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Title: Refuge Station Design and Requirements (Regulations, Guidelines,


1
Refuge Station Design and Requirements
(Regulations, Guidelines, Standards)
Prepared For The Mines Accident Prevention
Association of Manitoba (MAPAM) by Don Peake of
Hudson Bay Mining Smelting Ltd.
September 2006
2
Manitoba Regulations 228/94
  • 44(3) Each refuge station provided under
    subsection (2) shall be
  • (a) clearly identified
  • (b) constructed of noncombustible material
  • (c) of sufficient size to accommodate the workers
    that are required to assemble therein
  • (d) equipped with
  • (i) a supply of compressed air,
  • (ii) a supply of potable water,
  • (iii) a means of communication with surface, and
  • (iv) a means of sealing to prevent the entry of
    gas and
  • (e) suitably located with respect to working
    areas.
  • 49(4) At least once in each month an employer
    shall
  • examine for compliance with this regulation all
  • (iii) refuge stations

3
Saskatchewan Regulations
  • 398(2)Each Primary Refuge Station is
  • (a) Excavated in solid host material or is
    constructed of steel
  • (b) separated from adjoining workings by fire
    doors or stoppings that are
  • (i) designed to prevent noxious fumes from
    entering the refuge station and
  • (ii) if reasonably practicable, constructed of
    materials that have at least a one-hour fire
    resistance rating
  • (c) located
  • (i) if reasonably practicable, in a fresh air
    circuit
  • (ii) at least 100 metres away from any fuel
    station, explosive storage area or other fire
    hazard and
  • (iii) as accurately as possible on a map of the
    surface
  • (d) designed to accommodate the number of
    workers who may reasonably be expected to use the
    refuge station
  • (e) clearly marked
  • (f) readily accessible and
  • (g) properly maintained and the area around the
    entrance is kept free of combustible material.

4
Saskatchewan Regulations (cont)
  • (3) must ensure that every primary underground
    refuge station is equipped with the following
  • (a) at least 36 hours of breathable air for the
    number of workers who may reasonably be expected
    to use the refuge station in accordance with the
    fire control and emergency response plan
  • (b) potable water for the number of workers who
    may reasonably be expected to use the refuge
    station in accordance with the fire control and
    emergency response plan
  • (c) food
  • (d) lights
  • (e) first aid supplies
  • (f) sanitation facilities
  • (g) suitable fire-fighting equipment
  • (h) an effective means of communication with the
    surface
  • (i) sufficient seating.

5
Saskatchewan Regulations (cont)
  • 399. (2) each auxiliary refuge station is
    constructed appropriately and adequately.
  • (3) must ensure that every auxiliary refuge
    station is equipped with the following
  • (a) at least 36 hours of breathable air for the
    number of workers who may reasonably be expected
    to use the refuge station in accordance with the
    fire control and emergency response plan
  • (b) potable water for the number of workers who
    may reasonably be expected to use the refuge
    station in accordance with the fire control and
    emergency response plan
  • (c) an effective means of communication with the
    surface
  • (d) suitable and appropriate material to
    maintain the seal around the door of the refuge
    station.

401. An employer or contractor must (a) ensure
that every refuge station, and the equipment in
the refuge station, is thoroughly inspected by a
competent person at least once a month and (b)
ensure that the results of each inspection
conducted pursuant to clause (a) are recorded by
the competent person mentioned in clause (a) and
countersigned by the employer or contractor.
6
Saskatchewan Regulations (cont)
  • 402. If a refuge station mentioned in section
    398, 399 or 400 uses compressed air cylinders,
    the employer or contractor must ensure that the
    compressed air cylinders are equipped with
    regulators that provide for the optimum flow of
    air in the refuge station, taking into account
    the size of the refuge station and the number of
    workers who may use it.
  • 404. (1) If the chief mines inspector requires
    self-rescue apparatuses to be provided
    underground, or if the self-rescue apparatuses
    are otherwise provided by an employer or
    contractor, the employer or contractor must
    ensure that
  • (a) all workers carry a self-rescue apparatus
    at all times while working underground or
  • (b) a sufficient number of self-rescue
    apparatuses are stored at suitable locations
    underground.
  • (2) If self-rescue apparatuses are provided in
    accordance with subsection (1), an employer or
    contractor must ensure that a worker who may be
    required to use a self-rescue apparatus is
    adequately trained by a competent person in the
    proper use of the self-rescue apparatus and in
    its limitations.

7
Alberta Regulations
  • 559 An employer at an underground coal mine must
    ensure that there are refuge stations located at
    strategic places in the mine.
  • A refuge station must
  • be big enough to accommodate all workers working
    in the vicinity during 1 shift,
  • have water, air and a system that communicates
    effectively with the surface, and
  • be separated from adjoining workings by closeable
    fireproof doors arranged and equipped to prevent
    gases entering the refuge station.
  • An employer at an underground coal mine must
    ensure that the number of workers that can be
    accommodated in a refuge station is posted
    outside of the entrance to the station.

