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We've all heard it said, 'Hope for the best, but be prepare

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Title: We've all heard it said, 'Hope for the best, but be prepare


1
INTRODUCTION Weve all heard it said, Hope for
the best, but be prepared for the worst! This
expression is a blending of whats wished for
with whats realistic. It applies to
individuals, communities, companies, nations, and
specifically to the workplace. When we use
worst-case scenario in relation to workplace
disasters, the words take on an urgent, even
ominous tone. Recognizing that any place of
employment is subject to workplace disasters,
OR-OSHA requires all employers to do whatever is
necessary to minimize the likelihood of such an
occurrence and requires a plan that will minimize
harm to people and property should one
occur. The plan covers the 6 basic Elements,
plus regulations covering alarms, evacuation
procedures, and required training. For fire
prevention, regulations on housekeeping and
maintenance are also included. WORKSHOP
GOALS 1. Introduce OAR 437 Division 2/E
437-002-0042 Emergency Action Plan and OAR
437 Division 2/E 437-002-0043 Fire Prevention
Plan, and OAR 437 Division 2/L 29CFR 1910.165
Employee Alarm Systems. 2. Provide
step-by-step advice on how to create and maintain
a comprehensive emergency action plan for
your workplace. 3. Complete a vulnerability
analysis.
.
Let's Get Started!
Notice This safety program is intended to
provide general information and guidance. It
does not replace OR- OSHA standards or
established organization policies and practices.
Rather, its purpose is to enhance them.
2
How do OR-OSHAs Emergency Action Plan and Fire
Prevention Plan standards apply?
The following standards specifically require an
emergency action plan and fire prevention
plan 1910.119 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Process
Safety Management 1910.120 HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS Hazardous Waste Operations 1910.1
57 FIRE PROTECTION Portable Fire
Extinguishers 1910.160 FIRE PROTECTION
Fixed Extinguishing Systems 1910.164 FIRE
PROTECTION Fire Detection Systems 1910.272
SPECIAL INDUSTRIES Grain Handling
Facilities 1910.1047 TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS
SUBSTANCES Ethylene Oxide 1910.1050/1926.60
TOXIC AND HAZARD SUBSTANCES Methylenedianil
(MDA)
  • .and more on OSHAs Portable Fire Extinguisher
    standard
  • An emergency action plan and fire prevention plan
    is required when
  • The employer requires a total evacuation of the
    workplace regardless if extinguishers are
    provided (but not intended for employee use) or
    not.
  • The employer provides fire extinguishers and
    designates certain employees to use them and
    all other employees evacuate.

3
What is an emergency? What workplace
emergencies have you personally witnessed or
known details about from first-hand
observers? What happened? How many people were
effected? What was the loss in human tragedy?
Property damage? Was the business, industry, or
organization impacted as a result of the
emergency that occurred? How?
Emergencies businesses can experience
include Natural Disasters Technological Human
Avalanche Aircraft Crash Arson Biological St
ructural Collapse Civil Unrest Drought Business
Interruption Economic Dust/Sand
Storms Communication Enemy Attack Earthquakes D
am/Levee Failure General Strike Extreme
Heat/Cold Explosions/Fire Hostage
Situation Fire Extreme Air Pollution Mass
Hysteria Flood Financial Collapse Sabotage Hurr
icane/Tsunami Fuel/Resource Shortage Special
Events Landslide/Mudslide Hazardous Material
Release Terrorism Lightning Power/Utility
Failure War Snow/Ice/Hail Radiological/Nuclear
Accidents Workplace Violence Tornado Strikes Vol
canic Eruption Transportation Accidents Windstorm

