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Promoting Academic Integrity at Southwest Texas State University

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Cheaters not only cheat themselves. They cheat honest students who are put at a competitive ... Cheating decreases dramatically when codes are in place. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Promoting Academic Integrity at Southwest Texas State University


1
Promoting Academic Integrity at Southwest Texas
State University
  • William L. Kibler, Ph.D.
  • Associate Vice President for Student Affairs
  • Texas AM University
  • April 18 -19, 2002

2
  • Campus dialogue, national conversation, and
    institutional action are the keys to the process
    of strengthening academic integrity. Our camps
    cultures and our civic culture will be the better
    for these efforts.
  • -Dr. Patrick F. Drinan
  • Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
  • University of San Diego

3
THE CHALLENGE How Extensive is the Problem?
4
  • A 1999 study conducted by Dr. Don McCabe
    (Rutgers University) found that 75 of students
    admitted to some cheating.

5
McCabe has surveyed over 14,000 students on 60
campuses over the past 10 years. His findings
  • On most campuses, over 75 of students admit to
    some cheating.
  • Academic honor codes effectively reduce cheating.
  • Chronic cheating is also prevalent.
  • Cheating is higher among fraternity and sorority
    members.
  • Longitudinal comparisons show significant
    increases in explicit test/examination cheating
    and unpermitted collaboration.

6
CHEATING
7
  • Being sure children can read is certainly
    essential, but it is no less important that we
    deal with the alarming rate of cheating, lying
    and violence that threatens the very fabric of
    our society.
  • -Michael Josepheson of the Josephson Institute
    of Ethics and the CHARACTER COUNTS! Coalition

8
WHY STUDENTS CHEAT
  • Individual characteristics and/or beliefs and
    values.
  • Work ethic.
  • Poor classroom instruction.
  • Help or encouragement to cheat from friends.
  • Type A behavior and competitive striving

9
Why Students Cheat…
  • Moral judgment and will.
  • Alienation and neutralization.
  • Commitment to academics.
  • Top students under pressure to succeed at any
    cost.
  • Desire for better grades.

10
WHY STUDENTS SAY THEY CHEAT
  • …fear of losing their competitive advantage…
  • Almost everyone does it
  • Cheating in high school is for grades.
  • Cheating in college is for a career.
  • They dont get caught, so they keep doing it.

11
From the Horses Mouth
  • Ten minutes of cheating is better than two hours
    of studying.
  • I feel good that Im going to get a good grade.
  • I know Im capable of doing the work. I just
    didnt have the time.
  • No one cares anyway so it must be OK to cheat
    maybe even stupid not to.

12
Who Cheats?
  • Many cheaters are top students who value grades
    more than learning and honesty.
  • Cheating is higher among fraternity and sorority
    members.
  • Little or no difference exists between the
    numbers of dishonest males and females.
  • Business Engineering majors.

13
Why Students Choose NOT to Cheat
  • Influence of situational and/or institutional
    factors on cheating
  • Honor codes
  • Faculty responses to cheating
  • Sanction threats
  • Social learning

14
How Do Students Cheat?
  • Traditional ways…
  • Copying someone elses homework.
  • Cheat on a quiz or a test.
  • More sophisticated ways…
  • Download ready-made term papers from online
    sources.

15
Effects of Cheating
  • Cheaters dishonor their families, teachers, and
    schools.
  • Destroys credibility and weakens character.
  • Undermines integrity and fairness at all levels.
  • Prevents learning and masks true accomplishments
    and weaknesses.

16
Effects of Cheating
  • Cheaters not only cheat themselves. They cheat
    honest students who are put at a competitive
    disadvantage as well as college admission
    officers and employees who think that a students
    grades accurately reflect competence

17
Highlights and Recommendations of Research
  • SWT
  • Presidential Task Force on
  • Academic Honesty

18
Highlights and Recommendations of Research
  • Almost all student who cheat THINK it should not
    be tolerated.
  • Students believe punishments are too soft.
  • Peer influence is a primary factor in why and how
    students cheat.
  • Cheating decreases when students are involved in
    policy and implementation.

19
Highlights and Recommendations of Research -
continued
  • Cheating decreases dramatically when codes are in
    place.
  • Strict traditional honor codes are cumbersome for
    larger, state institutions.
  • Modified honor codes work best for larger, state
    institutions.
  • Cheating on major written work assignments has
    remained constant.