8
BC Regulations
  • 22.50 (1) A refuge station must be provided
    within 500 m
  • (1640 ft) of the main underground work area,
    which is
  • (a) large enough to accommodate all workers
    underground,
  • (b) supplied with drinking water and compressed
    air tanks or cylinders,
  • (c) equipped with a communication system to the
    surface,
  • (d) capable of being sealed to prevent the entry
    of gases,
  • (e) provided with a plan of the underground
    working which shows all exits,
  • (f) maintained in sanitary condition, and
  • (g) equipped with emergency lighting.
  • 22.11 (1) For non-gassy workings, a minimum of an
    approved self-rescuer of the air purifying type
    must be carried by the worker.
  • (2) For gassy workings, a minimum of a
    self-contained (air supply) self-rescuer capable
    of delivering 30 minutes of air must be
    immediately accessible to each worker underground.

9
Yukon Regulations
  • 34. (2) Every refuge station shall have water,
    air, and telephone connections to the surface and
    be separated from adjoining workings by closable
    openings so arranged and equipped that gases can
    be prevented from entering the refuge station.

10
NWT Nunavut Regulations
  • 8.66. shall ensure that a refuge station is
    located within the closer of the following
    distances from an active workplace in an
    underground mine
  • (a) 1 km
  • (b) a distance that takes no more than 15
    minutes to travel.
  • 8.69. Every refuge station shall be
  • (a) clearly identified
  • (b) constructed of non-combustible material
    and
  • (c) of sufficient size to accommodate all
    persons in the vicinity.
  • 8.71(a) that a refuge station is equipped with
    the following
  • (i) a supply of potable water,
  • (ii) a means of communicating with the mine
    rescue station in an emergency or other
    situation,
  • (iii) general lighting,
  • (iv) seating capacity for as many persons as
    the refuge station is designed to shelter,

11
NWT Nunavut Regulations (cont)
  • 8.71(a) that a refuge station is equipped with
    the following
  • (v) an adequate supply of door sealant to stop
    air from entering the refuge station,
  • (vi) a sealable container that can be used as a
    toilet,
  • (viii) a copy of the procedures for fire
    fighting underground and a plan showing the
    ventilation system and routes to the escape
    exits, both of which are to be posted,
  • (ix) at least one first aid kit that meets the
    requirements of Schedule 1,
  • (x) where required,
  • (A) a source of heat to maintain a minimum
    temperature of 10 C in the refuge station, or
  • (B) if the heat referred to in clause (A) may,
    in the opinion of an inspector, cause ground
    instability, warm suits sufficient to prevent
    hypothermia for as many persons as the refuge
    station is designed to shelter, and
  • (xi) where the refuge station is underground,
    an air supply independent of the mine air system
    and designed to provide a minimum of 12 hours
    supply of air for as many persons as the refuge
    station is designed to shelter

12
NWT Nunavut Regulations (cont)
  • (xii)(b) that the equipment and provisions
    referred to in paragraph (a) are maintained for
    immediate use and are examined at least weekly to
    ensure that the refuge station is equipped as
    required and that the equipment is in good
    working order
  • (c) that reproducible maintenance records are
    kept that set out the results of each examination
    done under paragraph (b) and the name of the
    person who did the examination
  • (d) that suitable signs showing the direction of
    airflow and the routes to refuge stations and
    escape exits are posted at all junctions leading
    from worksites and
  • (e) that a code of conduct for persons occupying
    a refuge station is posted in each refuge station.

13
NWT Nunavut Regulations (cont)
  • 1.58. Compressed air used for ventilation in a
    refuge station shall be
  • a) continuously supplied to refuge station
    through a separate air line
  • (b) in the case of a refuge station, controlled
    only inside the refuge station
  • (c) noise attenuated at the point of discharge
    to decrease the noise level to comply with the
    standards set out in Part IX
  • (d) before discharging, filtered to remove
    scale, oil and other contaminants

14
Ontario Regulations
  • 26. Where the procedure in case of a fire in an
    underground mine provides for the use of a refuge
    station for workers, the refuge station shall,
  • (a) be constructed with materials having at least
    a one hour fire-resistance rating
  • (b) be of sufficient size to accommodate the
    workers to be assembled therein
  • (c) be capable of being sealed to prevent the
    entry of gases
  • (d) have a means of voice communication with the
    surface and
  • (e) be equipped with a means for the supply of,
  • (i) compressed air, and
  • (ii) potable water. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 854, s. 26.

15
Ontario Regulations (cont)
  • 126. (1) A magazine, storage container or
    explosive storage area referred to in subsection
    125 (5) that is in an underground mine shall be,
  • (a) located at least 60 metres from,
  • (iii) areas of refuge or other areas where
    workers may congregate, and
  • 233. (1) A system for communicating by voice
    shall be installed and maintained at an
    underground mine. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 854, s. 233
    (1).
  • (2) The communication system required by
    subsection (1) shall permit communication between
    persons at,
  • (d) an underground refuge station and
  • (e) an attended place on surface. R.R.O. 1990,
    Reg. 854, s. 233 (2).

