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F16

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Title: F16


1
Aeronautical Systems Center
Rapidly delivering war-winning capability
Critical Mission-Centric Interoperability Issues
for FutureDefense Training and Simulation
Requirements19 April 2004
Dr. Keith W. Jones Lead Standards
Engineer Training Systems Product Group CAF DMO
OI IPT ASC/YWI DSN 785-9660 Ext
3389 Keith.Jones2_at_wpafb.af.mil
2
OUTLINE
  • PURPOSE
  • WHAT IS A STANDARD?
  • DEFINITIONS
  • WHAT IS CAF DMO?
  • Standards Development Process
  • Machine-centric
  • Mission-centric
  • Human-centric Knowledge Transfer, Combat
    Readiness,
  • Contextual Instruction, Learning Process and
    Blooms Taxonomy
  • CAF DMO LEVELS OF STANDARD COMPLIANCE
    FIDELITY,
  • RESOLUTION AND GRANULARITY
  • CAF DMO NEGOTIATION BETWEEN DOC, NOC AND
    FEDERATE SYSTEM
  • PROVIDERS
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  • WAY AHEAD

3
PURPOSE
  • Define CAF DMO
  • Establish a common understanding of the CAF DMO
    standards process
  • Establish need for thinking about CAF DMO from
    machine-, mission- and human-centric
    perspectives as oppose to viewing it (only) from
    traditional machine-centric perspective
  • Establish CAF levels of standard compliance for
    fidelity, resolution and granularity
  • Discuss negotiation decision-making process
    between CAF DMO FSPs and DOC and NOC

4
WHAT IS A STANDARD?
A standard is a documented agreement,
established by a consensus of subject matter
experts and approved by a recognized body, that
provides rules, guidelines or characteristics to
ensure that materials, products, processes and
services are fit for their purpose.American
National Standards Institute
5
DEFINITIONS
  • Biomimetics the interdisciplinary study of
    natural processes to learn how to improve
    man-made materials it is mimicking designs we
    find in nature and trying to learn from them.
    Centralization of pragmatic life/work issues
  •   Contextual Instruction is applied
    instruction, hands-on experience in a shop or
    laboratory or combat centralization of pragmatic
    life/work issues integration of academics with
    real-life experiences personalization of
    instruction visualization of abstract ideas
    demonstration of utility provision of factual
    knowledge on a "need-to-know basis removal of
    the knowledge-intimidation factor.
  • DMO Operations Center (DOC) operates from a
    secure facility located in the NOC and is capable
    of conducting and coordinating classified details
    of DMO Events.
  • Episodic memory is knowledge of a thing in
    time.
  • Ergonomics is the science of refining the
    design of products to optimize them for human
    use. Human characteristics, such as height,
    weight, and proportions are considered, as well
    as information about human hearing, sight,
    temperature preferences, and so on. Ergonomics is
    sometimes known as human factors engineering.
  • Human-centric situated at or near center of
    anything related to or characteristic of human
    beings.
  • Human Factors (also known as ergonomics) is
    the study of how humans behave physically and
    psychologically in relation to particular
    environments, products, or services.
  • Knowledge Transfer Case where journeyman,
    instructor, makes abstract ideas and concepts
    visible to learners (or trainees) as they come to
    understand the utility of the concept and ways to
    apply it to a task.
  • Machine-centric situated at or near center of
    any mechanical or electrical device that
    transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist
    in the performance of human tasks
  • Mission-centric situated at or near center of
    anything related to special assignment that is
    given to a person or group.

6
WHAT IS CAF DMO?
CAF DMO is an ongoing program whose purpose is to
simultaneously and collectively train
geographically dispersed pilots, using the same
and/or different air vehicle simulators.
7
WHAT IS CAF DMO?
8
CAF DMO EFFORT
DMO Evolution 1
9
Standards Development Process
CAF DMO Standards Maintenance Plan 1
10
Machine-centric
Engineering Design Simulator Software Layers 3
11
Machine-centric
Standards Category Standard
Interface Standards Network DMT Tailored DIS Reference Federation Object Model
Integration Process Standards Event Control Security Conformance Testing Data Collection
Federate System Performance Standards Technical Performance Synthetic Natural Environment (SNE) Threat Representation and CGFs (TRCGF) Common Models Visualization
CAF DMO Standards 1
12
Mission-centric
F-15s being refueled by KC-135.
13
Human-centric
F-16 Virtual Cockpit
A conceptual framework for managing human
interaction with physical artifacts and digital
information 4.
14
Human-centric Blooms Taxonomy
  • Three types of learning cognitive, affective and
    psychomotor
  • Cognitive knowledge, comprehension, analysis,
    synthesis and evaluation
  • Affective receiving phenomena, responding to
    phenomena, valuing, organization and
    internalizing values
  • Psychomotor perception, set, guided response,
    mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation and
    origination