20
Highlights and Recommendations of Research -
continued
  • Student often hold different views from faculty
    on what constitutes serious cheating.
  • Cheating rates are the same by gender we do not
    know by race and ethnicity.
  • Unpermitted collaboration is the fastest growing
    method of cheating.
  • Off campus and commuter trends correlate with an
    increase in cheating.

21
Highlights and Recommendations of Research -
continued
  • Impersonal feel of bigger campuses contributes to
    cynicism about cheating.
  • Students are finding more and more ways to
    justify cheating.

22
Is Cheating on the Rise?
  • YES But there is
  • Good News
  • Effective strategies are being increasingly
    implemented to reduce high rates of cheating
    even on large campuses.
  • Strategies emphasize student leadership and
    involvement and intensive programming about
    academic integrity.

23
The Future Is Bright!
  • Research and real campus-based experiences
    suggest that faculty, administrators and peers
    CAN influence student behavior and enhance the
    ethical development of students.

24
What Can We Do About Cheating?
  • Tradition of moral philosophy (Aristotle)
  • Moral character is formed by habitual action.
  • The longer students spend in an environment that
    supports or condones cheating, the more prone
    they will be to develop long-term habits of
    cheating .
  • Environment Habit Character

25
How to Change Cheating Cultures
  • Cole Kiss offer two alternatives
  • 1. Prevention/Detection Approach
  • 2. Values Approach

26
How to Change Cheating Cultures
  • Prevention Detection Strategies
  • Vigilant proctoring
  • Creative seating arrangements
  • Multiple test versions
  • Check photo IDs
  • Leave books and bags outside the room
  • Plagiarism detection websites
  • All premised on MISTRUST!

27
How to Change Cheating Cultures
  • Values Approach
  • Why do Students Cheat?
  • Most likely to cheat when they think the
    assignments are pointless.
  • Least likely to cheat when they admire and
    respect their teacher and are excited about what
    they are learning.

28
How to Change Cheating Cultures
  • Two approaches different focus
  • Narrowly focused on acts of cheating and how to
    foil them, or
  • Broadly focused on good teaching and learning
    the values of a vibrant educational community
    students ethical and intellectual development

29
How to Develop a Strong Program for Academic
Integrity
  • At the Institutional Level

30
How to Develop a Strong Program for Academic
Integrity
  • Have clear academic integrity statements,
    academic integrity policies, and procedures that
    are consistently implemented.
  • Inform and educate the entire community regarding
    academic integrity policies and procedures.
  • Provide senior-level administrative support for
    all academic integrity measures, as well as
    recognition for those who uphold them.

31
How to Develop a Strong Program for Academic
Integrity (continued)
  • Have a clear, accessible, and equitable system to
    adjudicate suspected policy violations.
  • Develop a program to promote academic integrity
    among all segments of the campus community.
  • Be alert to trends in higher education and
    technology affecting academic integrity on
    campus.
  • Regularly assess the effectiveness of policies
    and procedures and take step to improve and
    rejuvenate them.

32
Recommendations from SWT Presidential Task Force
on Academic Honesty
  • Involve students fully in developing and
    enforcing policies.
  • Build awareness, especially during orientation
    periods.
  • Deliver faculty training on deterrent-based
    teaching methods.
  • Develop educational approaches (and tough)
    consequences), not punitive approaches.

33
Recommendations from SWT Presidential Task Force
on Academic Honesty
  • Encourage student leaders to educate their peers.
  • Develop fair, prompt, and effective due process
    policies.
  • Develop methods for regular reporting of data to
    faculty and administrators.
  • Conduct thorough and regular evaluation and
    benchmarking.

34
Ten Principles of Academic Integrity McCabe
Pavela (1997)
  • Faculty at the Classroom Level

35
Ten Principles of Academic Integrity
  • Affirm the importance of academic integrity.
  • Foster a love of learning.
  • Treats students as ends in themselves..
  • Promote an environment of trust in the classroom.
  • Encourage student responsibility for academic
    integrity.

36
Ten Principles of Academic Integrity continued
  • Clarify expectations for students.
  • Develop fair and relevant forms of assessment.
  • Reduce opportunities to engage in academic
    dishonesty.
  • Challenge academic dishonesty when it occurs.
  • Help define and support campus-wide academic
    integrity standards..

37
A students comment…
  • The single most effective method of cheating
    prevention is the clear presentation by the
    professor in each and every course of the
    integrity standards expected for the work to be
    done. These standards should be clear and
    simple. The attitude and beliefs of the
    professor will be clearly reflected and determine
    a large part of the motivation for each students
    behavior.