16
Ontario Regulations (cont)
  • 120. (1) A service garage, service bay or
    fuelling station in an underground mine shall,
  • (b) be located so that in the event of a fire or
    explosion in the garage, bay or station there
    will be a minimum effect on working areas of the
    mine or on underground installations including
    shafts, magazines, refuge station, transformer
    installations and other installations

17
Ontario Ministry Of Labour - April 27, 1979
  • Information Sheet R.S. 24
  • Refuge stations should be located in all areas
    U/G where in the event of a fire or other
    disaster there is a possibility that persons may
    not be able to reach a mine exit from the
    workplace in a reasonably short time. They should
    be located in a fresh air circuit and away from
    extreme hazard areas such as diesel repair
    stations and oil, fuel or explosives storage. All
    persons working in the area should be familiar
    with the location of the refuge station.
  • Requirements
  • The refuge station should
  • 1. Preferably be excavated from solid host
    material (rock, salt, gypsum, etc.) and
    constructed so as to prevent the inflow of
    outside air a portable type unit may be used
    providing it is fire resistant and reasonably
    airtight.

Mining Health Safety Branch, Information for
Guidance of Inspectors, Requirements For U/G
Refuge Stations
18
Ontario Ministry Of Labour - April 27, 1979 (cont)
  • 2. Be of a size that will afford all anticipated
    occupants 10 cubic yards (7645 litres) of air per
    person per 8 hours or be provided with
    compressed air sufficient to sustain the
    occupants for 8 hours or, be serviced by a
    compressed air line.
  • 3. Be serviced with potable water or have a
    supply of drinking water available.
  • 4. If possible be fitted with heaters or air
    cooler and lights.
  • 5. Have a steel mandoor(s) which can be
    positively latched and tightly sealed. There
    should be a small opening to exhaust stale air
    that can be sealed when required. All components
    should be fire resistant.
  • 6. Contain enough benches to comfortably seat
    the persons who will use it.
  • 7. Have a drain which will permit escape of
    waste water but will stop the inflow of outside
    air

Mining Health Safety Branch, Information for
Guidance of Inspectors, Requirements For U/G
Refuge Stations
19
Ontario Ministry Of Labour - April 27, 1979 (cont)
  • 8. Have a container of clay or other caulking
    compound kept in a condition suitable for use.
  • 9. Have a means of communication to a point on
    surface which can be constantly monitored. If
    practical, the means of communication should be
    of a type where an emergency call can interrupt
    any other call.
  • 10. Contain a basket stretcher, blankets, and a
    first aid kit, all of which are regularly
    inspected and maintained.
  • 11. Have a supply of emergency tools such as
    axes, ropes, shovels, jacks, etc. and a 10lb. Dry
    chemical fire extinguisher.
  • 12. Contain a copy of of the fire procedure and
    the procedure to be followed in a refuge station
    during an emergency.
  • 13. Be routinely inspected and properly
    maintained for its intended uses.

Mining Health Safety Branch, Information for
Guidance of Inspectors, Requirements For U/G
Refuge Stations
20
New Brunswick Regulations
  • 71 An employer shall provide each employee who
    works underground with self-rescue emergency
    escape breathing equipment.
  • 72 An employer shall establish and maintain
    underground a sufficient number of refuge
    stations that
  • (a) are constructed of fire resistive material,
  • (b) are of sufficient size to contain air that
    would sustain the life of the number of employees
    intended to be sheltered for eight hours or are
    equipped with a means for the supply of
    compressed air or oxygen that would sustain life
    of the number of employees intended to be
    sheltered for eight hours,
  • (c) are capable of being sealed to prevent the
    entry of gases,
  • (d) contain tables and benches,
  • (e) have an adequate means of voice
    communication with the surface,
  • (f) are equipped with an adequate supply of
    potable water and suitable emergency toilet
    facilities,
  • (g) are provided with a first aid kit that meets
    the requirements of subsection 12(3) of the
    General Regulation - Occupational Health and
    Safety Act,

21
New Brunswick Regulations (cont)
  • (h) have a posted escape plan and posted
    emergency procedures, and
  • (i) have full instructions posted concerning the
    conduct of persons within a refuge station during
    refuge and instructions not to smoke.
  • 73 An employer shall ensure that a refuge station
    referred to in section 72
  • (a) is not used for any purpose other than a
    lunch room or a storage area for first aid
    supplies and mine emergency equipment, and
  •   (b) is checked daily to ensure compliance with
    the requirements of section 72.

22
Nova Scotia Regulations
  • 146 (1) An employer must construct, inspect, and
    maintain a refuge station every 300 m underground
    in an active working if a person has to travel
    more than 500 m to reach
  • (a) the mine exit or
  • (b) if a shaft conveyance is used to reach the
    surface, a shaft station.
  • 147 (1) An employer must ensure that a refuge
    station can be sealed to prevent the entry of
    gases and is constructed
  • (a) in competent, non-combustible rock
  • (b) if it is a non-portable refuge station in a
    coal mine, of competent rock that may be coal, if
    there is an adequate noncombustible sealed
    barrier between the coal and the occupied space
    or
  • (c) if it is a portable refuge station, of
    noncombustible material.