So.what is emergency management?
4
Emergency management is a comprehensive system
set up to address and handle natural and man-made
hazards. It has four parts 1. Prevention 2.
Preparedness 3. Response 4. Recovery In an
ideal world, we would practice the first two
steps, prevention and preparedness, and go no
further. OR-OSHAs Emergency Action Plan (OAR
437-002-0042) standard requires employers to do
just that. However, reality has shown us all
four elements must be in place and additional
OR-OSHA standards would then apply such as
Division2/Subdivision H 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous
Waste Operations and Emergency Response.
The focus of this
workshop is preparedness however, we will
discuss the planning aspects of anticipating
emergencies as well as determining various
resources for developing an emergency action
plan. Planning is a crucial component in any
safety and health program including emergency
action. Planning is prevention and preparedness!
You should plan for emergencies by first doing
everything reasonable to prevent them. Once you
have accomplished this, prepare for emergencies
by developing an emergency action plan.
Recovery programs are designed to help restore
the environment or communities to their
pre-emergency condition, and include measures
such as physical restoration and reconstruction,
economic impact studies, counseling, financial
assistance programs, temporary housing and health
and safety information.
Response programs are designed to combat
emergencies when they have occurred, and include
measures such as the implementation of emergency
plans, activation of emergency operations
centers, mobilization of resources, issuance of
warnings and directions, provision of medical and
social services assistance, and declaration of
emergencies as enabled by appropriate
legislation.
5
The Six Elements of an Emergency Action Plan
OR-OSHA requires the following Six Elements be
developed and implemented into your emergency
action plan. These elements do not have to be
in writing for employers with 10 employees and
less.
OAR 437-002-0042 Please describe how these
elements can be implemented at your facility.
  • Procedures for emergency evacuation and exit
    route assignments
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________
  • Procedures to follow for emergency operation or
    shut down of critical equipment before evacuation
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________
  • Procedures to account for all employees after
    evacuation
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________
  • Procedures to follow for rescue and medical
    duties
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ____________________________________
  • Procedures for reporting a fire or other
    emergency
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________

6
The Five Elements of a Fire Prevention Plan
OR-OSHA requires the following Five Elements
be developed and implemented into your fire
prevention plan. These elements do not have to
be in writing for employers with 10 employees and
less.
OAR 437-002-0043 Please describe how these
elements can be implemented at your facility.
  • A list of all major fire hazards including proper
    handling and storage procedures for hazardous
    materials, potential ignition sources and their
    control, and the type of fire protection
    equipment necessary to control each major hazard
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________________________________
  • Procedures to control accumulations of flammable
    and combustible waste materials
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________________________________
  • Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards
    on heat producing equipment to prevent accidental
    ignition of combustible materials
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________________________________
  • Names or job titles of employees responsible for
    maintaining equipment to prevent or control
    sources of ignition or fires
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________________________________
  • Names or job titles of those responsible for
    control of fuel source hazards
  • __________________________________________________
    ___________________
  • __________________________________________________
    ___________________

7
Employee Training and Review
  • Employers must designate employees to assist in
    the safe emergency evacuation of other employees.
    These designated employees must receive training
    in emergency evacuation procedures.
  • What should this training address?
  • _________________________ _______________________
    __
  • _________________________ _______________________
    __
  • _________________________ _______________________
    __
  • _________________________ _______________________
    __
  • Emergency action training can take many forms.
    What methods do you like?
  • Each employee must receive a review of the
    emergency action plan and fire prevention plan.
    Each employee must be informed of
  • the fire hazards in their work area
  • the criteria for self-protection as outlined in
    the fire prevention plan

Training is essential! In one instance the floor
of an office building was filling with smoke
while the supervisors debated whether they should
order an evacuation.
8
Employee Alarm Systems
  • Alarms (OAR 437 Division 2/L 29 CFR 1910.165)
  • OSHAs employee alarm standard is a
    performance-based standard basically meaning
    employers have some flexibility to comply. The
    ultimate goal of this standard is to assure that
    all employees who need to know that an emergency
    exists can be notified of the emergency. The
    method of transmitting the alarm should reflect
    the situation found at the workplace. For
    example, in small workplaces, a simple shout
    throughout the building may be sufficient warning
    where more sophisticated equipment is necessary
    in larger workplaces.
  • Some important points to consider
  • Describe to the workers the alarm system used.
  • Alarm systems can be paging systems, audible
    tone systems, detectors, word-of-mouth, visual
    systems, tactile devices, vibration, air fans,
    etc.
  • The alarm must be capable of being perceived
    above ambient noise or light levels by all
    employees affected.
  • Tactile devices, vibration, or forced air may
    be used to alert those who would not otherwise
    be able to recognize an audible or visual alarm.
  • The alarm must be distinctive and recognizable
    as a signal to evacuate the work area or to
    perform actions designated under your emergency
    action plan (i.e. Allow for reaction time for
    safe escape from the entire facility or work
    area, or for other emergency action).
  • Where a communication system also serves as the
    employee alarm system, all emergency messages
    take priority!
  • What is your alarm system?
  • How is your alarm system actuated/transmitted?

