Kelli Zaytoun
51
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • GLB Student Experiences
  • Actions that impact learning
  • Homophobic comments by students and faculty
  • ? Heterosexism

52
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Effects of homophobia/heterosexism
    on GLB students
  • Decrease in self-esteem
  • Emotional and social difficulties
  • Increased use of alcoholic substances
  • Increase in depression, loneliness
    and suicidal ideation

53
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Recommendations and Ground rules
    for class discussions
  • Recognize and interrupt homophobic harassment
  • Give swift attention to intended and unintended
    homophobic remarks by students
  • Dont assume every student in your class in
    heterosexual

54
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Recommendations and Ground rules
    for class discussions
  • Use inclusive language ex. partner instead of
    husband/wife
  • Increase visibility of GLB issues and people
  • Support students in their exploration/research
    of GLB issues

55
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Race / Ethnicity and Class
Charlotte Harris
56
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Race/Ethnicity and Class
  • Play an important role in the lives of many
    students.
  • Have a significant impact on students
    perceptions of themselves.
  • Affects learning and assimilation into the
    academic culture of a college campus.

57
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Students in oppressed ethnic and racial groups
    and the culture of poverty may
  • Experience a school environment that is
    incongruent with their cultural experiences.
  • Use and acquire language differently.
  • ? Be blamed for the hardships they face.

58
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Students in oppressed ethnic and racial groups
    and the culture of poverty may
  • Experience instructional methods and teaching
    strategies that vary greatly, depending on the
    environment in which students live.
  • Be disproportionately tracked into low-ability
    groups in which low achievement is expected.

59
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Students in oppressed ethnic and racial groups
and the culture of poverty may ? Form
ambivalent or oppositional identities, viewing
the attitudes and behaviors of the dominant group
as not appropriate for them.
60
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • On a college campus, these students may
  • Encounter culture shock and experience a sense
    of isolation.
  • Have hidden rules of doing and being that may
    clash with a campus culture.
  • Have serious financial shortages and/or work
    full-time jobs.

61
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Educators should
  • See students as individuals, rather than as
    members of specific groups.
  • Review their expectations for students and their
    behavior toward students from oppressed groups to
    ensure that they are not discriminating.

62
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Educators should
  • ? Help students interact with the academic
    content through discussion and authenticity,
    relating the content to students prior
    experiences and real-world applications.
  • Encourage all students to be critical of what
    they read, see, and hear in textbooks, through
    the mass media, and from their parents and
    friends.

63
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Educators should
  • Provide mentoring and support for navigating the
    college environment.
  • ? Use collaborative learning approaches,
    providing additional explanations for topics,
    forming study groups within a class and
    opportunities to interact and discuss the class
    with the professor.

64
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Special Physical and/or Learning Needs
Patricia Renick
65
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Issues around disabilities
66
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Kinds of disabilities
67
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Supports for students with disabilities
68
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Strategies
69
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Intellectual Capabilities
Colleen Finegan
70
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Assumptions /Stereotypes
  • Gifted students are
  • gifted in all areas
  • behave appropriately in class
  • mature
  • do their homework consistently
  • obedient, complaint
  • responsible
  • highly productive

71
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Assumptions /Stereotypes
  • Gifted students are not
  • healthy, good-looking, nor muscular
  • from poor families
  • from families of color
  • from rural families
  • from single-parent families
  • handicapped
  • negative in class
  • behavior problems

72
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Gifted students need to be
  • recognized for who they are
  • given the opportunity to express their gifts and
    talents in classes
  • challenged to grow in the areas of their interest
  • freed from restrictions based on faulty
    stereotypes
  • valued for themselves and allowed to progress
    scholastically and not held back by being used as
    peer tutors

73
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
Summary
Patricia Renick
74
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • The task of teaching within academia is no
    longer solely about content but about teaching in
    such a way that diversity is affirmed and
    classrooms become vital communities of learners
    in which all students have access to the
    knowledge and learning available within that
    classroom.
  • Patricia Renick

75
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Wright State University celebrates diversity. Our
    daily life is made rich by the diversity of
    individuals, groups, and cultures. The interplay
    of the diverse stimulates creativity and
    achievement in all facets of our existence.
  • Respect, tolerance, and goodwill are the
    keystones to enjoying the diversity of our world.
    We are all linked to each other in a world
    created for all of us to share and enjoy. Each
    member of humanity has a potential contribution
    to make to the whole. It is our duty to encourage
    and promote that contribution.

76
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Wright State University is committed to achieving
    an intellectual, cultural, and social environment
    on campus in which all are free to make their
    contribution. We will achieve an environment in
    which every student may think, and learn, and
    grow without prejudice, without intimidation, and
    without discrimination. We will achieve an
    environment in which personal dignity and respect
    for the individual are recognized by all.

77
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Wright State University promotes the acceptance
    and appreciation of every individual regardless
    of race, gender, age, ethnicity, ability or
    disability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic
    status, religious affiliation, or national
    origin. We encourage appropriate activities and
    events that foster learning about the diversity
    of our world.

78
Are all voices in college classrooms heard and
valued?
  • Wright State University will be a model for our
    geographic region, exemplifying that a human
    community can exist that celebrates diversity,
    enjoys the richness that diversity brings to our
    lives, and grows stronger with every new member.
  • Adopted by the Wright State University Board of
    Trustees March 28, 1991
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