23
Nova Scotia Regulations (cont)
  • (2) An employer must ensure that a refuge station
    has adequate drainage for liquid and gaseous
    waste.
  • (3) An employer must ensure that all parts of any
    compressed air lines, or water lines supplying
    the refuge station are made of noncombustible
    materials.
  • (4) An employer must ensure that a refuge station
    is located
  • (a) at least 100 m from a magazine, diesel fuel
    storage area, fueling station or battery charging
    station and
  • (b) where reasonably practicable, in intake air.
  • (5) An employer must ensure that a refuge station
    has on the outside of the refuge station, an
    audible signaling device and a sign identifying
    it as a refuge station.

24
Nova Scotia Regulations (cont)
  • 148 An employer must ensure that a refuge station
    has an air supply that is adequate to sustain,
    for a minimum of 8 hours, the life of the maximum
    number of mine workers intended to be sheltered
    there, by ensuring that the refuge station is
  • (a) large enough to contain the required air
    supply or
  • (b) equipped with a means of supplying the
    required air supply by way of compressed air or
    oxygen.
  • 149 An employer must ensure that a refuge station
    is equipped with
  • (a) an oxygen and flammable gas detector
  • (b) a manometer with a scale, mounted on the
    wall of the refuge station, capable of measuring
    the pressure difference between the inside and
    outside of the refuge station

25
Nova Scotia Regulations (cont)
  • (c) an adequate supply of potable water that, if
    supplied in containers, is exchanged for fresh
    water at least once a month, or is kept until its
    expiry date if the supply is sealed and
    date-stamped by a water supplier.
  • (d) adequate toilet facilities, tables and
    benches
  • (e) an adequate means of voice communication
    with the surface
  • (f) adequate emergency lighting
  • (g) a Number 2 First Aid Kit as defined by the
    Occupational Health and Safety First Aid
    Regulations made under the Act
  • (h) a basket-shaped stretcher with restraining
    straps
  • (i) 2 blankets and
  • (j) razors for shaving facial hair.

26
Nova Scotia Regulations (cont)
  • 150 An employer must ensure that procedures are
    prepared for the use of a refuge station during
    an emergency that include
  • (a) instructions for the conduct of persons in
    the refuge station
  • (b) instructions for entering the refuge station
    in a manner that protects the health and safety
    of persons sheltered inside the refuge station
    and
  • (c) a prohibition on smoking.
  • 151 An employer must ensure that the procedures
    required by Section 150 are posted in a
    conspicuous place on the inside and on the
    outside of each refuge station.

27
Nova Scotia Regulations (cont)
  • 152 An employer must ensure that a refuge station
    is not used for any purpose other than as a
    lunchroom, office, or storage area for first aid
    supplies and equipment, for the delivery of first
    aid, or as a place of refuge during an emergency.
  • 153 At least once a month, an employer must
    ensure that a designated person at the mine
    inspects, maintains and re-supplies the refuge
    stations and prepares a report of the inspection
    and any maintenance performed.

28
MSHA Metal/Nonmetal Mines
  • 57.11050 Escapeways and Refuges
  • (b) In addition to separate escapeways, a method
    of refuge shall be provided for every employee
    who cannot reach the surface from his working
    place through at least two separate escapeways
    within a time limit of one hour when using the
    normal exit method. These refuges must be
    positioned so that the employee can reach one of
    them within 30 minutes from the time he leaves
    his workplace.

29
MSHA Metal/Nonmetal Mines (cont)
  • 30 CFR 57.11052 Refuge areas.Refuge areas
    shall be--a) Of fire-resistant construction,
    preferably in untimbered areas of the mine (b)
    Large enough to accommodate readily the normal
    number of persons in the particular area of the
    mine (c) Constructed so they can be made
    gastight and (d) Provided with compressed air
    lines, waterlines, suitable handtools, and
    stopping materials.
  • 30 CFR 57.11054 Communication with refuge
    chambers.Telephone or other voice communication
    shall be provided between the surface and refuge
    chambers and such systems shall be independent of
    the mine power supply.