Test alarm systems monthly. One company
conducted its first test of a sophisticated alarm
system 21 years after the system was installed.
Rather than alarm bells, it played Christmas
music.
9
References
  • Developing your Emergency Action Plan
  • Analyzing Capabilities
  • Vulnerability Analysis
  • Direction Control
  • Communications
  • Emergency Evacuation Procedures
  • Plan Evaluation

10
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11
Prevention
Prevention programs are designed to prevent or
mitigate the effects of emergencies and include
measures such as building codes, building use
regulations, zoning and land use management,
diking, public education, legislation, and tax
and insurance incentives. Mitigation is the
cornerstone of emergency management. It's the
ongoing effort to lessen the impact disasters
have on people and property. Mitigation involves
keeping homes away from floodplains, engineering
bridges to withstand earthquakes, creating and
enforcing effective building codes to protect
property from hurricanes -- and more. Mitigation
is also defined as "sustained action that reduces
or eliminates long-term risk to people and
property from natural hazards and their effects.
It describes the ongoing effort at the Federal,
State, local, and individual levels to lessen the
impact of disasters upon our families, homes,
communities and economy. Through the application
of mitigation technologies and practices, our
society can ensure that fewer Americans and their
communities become victims of natural disasters.
Mitigation is basically a hazard analysis. For
example, mitigation measures can be applied to
strengthen your home, so that your family and
belongings are better protected from floods,
earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural
hazards. They can be utilized to help business
and industry avoid damages to their facilities
and remain operational in the face of
catastrophe. Mitigation technologies can be used
to strengthen hospitals, fire stations, and other
critical service facilities so that they can
remain operational or reopen more quickly after
an event. In addition, mitigation measures can
help reduce disaster losses and suffering so
there is less demand for money and resources in
the aftermath. Mitigation is OR-OSHAs version
of hazard identification and control!
  • Preventative actions can also include
  • Promoting sound land use planning
  • Relocating or elevating structures out of the
    floodplains
  • Securing shelves and water heaters to nearby
    walls
  • Installing hurricane straps to secure
    structures
  • Developing and enforcing effective building
    codes
  • Engineering roads/bridges to withstand
    earthquakes
  • Using fire-retardant materials in new
    construction
  • Developing and implementing a plan in your
    business



    or community to reduce your
    susceptibility to hazards

While researching potential emergencies, one
facility discovered that a dam -50 miles away
posed a threat to its community. The facility
was able to plan accordingly.
12
Preparing
An emergency action team can be very effective in
preparing and developing an emergency action
plan. Of course, this emergency action planning
team can be in addition to the team you may
already have established! The s_______
c___________! Who should be on the team?

Analyze Capabilities and Hazards
This entails gathering information about current
capabilities and about possible hazards and
emergencies, and then conducting a vulnerability
analysis to determine the facility's capabilities
for handling emergencies.
WHERE DO YOU STAND AT THIS TIME? Review Internal
Plans, Policies, and Supporting Documents
What documents will you look for and possibly
need during an emergency? Safety and health
programs Evacuation plan Employee
manuals Plant closing policy __________________
_____ ___________________ ______________________
_ ___________________ Meet with Outside
Groups Meet with government agencies,
community organizations, similar industries and
associations, and utilities. Ask about
potential emergencies, plans,
and available resources for responding to them.
What sources of information will you seek out?
Police Fire Depts Local Emergency Planning
Committees Hospitals Utilities ______________
__ _________________ ________________ _________
________
13
Preparing
  • Identify Codes and Regulations Identify
    applicable
  • Federal, State, and local regulations.
  • Where will you look for these codes and
    regulations?
  • OSHA
  • DOT
  • NFPA/Life Safety
  • DEQ
  • Uniform Building Code
  • etc.
  • Identify Critical Products, Services, and
    Operations Youll need
    this information
    to assess the impact of potential emergencies and
    to
  • determine the need for backup systems.
  • What areas will you review?
  • Products and/or services provided by suppliers
  • Lifeline services (electricity, water, sewer,
    gas, telecommunications, etc.)
  • Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities
  • What resources and capabilities will you need in
    the event of an emergency?
  • Personnel like hazardous materials response
    team, emergency medical services, evacuation
    team
  • Fire protection and suppression equipment,
    communications equipment, warning systems,
    emergency power equipment
  • Facilities like emergency briefing areas
  • Organizational capabilities including
    evacuation plan and employee support system

