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Global Wars The learner will analyze the causes and results of twentieth century conflicts among nat


5.03 Analyze the causes and course of World War II and evaluate it as the end of ... vision of a world organization to prevent war -prediction of future wars. WW II ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Wars The learner will analyze the causes and results of twentieth century conflicts among nat

Global Wars - The learner will analyze the causes
and results of twentieth century conflicts among
  • Objectives
  • 5.01 Analyze the causes and course of World War I
    and assess its consequences.
  • 5.02 Assess the significance of the war
    experience on global foreign and domestic
    policies of the 1920s and 1930s.
  • 5.03 Analyze the causes and course of World War
    II and evaluate it as the end of one era and the
    beginning of another.
  • 5.04 Trace the course of the Cold War and assess
    its impact on the global community including but
    not limited to the Korean War, the satellite
    nations of Eastern Europe, and the Vietnam War.
  • 5.05 Examine governmental policies, such as the
    Kellogg-Briand Pact, which were established and
    the role of organizations including the League of
    Nations, and the United Nations to maintain
    peace, and evaluate their continuing

  • Goals
  • What role did the war play in eroding the
    dominance of Europe in the world?
  • What impact did the war have on politics, society
    and culture
  • What is the nature of total war and what makes
    it a modern experience?
  • How did immigrants play a role in influencing
    foreign policy

The Great War and its AftermathGoal 8
  • Nationalism
  • Militarism
  • Million man armies

The Golden Days of August Europes rush to war
  • Jingoism
  • Home by Christmas

Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  • Heir to the Austro
  • Hungarian empire
  • Assassinated on
  • June 28, 1914

Events leading to War
  • July 23
  • Austrian threatens Serbia and invades 4 days
  • August 1
  • Austrias ally (Germany) under Kaiser Wilhelm I
    declares war on Russia

Events continued
  • August 3
  • Germany declares war on France
  • Fr. Is Russias ally
  • Invade Belgium- quick route to France
  • Rape of Belgium
  • Treaty of London 1839
  • Required Belgium to stay neutral

Events Continued, Again
  • August 4
  • GB declares war on Germany
  • B/C GB is a ally of FR

  • Allied Powers
  • GB, Fr, Russia
  • Central Powers
  • Gr, Austria- Hungary, Ottoman Empire/Turkey

  • W Wilson
  • Keep US Neutral
  • Hard to do b/c of immigrants
  • The US continued on its merry way
  • Shipped supplies to both sides during the war
  • GB
  • Strength was in its navy
  • Blockaded Gr, US could not ship supplies to Gr
  • Wilson threaten GB

A New Kind of War/Old Military Strategies
  • Machine guns and barbed wire
  • Battle of the Somme

Casualties in 1916 Alone
  • Verdun
  • Germany 281,000
  • France 315,000
  • Somme
  • British 420,000 (60,000 on the first day)
  • Germany 450,000
  • France 200,000

Trench Warfare
(No Transcript)
Life in the Trenches
Waiting and Misery
Over the top
No Mans Land
Machine Guns Introduced
Chemical Warfare
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • Submarine (U-Boat)
  • Was Gr only hope at beating GBs blockade
  • Germanys blockade
  • February 15 1915
  • Ships attempting to enter war zone would be
    sunk on sight

Pushing Neutrality Immediate Causes
  • Lusitania
  • The USs neutrality was torpedo
  • May 7, 1915
  • Sussex Pledge
  • Gr promised to stop the unrestricted submarine
  • Merchant ship would be searched

They went and did it!!
  • Zimmermann Telegram
  • Gr Telegram sent to Mexico
  • Printed in US newspapers
  • Gr Promised
  • To give Mexico back all the land they lost
  • Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
  • Convinced Wilson that Gr wanted War
  • Declaration of War April 2, 1917
  • Shortly after reelected He kept us out of War
  • in 1916

U.S. Enters War
-Peace without Victory -idealistic peace plan (f
ailed) -Submarine warfare continues -Zimmerm
an Note intercepted -Wilson calls for War Wa
r to make world safe for democracy
-Russian Revolution takes them out of the war
The Catalyst of the Bolshevik Revolution
  • BackgroundWWI
  • The Battle FrontEastern Europe
  • Russia has largest army in the world
  • But ill-equipped and ill-led
  • By 1916, the Russian army has no more ammunition
    and supplies

Vladimir Lenin
  • Son of a government worker
  • Brother executed
  • Exiled
  • Reinterpreting Marx
  • Agrees with Marxs ideas about class conflict
  • But not with Marxs ideas about revolution and
  • Bolshevism will begin rather than wait for the

Bolshevik Russia
  • Nationalized all lands
  • Bolsheviks take over factories
  • Sue for peace with Germany and Austria
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918

New Economic Policy, NEP
  • Rebuilding Russias economy
  • New Economic Policy, NEP
  • Peasants own land and crops
  • Merchants could trade
  • Private workshops could produce goods and sell
    them on the free market
  • Only the big businesses remained under communist
  • two steps back to advance one step forward

Lenin dies, 1924
  • Power struggle between Trotsky, the great
    military genius, and Stalin, the general
    secretary of the communist party
  • While Trotsky had been leading the Red Army,
    Stalin, had stayed back and filled the party
    bureaucracy with members loyal to him
  • By 1929, Trotsky is forced to flee the country