30
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine
  • Location of Emergency Refuge Stations
  • On main or normal routes of travel where they
    achieve high visibility and high workforce
    recognition, wherever practical
  • Where more than one ERS is required on a level,
    they should be located so as to maximize the
    options workers have to access the ERSs from
    different directions/routes.
  • At least 60 m from a magazine.
  • At least 15m from a transformer greater in size
    than 5 KVA.
  • So that a fire in a parking area or refuelling
    bay will have minimal effect on the ERS.
  • Sufficiently distant to any combustible material
    so that the ERS cannot catch on fire and so that
    direct access from the thoroughfare to the ERS
    cannot be blocked off by fire.
  • Away from a place where they will be damaged by
    concussion in stope blasts.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
31
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • Away from a place where they will be damaged by
    concussion in stope blasts.
  • To have a strong barricade to ensure vehicles
    cannot park in front of them or back into them.
  • Where practical, to be located where there is a
    second egress and/or access for mine rescue
    teams.
  • Where they can be towed or carried into position
    with no damage to the ERS or the towing machine
    or forklift.
  • So they have ready access to utilities
    (telephone, power, etc).
  • Where they cannot be flooded.
  • Where the ground is sound and good roof support
    is in place.
  • To be located after consultation with the
    relevant mine rescue leaders, who may want to
    examine alternative routes for retrieval / rescue
    of personnel if the main access to the ERS is
    blocked.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
32
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • Even though the "design capacity rating" of a ERS
    should not be placed on the ERS (this could imply
    that once this number is reached, people are then
    to be turned away!) it is important to recognize
    a "rating" for the purposes of deciding if and
    where more ERSs are required because of the
    numbers of people working in a high-activity
    area.
  • Specification of mine compressed air supply to
    Emergency Refuge Station
  • Provision of a properly sized, secure (good
    hangers /ties) preferably screwed compressed air
    line, preferably painted or signed so it is not
    interfered with.
  • The airline should discharge to the back of the
    ERS, at the opposite end to the entrance door.
  • The airline needs a filter, regulator and a
    silencer. The regulator should be pre-set to the
    airflow required for the number of people in the
    room.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
33
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • Manual override is required for the regulator in
    the event of low compressed air pressure (i.e.
    the line has been damaged or contamination of the
    compressed air has occurred).
  • The regulator should be designed so that it will
    not freeze up under the range of conditions that
    could be encountered during emergency egress.
  • Airline discharge is activated on confirmation of
    any sized fire or smoke detected or suspected.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
34
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • This must be able to be done remotely by a
    responsible person (ie. the person who gives the
    mine evacuation command), locally from within the
    ERS, and also, in the case of fixed ERSs which
    usually have a fan and vent duct feeding fresh
    air into the room, operated by a smoke detector
    which also closes the fan feeding the room, which
    in turn operates a self closing damper on the
    duct inlet to the room.
  • A purge line outside the room, which can be
    opened and closed from a simple mechanical valve
    inside the room, would allow someone in the room
    to purge the first few minutes of air from the
    line for maintenance or other reasons.
  • A pressure relief valve at the opposite end to
    the airline discharge to ensure pressures become
    excessive within the ERS

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
35
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • General Specification of Emergency Refuge Station
  • Fail-safe breathable air supply, or primary
    supply with backup.
  • Brick walls used in the external construction of
    the ERS to be painted to avoid gas leakage. Two
    coats of oil based paint are required.
  • For the fixed ERSs a dedicated screwed water
    line, clearly marked, which is also used for day
    to day water supply to the room to avoid problems
    with bacterial growth in the water.
  • For the relocatable ERSs, a store of cached
    water, replaced at appropriate intervals, along
    with drinking cups.
  • Telephone and essential telephone numbers must be
    on a sign near the telephone.
  • A sign with the unique name of the ERS must be
    inside the ERS to ensure that all persons even
    those unfamiliar with their location, can
    identify exactly where they are.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
36
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • No smoking signs outside and inside the ERS.
  • Provision of a very basic emergency toilet,
    toilet paper, note books and pens (for taking
    names of persons, instructions, measurements
    etc), stretcher(s) (site specific) and trauma
    kit, playing cards (1 pack per four persons) and
    masking tape (for emergency sealing of cracks)
    all housed in a locked wooden cabinet, with "in
    case of emergency break glass".
  • Note that a 3 mm crack around a door leaks 5
    litres of air per metre of crack when under 120
    pascals. Therefore sealing is important to avoid
    possible contamination of the station, even when
    under positive pressure from the compressed air.
  • The door to the ERS should be single, steel clad
    and should be outward opening with a good seal.
  • The ERS should be clearly marked as "Emergency
    Refuge Station" and optionally painted in the
    Australian standard green and white for emergency
    facilities.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
37
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • The turn off from the main thoroughfare to the
    ERB should be whitewashed to ensure prominence
    and high recognition for the ERB.
  • Siren and flashing light outside the ERS (visible
    and audible indicators activated automatically on
    issue of the mine evacuation order with manual
    override so they can be turned off after a
    suitable time) and battery (UPS) backup.
  • Orange lights have been shown in South African
    studies to be most visible colour in smoke.
  • Optionally, an ERS which is less accessible or
    visible from the main thoroughfare should have
    guide cones installed from the main thoroughfare
    to the ERS.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
38
Criteria For The Design Of Emergency Refuge
Stations For An U/G Metal Mine (cont)
  • ERS external walls should have one hour fire
    rating.
  • Internal emergency lighting much the same as in a
    surface building. In the fixed ERSs, this also
    helps people find cap lamps etc if there is a
    power failure during other circumstances.
  • If temperatures in the ERS could reach levels
    that result in serious health problems, a method
    of cooling the occupants.