14
Preparing
  • Identify External Resources Many external
    resources may be
  • needed in the event of an emergency. Remember,
    community emergency
  • workers like paramedics, police, and firefighters
    will focus their response where the
  • need is greatest, or they may be victims
    themselves. That means response to your
  • facility may be delayed.
  • What ones might you need?
  • Emergency Management Division
  • Fire department, emergency medical services,
    hospital, local and state police, community
    service organizations, utilities, suppliers of
    emergency equipment, and insurance carrier.
  • What else must be addressed when considering
    outside resources?
  • _____ ahead! Make _____________ with them when
    developing your plan.
  • Some may require _________ agreements.
  • Do an Insurance Review Meet with your insurance
    carrier to review all policies.

15
Vulnerability Analysis
  • Part of analyzing capabilities and hazards is
    conducting a vulnerability analysis. What is the
    probability and impact of any emergency? Use the
    Vulnerability Analysis Chart on the next page to
    guide the process. The process involves
    assigning probabilities, estimating impact, and
    assessing resources using a numerical system.
  • TYPE OF EMERGENCY. In the first column of the
    chart, list all emergencies
  • that could affect your facility.
  • Historical - What types of emergencies have
    occurred in your community, at
  • your facility, and at other facilities in the
    area?
  • Geographic - What can happen as a result of the
    facilitys location?
  • Technological - What could result from a process
    or system failure?
  • Practices and Conditions - What emergencies can
    be caused by employee
  • practices and working conditions? Are employees
    trained to work safely?
  • Do they know what to do in an emergency?
  • Physical - What types of emergencies could result
    from the design or
  • construction of the facility? Does the physical
    facility enhance safety?

16
ESTIMATE PROBABILITY. In the probability column,
rate the likelihood of each emergencys
occurrence. This is a subjective consideration,
but useful nonetheless. Use a simple scale of 1
to 5 with 1 as the lowest probability and 5 as
the highest. ASSESS THE POTENTIAL HUMAN IMPACT.
Analyze the potential human impact of each
emergency - the possibility of death or injury.
Assign a rating in the Human Impact column of
the Chart. Use a 1 to 5 scale with 1 as the
lowest impact and 5 as the highest. ASSESS THE
POTENTIAL PROPERTY IMPACT. Consider
the potential property for losses and damages.
Again, assign a rating in the Property Damage
column, 1 being the lowest impact and 5 being
the highest. Consider Cost to replace Cost to
set up temporary replacement and Cost to
repair. ASSESS THE POTENTIAL BUSINESS IMPACT.
Consider the loss of market share. Assign a
rating in the Business Impact column. Again, use
1 as lowest, 5 as highest impact. Consider
Business interruption Employees unable to report
to work Customers unable to reach the site
Company in violation of contracts Imposition of
fines, penalties, and legal costs Interruption
of supplies Interruption of product
distribution. ASSESS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
RESOURCES. Assess your resources and ability to
respond. Can we respond? Will external
resources be able to respond as quickly as we
need them? If the answer is, No, then you may
need to develop additional emergency procedures,
add training, acquire additional equipment,
establish mutual aid agreements, or contract with
specialized services. ADD THE COLUMNS. Total
the scores for each emergency. The lower the
score the better. While this is subjective, the
comparisons will help determine planning and
resource priorities.
17
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18
Developing the Plan
Direction Control
  • It is obvious that no single listing of planning
    considerations can be
  • prescribed for all business and industry. Every
    emergency action plan
  • is different in some respect. The primary
    concern is that all important
  • functions based upon the types of anticipated
    emergencies be properly covered in your plan.
  • One of the first actions your emergency planning
    team should address when developing the action
    plan is direction and control. This function in
    emergency action planning includes the use of a
    centralized management center for emergency
    operations emergency operating center (EOC),
    incident command post, etc. to facilitate
    policymaking, coordination, and control of
    operating forces in a large-scale emergency
    situation. It must cover the process of
    obtaining and analyzing emergency management
    information to provide a basis for
    decision-making.
  • Describe the use of alternate operating centers
    and disaster site command posts, as appropriate.
  • Identify who is in charge for each emergency or
    disaster situation and citing the location of
    the EOC or on-the-scene command post from which
    direction and control will emanate.
  • Determine the need to evacuate the facility or
    site and when to issue evacuation orders.
  • Identify the individual responsible for issuing
    evacuation orders and how they will be
    announced.
  • Alternate EOC to serve as a backup if the
    primary EOC is not able to function.
  • Identify the personnel assigned to the EOC for
    emergency operations.
  • Line of succession to assure continuous
    leadership, authority, and accountability in key
    positions.
  • Logistical support for food, water, lighting,
    fuel, etc., for the response team.
  • Timely activation and staffing of emergency
    response teams and/or personnel.
  • Assign operational and administrative support
    for response activities.
  • Clear and concise summary of emergency
    functions, direction and control relationships,
    and communications system.
  • Ensure that operating center staff members can
    be recalled on short notice.