38
  • HONOR CODES

39
Traditional Honor Codes Adapted from Melendez
(1985)
  • Honor statement / code
  • Written pledge
  • Unproctored examinations
  • Non-toleration provision / obligation to report
  • Student Governance

40
Are Honor Codes Effective?
  • Honor code schools have lower rates of cheating.
  • McCabes 1995 study
  • Students admitting to serious cheating
  • Honor Code schools 54
  • Non-code schools 71
  • Students admitting to repeated test cheating
  • Honor code schools 7
  • Non-code schools 17
  • The climate/culture of academic integrity found
    on a campus may be the most important determinant
    of the level of cheating on that campus.

41
Modified Honor Codes
  • Most significant aspect that honor code schools
    and modified honor code schools have in common is
    the extent to which the promotion of academic
    integrity is a part of the campus culture/ethos.
  • Examples
  • University of Maryland College Park
  • Kansas State University
  • University of California Davis
  • University of Tennessee
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Colorado - Boulder

42
What Is A Modified Honor Code?
  • McCabes 1999 surveys at 21 college and
    universities (2,243 undergraduate responses) also
    found that a modified honor code policy can
    reduce student cheating.
  • Schools in this category have a pledge of
    integrity and student involvement in enforcing
    the rules, but allow proctored examinations and
    do not require that students report observed
    cheating by their peers.

43
Do Modified Codes Work? Pavela/McCabe 2000
44
Modified Honor Codes
  • Honor Code schools are unique actively
    communicate to students the importance of
    academic integrity as a core institutional value.
  • Institution must target all members of the
    academic community students, faculty and
    administrators.
  • Unique challenge for large campuses many
    students are part-time or commuters. Anonymity
    disassociation is more common.

45
Modified Honor Codes
  • Significant student involvement
  • Honor pledges
  • Penalties need to be strict
  • Assumption students are capable of ethical
    development
  • Proctor exams
  • Students are typically encouraged to challenge
    but not required to report offenders.

46
Modified Honor Codes
  • Implementation
  • Get insights from students re. Campus culture.
  • Give students/faculty a voice in policy setting.
  • Allow students a major role in governance
  • Enforce sanctions keyed to seminar approach.
  • Help students educate their peers.
  • Develop fair, prompt and efficient procedures.
  • Give student leaders support and guidance.
  • Keep faculty and administration informed.
  • Encourage Presidential leadership.
  • Evaluate and benchmark

47
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48
  • There is no single path to academic integrity
    and the Center respects and values campus
    differences in traditions, values, and student
    and faculty characteristics.

49
Fundamental Values of Academic Integrity
  • In 1997, with support from the William and
    Flora Hewlett Foundation, the CAI launched a
    project to define the fundamental values of
    academic integrity.

50
THE FUNDAMENTAL VALUES OF ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
51
HONESTY
  • An academic community of integrity advances the
    quest for truth and knowledge by requiring
    intellectual and personal honesty in learning,
    teaching, research, and service.

52
TRUST
  • An academic community of integrity fosters a
    climate of mutual trust, encourages the free
    exchange of ideas, and enables all to reach their
    highest potential.

53
FAIRNESS
  • An academic community of integrity establishes
    clear standards, practices, and procedures and
    expects fairness in the interactions of students,
    faculty, and administrators.

54
RESPECT
  • An academic community of integrity recognizes
    the participatory nature of the learning process
    and honors and respects a wide range of opinions
    and ideas.

55
RESPONSIBILITY
  • An academic community of integrity upholds
    personal accountability and depends upon action
    in the face of wrongdoing.

56
Developmental Intervention Strategy
  • Disciplinary Intervention
  • Grade penalty (XF grade)
  • Probation requires participation in the other
    three components
  • Evaluation/Counseling Intervention
  • Evaluation to identify the source of dishonesty
  • Counseling to address the source
  • Referral to the seminar

57
Developmental Intervention Strategy - continued
  • Academic Skills Enhancement Seminar
  • Academic Dishonesty Component
  • Academic Skills Training Component
  • Time Management
  • Study Skills
  • Test Taking Skills
  • Writing Skills
  • Anxiety Management
  • Goal Setting
  • Assessment Component

58
Developmental Intervention Strategy - continued
  • Ethics Seminar
  • Case studies and discussion on ethics, values and
    moral development.
  • University of Maryland website has excellent
    example
  • www.umd.edu/ethics

59
  • Raising the level of student academic integrity
    should be among our highest priorities on college
    and university campuses.
  • Nannerl O. Keohane
  • President, Duke University
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