Australasian Institute Of Mining Metallurgy
AusIMM Proceedings, Vol. 304 No. 2 1999- Rick
Brake - Mine Ventilation Australia, Graham Bates
- Senior Lecturer In Physiology, School Of Public
Health, Curtin University, WA
39
Coal Mine Refuge Chambers Design Concept
Provisions
  • Should be located within 1,500 feet of work areas
    in the mine or otherwise based on model studies
    to determine the appropriate locations.
  • Distance based on low/zero visibility, 50 supply
    of a 60-minute SCSR, entry height, and the
    respiratory rate of a miner walking under duress
  • Further reduction for entry heights less than 5
    feet
  • Provide a minimum of 72 hours of safe refuge to
    hazards caused by mine fires, inundation of water
    and noxious gases, and entrapment
  • Life Support System in the Chamber
  • Air supply
  • Medical-grade oxygen in bottles
  • Fresh oil-free air source from surface through a
    cased borehole
  • Scrubbers for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
  • Humidity control

Mine Escape Planning Emergency Shelters
Workshop - National Academy of Sciences -
Washington DC April 18, 2006
40
Coal Mine Refuge Chambers Design Concept
Provisions (cont)
  • Temperature control
  • Water Food
  • Cased borehole
  • Surface to refuge chamber
  • Fresh air supply
  • Maintain positive pressure in refuge chamber
  • Communication/electric lines
  • First aid supplies
  • Lights
  • Power supply
  • Sanitation facility
  • Seating table
  • Stretcher

Mine Escape Planning Emergency Shelters
Workshop - National Academy of Sciences -
Washington DC April 18, 2006
41
Coal Mine Refuge Chambers Design Concept
Provisions (cont)
  • Design Requirements
  • Resist an explosion with a minimum 80-psi
    overpressure and impact from projectiles such as
    cribs, roof fall material, etc
  • If an inundation hazard exists, the chamber
    should also be able to resist a minimum of 100
    feet of water head
  • Able to survive initial and secondary explosions
  • Follow concrete design codes
  • Foundation investigation
  • Keyed into strata 2-feet minimum
  • Anchored/doweled into the surrounding strata

Mine Escape Planning Emergency Shelters
Workshop - National Academy of Sciences -
Washington DC April 18, 2006
42
Coal Mine Refuge Chambers Design Concept
Provisions (cont)
  • Grout curtain around the perimeter of the
    bulkhead to consolidate/strengthen coal measure
    strata reduce permeability
  • Mine roof should be extensively bolted both inby
    and outby the chamber other supplement roof
    supports should be provided near the bulkhead
  • Equipped with an air and watertight, fire-rated
    steel door 3 diameter or 3 wide by 3 high
  • Fire rated (Shotcrete entrance for fire
    protection)
  • Rock Anchors to anchor the foundation reinforce
    the coal measure strata

Mine Escape Planning Emergency Shelters
Workshop - National Academy of Sciences -
Washington DC April 18, 2006
43
Mine Refuge Stations Guidelines for
construction, maintenance, and inspections in U/G
operations MAPAM Jan. 2006
  • 1. Be excavated from solid host material (rock,
    salt, gypsum, etc.) and constructed so as to
    prevent the inflow of outside air. A portable
    type unit may be used providing it is fire
    resistant and reasonably air tight.
  • 2. Be of a size that will afford all anticipated
    occupants 1 cubic meter of air per person per
    hour, for a minimum period of eight hours.
  • 3. Be serviced with potable water lines or have a
    supply of drinking water available.
  • 4. If possible be fitted with heaters/or air
    coolers and lights.
  • 5. Have a steel mandoor(s) which can be
    positively latched and tightly sealed. There
    should be a small opening to exhaust stale air
    that can be sealed when required. All components
    should be fire resistant.

44
Mine Refuge Stations Guidelines for
construction, maintenance, and inspections in U/G
operations MAPAM Jan 2006 (cont)
  • 6. Contain enough benches to comfortably seat the
    persons who will use it
  • 7. Have a drain to permit the escape of waste
    water but will stop the inflow of outside air.
  • 8. Have a container of clay or other caulking
    compound kept in a condition suitable for use.
  • 9. Have communication to a point on surface which
    can be constantly monitored. If practical the
    means of communication should be a type where an
    emergency call can interrupt any other call. '
  • 10. Have emergency toilet facilities with some
    minimum provisions for privacy.