19
Developing the Plan
Communications
  • The Communications function deals with
    establishing, using, maintaining, augmenting, and
    providing backup for all channels of
    communication needed for emergency response and
    recovery. Effective communications are dependent
    on planning and establishing coordinated response
    and communication procedures that everyone
    understands.
  • Further, experience has shown that communications
    options will be more likely to work in an
    emergency if they are part of the day-to-day
    operating system. Systems that are critical to
    everyday operations are immediately repaired when
    failures are encountered, and maintenance staff
    will be well acquainted with the systems.
  • Primary and backup radio communications with
    gas generators or extra batteries (fixed and
    mobile as available)
  • Describe the methods of communications between
    the EOC and response teams, dispersed
    company/plant operating locations, adjacent
    firms, and local government emergency services
    (fire, police, etc.)
  • Detail the communication requirements for
    emergency response organizations and warning
    systems
  • Two-way radio communications between the EOC
    and emergency response teams if available
  • Assure that the response team members (and
    their backups) assigned to communications tasks
    know where to obtain communications equipment and
    how to operate it effectively and understand
    communications terminology.
  • Recall communications staff members on short
    notice.
  • Obtain additional telephone services during
    emergencies
  • List key telephone numbers for industry
    emergency assistance organizations

20
Developing the Plan
Emergency Evacuation Procedures
  • These procedures spell out how the facility will
    respond to emergencies. Develop them as a series
    of checklists that can be quickly accessed by
    senior management, department heads, response
    personnel, and employees.
  • The goal of this function is to evacuate people
    and move resources (equipment, supplies,
    inventory) out of threatened areas. Evacuation
    is an expedient option that depends on sufficient
    warning time to get away from an impending
    emergency. An assortment of evacuation options
    should be available to the decisionmaker that are
    tailored to the different types of hazards you
    already determined through your vulnerability
    analysis.
  • The evacuation plan should establish clear and
    detailed procedures for carrying out complete or
    partial evacuations from buildings or work areas
    in an organized and consistent manner. This
    function is an integral part of the companys
    overall emergency action plan therefore, it is
    very important that evacuation planning be
    coordinated with all other elements of the
    company emergency operations plan as well as with
    outside responders (i.e. Fire departments,
    HAZMAT teams) and government authorities in the
    respective communities involved.
  • Depending on the emergency circumstances,
    evacuation of a building or work area will
    require provision for completing a number of
    concurrent and sequential actions, all of which
    should be addressed via written procedures.
    Checklists should be developed from the
    procedures and located wherever more than one
    action is required (i.e. process shutdown) so
    that important response sequences will not be
    overlooked. Further, all the interactions and
    dependencies among these responses need to be
    identified and thought out in systematic fashion,
    so a proper sequence can be established to ensure
    that operations flow smoothly and no unnecessary
    risks occur.
  • Does your plan address.
  • Describing the conditions under which
    evacuation would be ordered?
  • Developing evacuation procedures, with
    appropriate options for the various hazards,
    that avoid potential secondary hazards (i.e.
    Live high voltage wires that could fall, fuel
    lines that could be ruptured by earthquake
    explosion or fire damage, traffic exposures if
    you have to cross a street, etc.)?
  • Establishing an emergency operations center
    (EOC)?
  • Coordinating site and area evacuation
    procedures with local government (Area
    evacuations requiring coordination with reception
    area governments would be initiated for floods,
    hurricanes, tsunamis, large hazardous spills,
    etc.)?