Military Operations
-Selective Service Act 1917 drafted over 3 milli
on troops African Americans -recruits trained f
or 9 months -transportation problems govt co
ntrol of industry use of convoy system Could US
get there fast enough?
Preparing for War
-War Industries Board -Opportunities for Women
/Minorities -Conservation efforts Victory Ga
rdens Daylight Savings Time -Liberty Bonds, i
ncreased taxes
Opposition to War
  • Midwest and West (Populist,Progressives, and
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • Objected to Wilson message to Gr after the
    Lusitania crisis then resigned from the cabinet

  • Jane Addams
  • Jeannette Rankin
  • The first women to be elected to congress
  • Women campaign against the war
  • In 1917, when the US declared war they loyal
    supported the war

  • Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • 1919 1918
  • Prison sentence
  • Among them was Eugene Debs ( 10 yrs in prison)

For many soldiers, the war became the ultimate
The Home Front
  • A war of attrition
  • Government control
  • The role of women
  • Industry
  • Civil service
  • Propaganda

More Propaganda
Women in the Great War
The World At War
  • The war was carried into Africa

The World At War
  • Almost 1 million Indians served in the war

The World At War
  • Moroccans aided the French

The World At War
  • Vietnamese fought for the French as well

The World At War
  • Serbs fought alongside Russians

The World At War
  • South Africans came to the aid of Britain

The World At War
  • As did Australians

American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
  • The first US troops in the War
  • Filled weakness in the lines on the Western
  • Led by General John J Pershing
  • Hundreds of thousands by the summer of 1918

Last German Offensive
  • At Chateau-Thierry on the Marne River
  • The US was in place and repelled the attack
  • June 1918
  • After stopping the advance the US struck back
  • And was successful counterattack at Belleau Wood

Drive to Victory
  • From August October
  • Offensive movement along the Meuse River and
    through the Argonne Forest
  • Pushed the exhausted Germans back into Germany
  • Armistice
  • 11th day 11th month 11th hour
  • 1918

Wilsons Plan
-based on idea of Peace without Victory
-would eliminate reasons for future wars de
mocracy freedom of the sea reduce armame
nts -set certain goals for the world
Fourteen Points
-Wilsons speech that organized his idea of the
future -described solution to prevent causes of
the war no secret treaties freedom of seas
lower tariffs reduce armaments self
determination -League of Nations
Versailles Peace Conference
-Big Four U.S., Britain, France, Italy -Centr
al Powers left out of the meetings as was Russia
-Allied leaders wanted to blame and punish Germa
ny -Most of the 14 Points were ignored -Wils
on did manage to secure the League of Nations
Peace Treaty
-nine new nation created and several borders
moved -Germany is demilitarized -reparations
must be paid -Germany must acknowledge war gui
lt -Weaknesses of Treaty will lead to future wa
rs Germany cant repay Russia is ignored
Colonialism remained
-Some thought it too harsh -others thought it c
hanged nothing -U.S. leaders disliked the Leagu
e of Nations Henry Cabot Lodge threatens our
ability to stay out of foreign affairs
-Wilson sets out to appeal to the people Wilso
n suffers a stroke -U.S. Senate never approves th
e treaty
Wilsons Legacy
-Progressive reformer -Prohibition starts -w
omens suffrage -Victory in the Great War -v
ision of a world organization to prevent war
-prediction of future wars WW II
Describing the Great War
Painting Paul Nash, We Are Making a New World
  • Erich Maria Remarque. All Quiet on the Western
    Front (1928)
  • Frederic Manning. The Middle Parts of Fortune
  • Robert Graves. Goodbye to All That (1929)
  • Siegfried Sassoon. Sherstons Progress (1937)

  • Wilfred Owen

Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum Est"
  • Bent double, like old beggars under
    sacks,Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed
    through sludge,Till on the haunting flares we
    turned our backsAnd towards our distant rest
    began to trudge.Men marched asleep. Many had
    lost their bootsBut limped on, blood-shod. All
    went lame all blindDrunk with fatigue deaf
    even to the hootsOf tired, outstripped
    Five-Nines that dropped behind.Gas! GAS! Quick,
    boys! -- An ecstasy of fumbling,Fitting the
    clumsy helmets just in timeBut someone still
    was yelling out and stumblingAnd flound'ring
    like a man in fire or lime . . .Dim, through the
    misty panes and thick green light,As under a
    green sea, I saw him drowning.
  • In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,He
    plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.If
    in some smothering dreams you too could
    paceBehind the wagon that we flung him in,And
    watch the white eyes writhing in his face,His
    hanging face, like a devil's sick of sinIf you
    could hear, at every jolt, the bloodCome
    gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,Obscene
    as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable
    sores on innocent tongues, --My friend, you
    would not tell with such high zestTo children
    ardent for some desperate glory,The old lie
    Dulce et decorum estPro patria mori.

The impact of the war death toll
  • November 11, 1918 Armistice Day
  • Between 8 and 10 million soldiers die
  • Germany 2 million
  • Austria-Hungary 1.5 million
  • Russia 1.7 million
  • France 1.7 million
  • Britain 1 million
  • US 115,000
  • Great Influenza Epidemic
  • Kills another 30 million

The impact of the war Remapping the world
  • Paris Peace ConferenceJan. 18, 1919-Jan. 21, 1920

The Treaty of Versailles
  • June 28, 1919, Germany reluctantly signed
  • What it does

The New Middle East
  • Mandate System
  • The major Mandates
  • Palestine, Trans-Jordan and Iraq British
  • Syria and Lebanon French Mandate
  • Rise of Modern Turkey
  • Mustapha Kemal--Ataturk

Ephemeral Peace and Prosperity, 1924-1929