45
Mine Refuge Stations Guidelines for
construction, maintenance, and inspections in U/G
operations MAPAM Jan 2006 (cont)
  • 11. Contain a basket stretcher, blankets and a
    first aid kit, all of which are regularly
    inspected and maintained.
  • 12. Have a 10 lb dry chemical fire extinguisher.
  • 13. Contain a copy of the fire procedure and the
    procedure to be followed in the refuge station
    during an emergency.
  • 14. Be routinely inspected and properly
    maintained for its intended use.
  • Construction Guidelines
  • 1. Refuge stations must be excavated in competent
    rock, have proper necessary ground support and
    the surrounding material should be air tight or
    have the capability of being sealed properly.
  • 2. Locate Refuge Stations as reasonably close to
    the working crews as possible so they can reach
    it within the shortest practical time, and if
    possible, on the fresh air side of the
    ventilation circuit. They must be located a safe
    distance from a flammable materials or explosives
    storage areas.

46
Mine Refuge Stations Guidelines for
construction, maintenance, and inspections in U/G
operations MAPAM Jan 2006 (cont)
  • Airlock entry system is preferred. Single door
    entry is common. Procedures should be established
    for single door entry and airlock entry.
  • Station should be provided with suitably sized
    steel entry door, opening outward (to prevent
    inadvertent opening from blast concussion) with
    capability of being sealed during emergency, and
    wide enough to allow a stretcher to be carried
    through the opening.
  • The door should be of suitable size, constructed
    of metal, and sufficiently reinforced to minimize
    damage from concussions or other potential
    hazards.
  • A sill under the door will help to provide proper
    sealing potential.
  • Services other than air and water should be piped
    through the wall using conduit to enable proper
    sealing of openings.
  • Bulkhead excavation should be minimum size to
    allow smallest practical construction of bulkhead
    - balance of station can be expanded as required.

47
Mine Refuge Stations Guidelines for
construction, maintenance, and inspections in U/G
operations MAPAM Jan 2006 (cont)
  • Materials used in bulkhead construction must be
    non-combustible and have at least a 1 hour fire
    resistance rating.
  • All walls, ceilings and floors should be
    competent and any joints, cracks, fissures etc.
    should be properly sealed or be capable of being
    sealed during any emergency.
  • Concrete blocks should be painted to prevent air
    leakage.
  • The refuge station wall should be built on solid
    rock/material. A 4" concrete floor is recommended
    sloped for proper drainage.
  • Have an exhaust hole or port about 2" in diameter
    equipped with a non return valve, suitably
    located on entry door.
  • P-Trap installed in wall and/or floor for proper
    drainage of liquids/water.

48
Mine Safety Recommendations West Virginia May
29, 2006
  • Emergency Shelter/Chamber Recommendations
  • 1. The Director shall require, in each
    underground mine, an emergency shelter/chamber,
    it shall be located in a crosscut no more than
    1,000 feet from the nearest working face and
    shall be accurately located on mine maps.
  • 2. The Director may approve, as an alternative to
    a shelter/chamber, an additional surface opening
    located no more than 1,000 feet from the nearest
    working face and accurately located on mine maps.
  • 16. The proposed emergency shelter/chamber plan
    shall
  • describe the structure and operations of the
    emergency shelter/chamber and its role in
    emergency response
  • ensure that emergency shelters/chambers are
    included in initial mine hazard training in such
    a manner that it is in compliance with all
    manufacturers requirements and is provided
    yearly in addition to annual refresher training.
    All training shall be recorded and made available
    upon request

Report to the Director of the Office of Miners
Health, Safety and Training By the West Virginia
Mine Safety Technology Task Force
49
Mine Safety Recommendations West Virginia May
29, 2006 (cont)
  • ensure weekly inspections of emergency
    shelters/chambers and contents shall be conducted
    by a certified mine foreman/fireboss and recorded
    in weekly ventilation examination book
  • ensure that weekly safety meetings review the
    current location of applicable emergency
    shelters/chambers and results of the latest
    inspection
  • ensure that emergency shelters/chambers shall
    be equipped with easily removable tamper-proof
    tags such that a visual indication of
    unauthorized access to the emergency
    shelter/chamber can be detected and
  • ensure that the mines communication center
    shall monitor any communication systems
    associated with the emergency shelter/chamber at
    all times that the mine is occupied.

Report to the Director of the Office of Miners
Health, Safety and Training By the West Virginia
Mine Safety Technology Task Force
50
Mine Safety Recommendations West Virginia May
29, 2006 (cont)
  • 17. The proposed emergency shelter/chamber shall
    include the ability to
  • provide a minimum of 48 hours life support
    (air, water, emergency medical supplies, and
    food) for the maximum number of miners reasonably
    expected on the working section
  • be capable of surviving an initial event with
    a peak overpressure of 15 psi and a flash
    temperature of 300 degrees Fahrenheit
  • be constructed such that it will be protected
    under normal handling and pre-event mine
    conditions
  • provide for rapidly establishing an internal
    shelter atmosphere of
  • O2 above 19.5, CO2 below 0.5, CO below 50 ppm,
    and an apparent-temperature of 95 degrees
    Fahrenheit

Report to the Director of the Office of Miners
Health, Safety and Training By the West Virginia
Mine Safety Technology Task Force
51
Mine Safety Recommendations West Virginia May
29, 2006 (cont)
  • provide the ability to monitor carbon monoxide
    and oxygen inside and outside the
    shelter/chamber
  • provide a means for entry and exit that
    maintains the integrity of the internal
    atmosphere
  • provide a means for intrinsically safe power if
    required
  • provide a minimum eight quarts of water per
    miner
  • provide a minimum of 4000 calories of food per
    miner
  • provide a means for disposal of human waste to
    the outside of the shelter/chamber
  • provide a first aid or EMT kit in addition to a
    section first aid kit
  • have provisions for inspection of the
    shelter/chamber and contents
  • contain manufacturer recommended repair
    materials
  • provide a battery-powered internal strobe light
    visible from the outside indicating occupancy
  • provide a means of communications to the
    surface and
  • only contain MSHA approved materials where
    applicable.