21
Developing the Plan
Emergency Evacuation Procedures
  • Communications with personnel and community
    responders?
  • Identifying the individual responsible for
    ordering an evacuation and establishing lines
    of succession for carrying out evacuation
    functions?
  • Indicating under what conditions it would be
    safe to complete facility shutdown before
    ordering general evacuation?
  • Describing the alerting and communication
    systems for signaling impending or immediate
    evacuation for each type of evacuation your
    facility requires?
  • Methods of warning employees and customers?
  • Procedures for search and rescue teams to
    follow if evacuation alarms are inoperative?
  • Maps indicating evacuation routes from
    buildings and the facility site? Clearly marked
    evacuation routes throughout company facilities
    with two exit options (and fire escapes where
    needed) for every employee? Keep in mind the
    colorblind employee when you mark emergency exit
    routes using a color scheme. Safety lighting
    (to ensure adequate light for evacuation during a
    power outage) in stair wells or corridors?
  • Assuring that all personnel know the evacuation
    routes, routines, and check-in procedures for
    both area and site evacuations? Assisting any
    handicapped employees to evacuate? Special
    attention to ensure that any non-English
    speaking employees understand warning signals
    and know where and how to evacuate the
    workplace?
  • Identifying public or company provided safe
    reassembly areas that will not leave evacuees
    exposed to adverse weather conditions (below
    freezing temps, driving rains, etc.)? Assigning
    responsibility in an evacuation to a rear guard
    to ensure all personnel get clear?
  • An organized head count to ensure that all
    facility occupants have exited? And a system
    for identifying missing persons?
  • Ensuring that vital records are evacuated?
  • Identifying critical equipment to be evacuated
    and explaining how and by whom it will be moved
    (i.e. central computer facilities)?
  • Fighting fires? What is a manageable fire?
    Employee training in suppression equipment?
  • A facility status report to specified company
    and civil authorities from the responsible
    onsite person following a site evacuation?
  • Restoring operations?
  • Periodic evacuation drills for all facilities?
  • Designating responsible staff members (by name
    and titles) to maintain and update the
    evacuation plan on a standby basis?

22
Developing the Plan
  • Coordinate with Outside Organizations Meet
    periodically with local government agencies and
    community organizations. Let appropriate
    government agencies know that youre creating an
    emergency management plan. Their approval may
    not be required, but they may have some valuable
    insights and information to offer your effort.
  • Determine State and local requirements for
    reporting emergencies, and build them into your
    procedures.
  • Determine protocols for turning control over to
    outside agencies.

23
Developing the Plan
  • Incident Evaluation Why is it important to
    evaluate the plan after an actual event?
  • Plan Evaluation Conduct a formal audit of
    the entire plan at least once a year. Among
    the issues to consider are
  • Keeping detailed logs of actions taken during
    an emergency and/or drill. Describe what
    happened, decisions made, and any deviations from
    policy. Log the time for each event.
  • How can you involve all levels of personnel in
    evaluating and updating the plan?
  • Are the problem areas and resource shortfalls
    identified in the vulnerability analysis being
    sufficiently addressed?
  • Does the plan reflect lessons learned from
    drills and actual events?
  • Do members of the emergency management group
    and emergency response team understand their
    responsibilities? Have new members been trained?
  • Does the plan reflect changes in the physical
    layout of the facility? Does it reflect new
    facility processes?
  • Is the facility attaining its training goals
    and objectives?
  • Have the hazards in the facility changed?
  • Are the names, titles, and telephone numbers
    in the plan current?
  • Are steps being taken to incorporate
    emergency management into other facility
    processes?
  • Have community agencies and organizations
    been briefed on the plan?
  • Are they involved in evaluating the plan?