15
Human-centric Blooms Taxonomy
Domains and their associated processes
16
Human-centric Dales Cone of Knowledge
17
Human-centric v. Biomimetics
  •      "Fuzzy logic" uses electronic circuits to
    process information that cannot be
  • precisely measured or predicted,
  • Unlike conventional digital logic, which deals
    only with hard facts and numbers
  • Fuzzy logic circuits are used successfully to
    control a variety of equipment,
  • ranging from washing machines to aircraft
  •       Artificial Neural Networks, organizes
    digital ICs into large arrays of
  • microprocessors, so that they operate like the
    neurons in the brain.
  • Unlike fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks
    can improve their performance through experience
  • They also have powerful associative memory
  • Like a person, artificial neural networks can
    retrieve large blocks of information when
    prompted by a few details

18
LEVELS OF STANDARD COMPLIANCE
  • Levels of Standards Compliance (LSC) is defined
    as the DMO OI IPTs effort to develop a basic
    level standard and guideline for determining how
    a federate simulator can join a federation of
    simulators.
  • Low-level training will be necessary between
    the F-15C or F-16 aircraft and the KC-135
  • High-level training is necessary for trainees
    at the individual, four-ship, intra- and
    inter-team (F-15C and F-16) levels

19
LEVELS OF STANDARD COMPLIANCE
TABLE 1.0 Notional Criterion for
Establishing LSC for SNE, Weather Effects, CGF,
and Cultural Features  
20
LEVELS OF STANDARD COMPLIANCE
TABLE 1.1 Notional Criterion for
Establishing LSC for Fidelity  
21
LEVELS OF STANDARD COMPLIANCE
TABLE 1.1 Notional Criterion for
Establishing LSC for Resolution 
22
LEVELS OF STANDARD COMPLIANCE
TABLE 1. Notional Criterion for Establishing LSC
for Granularity  
23
NEGOTIATION
Comparison of CAF DMO Negotiation Process to
Multi Agent System Simulator 2
24
SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS
  • One-to-one relationship between increases in
    LSC level and granularity and resolution as they
    relate
  • to simulation fidelity of cultural and weather
    effects and ability to transmit, detect, ID RF
  • emissions and determine situation awareness
  • Need to look at training from machine-,
    mission- and human-centric perspectives
  • Need to look at distributed system development
    for training from living system theory
    perspective
  • Machines learn, people learn and missions
    become more complex
  • Negotiation between entities and federates must
    be thought out and compared to prospective
  • outcomes
  • Decision-making process might be necessary

25
WAY AHEAD
  • View CAF DMO as integration of 4 systems MTCs,
    humans, networks and threats/CGFs
  • More work needs to be done concerning
    simulation interoperability
  • More work needs to be done concerning minimum
    level of communication between simulators
  • More emphasis needs to be placed on
    characteristics of learning cognitive, affective
    psychomotor
  • AI might be considered for recognizing pattern
    adaptation
  • During simulator or simulation integration
    development integrate machine-, mission- and
    human-centric

26
REFERENCE
  1. Daum and M. Aldinger, Collaborative Approach to
    Achieving Interoperability in DMT, presented at
    Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Hyatt
    Orlando Hotel, Kissimmee, FL, 2003
  2. Multi-Agent Systems Lab, http//dis.cs.umass.edu/r
    esearch/mass/
  3. Givens and D. OQuinn, Migration of an
    Engineering Design Simulator to the High Level
    Architecture, IEEE
  4. Lee and T. Jeng, A Context Manager for Tangible
    Media Design Presentation A Human-centric
    Interaction Approach, Automation in
    Construction, Vol 12, No. 5, Sep, 2003, pp.
    487-493

27
BACKUP CHARTS
28
SIMULATION TRANSFORMATION PLAN METHODOLOGY
The simulator transformation plan methodology
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