Report to the Director of the Office of Miners
Health, Safety and Training By the West Virginia
Mine Safety Technology Task Force
52
INCO 3890 Refuge Station Design Recommendations -
June 1, 2006
  • INCO Thompson is building a Refuge Station on
    3890 at the 1D Lower Project and have had
    planning meetings to set this station up. The
    following list are items that were discussed for
    the design of the refuge station.
  • Sufficient size to hold 30 personnel. Current
    Layout is 45 x 22 x 9 8910 cubic feet (252
    cubic meters), this allows for 8 hour occupancy
    with dead air for the 30.
  • An airlock was discussed for construction. It was
    suggested that 4 foot spacing between the doors
    would be adequate.
  • An air header and silencers to be located in
    airlock. In case of emergency the airlock can be
    purged of contaminants.

53
INCO 3890 Refuge Station Design Recommendations -
June 1, 2006 (cont)
  • Stretcher box could be stored in airlock.
  • Interior doors to be constructed of metal fire
    rated doors, fitted with window.
  • Exterior door a steel door to be installed that
    could withstand equipment fire in extraction
    drift.
  • No Parking Zone in front of the refuge station,
    put parking area away from station.
  • A minimum of 30 Litres of water is required to
    emergency use.
  • Telephone to be place on outer airlock wall.
    This allows for communication with occupants of
    refuge station.
  • Refer to the MAPAM refuge station recommendations
    for further design criteria.

54
HBMS Standard For Refuge Stations - MWP-S155
  • Location
  • Mines with shaft access are to have a permanent
    refuge station located within 100 meters of the
    shaft on each working level. Additional
    permanent refuge stations are required at
    horizontal intervals not exceeding 1000 metres.
  • Mines with portal access (and ramps) are to have
    permanent refuge stations located as close as
    possible to the main ramp and where practicable,
    at intervals not to exceed 100 vertical metres.
    On any working level, the distance between
    permanent refuge stations is not to exceed 1000
    metres.
  • Temporary refuge stations on working levels are
    recommended at 300 metre intervals.

55
HBMS Standard For Refuge Stations - MWP-S155
(cont)
  • Requirements
  • Are to be plainly identified with signs on the
    bulkhead and in the haulage. Door to be marked
    keep closed a contaminated refuge is no
    refuge
  • Are to be kept clean and all entrances free of
    obstructions.
  • Are to contain
  • a first aid kit.
  • a stretcher bag (containing stretcher, first aid
    kit, blankets, splints, k.e.d.).
  • an emergency use barrel.
  • a detailed map indicating the escape route and
    all active refuge station locations.
  • a placard of refuge station procedures.
  • a telephone and current list of phone numbers
    (including the Emergency Phone Number in large
    lettering).

56
HBMS Standard For Refuge Stations - MWP-S155(cont)
  • Are to contain (cont)
  • adequate lighting and heat.
  • a leaky feeder communication cable extending into
    the refuge station where use of radio
    communications is applicable.
  • air and water lines as outlined in the following
    drawing.
  • a floor sloped for drainage.
  • a metal garbage can with metal lid.
  • Are to be constructed in accordance with the
    standard for ground support policy and
    procedures.
  • Where practicable refuge stations with double
    bulkhead construction is recommended.
  • Doors are to swing outward from the refuge
    chamber.
  • A tee and valve are to be installed in the air
    line between the double bulkheads.

57
HBMS Refuge Station Standard - MWP-S155(cont)
  • The air line is to be installed well towards the
    rear of the refuge station.This will ensure
    better mixing of the air.
  • The muffler is to be installed pointed upwards
    and above the level of the discharge portion of
    the airline. This arrangement will prevent the
    muffler from becoming plugged with rust and
    water, if the discharge line is blown to clear
    the line before the valve to the muffler is
    opened.
  • The muffler and controls are to be installed 2m
    (6 ft.) Off the floor.
  • Note when a refuge station is designated as a
    lunchroom, it is to be equipped with
  • a sink, running hot and cold water, a source of
    potable water, a table and seating, a microwave
    oven.

58
HBMS Refuge Station Standard - MWP-S155(cont)
59
HBMS Refuge Station Standard - MWP-S155(cont)
60
HBMS Refuge Station Standard - MWP-S155(cont)
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