NOTE Remember to brief personnel whenever a
change to the plan occurs!
24
What Will I Take Back With Me? (kinda like a quiz)
Workplace emergencies I could expect
include The two steps of emergency management
I want to focus on are P____________
P______________ Based on the
emergencies I listed above, what prevention
methods/ strategies has my employer
established/implemented? _______________________
__ _________________________ ____________________
_____ _________________________ _________________
________ _________________________ ______________
___________ _________________________ ___________
______________ _________________________ ________
_________________ _________________________ _____
____________________ _________________________ __
_______________________ _________________________
My emergency action team will
include _________________________________________
____________________________ Preparedness
programs are designed to ensure that individuals
and agencies will be ready to react effectively
once emergencies have occurred, and include
measures such as emergency plans, mutual aid
agreements, resource inventories, warning
procedures, training exercises and emergency
communications systems. A primary function in
preparing your emergency action plan is analyzing
your capabilities and hazards. Many steps are
involved in this analysis including Reviewing
_________ plans, policies, and supporting
documents. Meeting with ________
groups. Identifying ______ and regulations. Identi
fying critical products, _________, and
operations. Identifying internal ___________ and
capabilities. Identifying _________
resources. Conducting an ___________ review.
Based on the emergencies I listed above, what
prevention methods/strategies should be
established/implemented?
And a v____________ a________ is an effective
tool to gain a better understanding of where you
are in terms of resources versus the risks
involved.
25
What Will I Take Back With Me? (cont)
Have we established direction and control (or
chain of command) in case of an emergency? ___
If not, can we establish an emergency operating
center (EOC)? ___ Where do we begin? At a
minimum, OR-OSHA requires the following
components to be included in your emergency
action plan Emergency escape p____________ and
escape route a_____________ Procedures to be
followed by e__________ who remain to operate
critical plant o___________ before they
evacuate Procedures to a________ for all
employees after emergency e___________ has been
completed Rescue and m_______ duties for those
employees who are to perform them The preferred
means of r___________ fires and other
emergencies N______ and regular ____ titles of
persons or departments who can be contacted for
further information or explanation of plan
duties Do we have effective emergency
communications? ___ If not, what should we
have? Do we have effective warning and/or alarm
systems? ___ If not, what should we have? Do
we have an emergency evacuation plan established?
___ If not, where do we begin? (hint
develop a checklist, coordinate with outside
organizations, etc.)
Training for all employees will
address Individual roles and responsibilities
information about threats, hazards, and
protective actions notification, warning, and
communication procedures means for locating
family members during an emergency emergency
response procedures evacuation, shelter and
accountability procedures location and use of
emergency equipment emergency shutdown
procedures, etc. We will also conduct drills
____ a year!!!
What is my role? Where should I go?
26
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27
Appendices
Page Hazard Specific Information 26-35 Sam
ple Emergency Action Plan 36-46 Helpful Web
Sites 47
28
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29
HAZARD FIRE
Fire is the most common of all the hazards.
Every year fires cause thousands of deaths and
injuries and billions of dollars in property
damage.
Consider the following when developing your
plan Meet with the fire department to talk
about the communitys fire response capabilities.
Talk about your operations. Identify processes
and materials that could cause or fuel a fire, or
contaminate the environment in a fire. Have your
facility inspected for fire hazards. Ask about
fire codes and regulations. Ask your insurance
carrier to recommend fire prevention and
protection measures. Your carrier may also offer
training. Distribute fire safety information to
employees How to prevent fires in the workplace
How to contain a fire How to evacuate the
facility and Where to report a fire. Instruct
personnel to use the stairs -not elevators- in a
fire. Instruct them to crawl on their hands and
knees when escaping a hot or smoke-filled
area. Conduct evacuation drills. Post maps of
evacuation routes in prominent places. Keep
evacuation routes -including stairways and
doorways-clear of debris. Assign fire wardens
for each area to monitor shutdown and evacuation
procedures. Establish procedures for the safe
handling and storage of flammable liquids and
gases. Establish procedures to prevent the
accumulation of combustible materials. Provide
for the safe disposal of smoking
materials. Establish a preventive maintenance
schedule to keep equipment operating
safely. Place fire extinguishers in appropriate
locations. You must determine what level of
response your facility will take if a fire
occurs. There are three options. What are
they? (hint Division 2 Subdivision L 29CFR
1910.157)
30
HAZARD HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS
Hazardous materials are substances that are
either flammable or combustible, explosive,
toxic, noxious, corrosive, oxidizable, an
irritant or radioactive.
Consider the following when developing your
plan Identify and label all hazardous materials
stored, handled, produced and disposed of by your
facility. Follow OR-OSHA regulations and other
government regulations that apply to your
facility. Obtain material safety data sheets
(MSDS) for all hazardous materials at your
location. Ask your local fire department for
assistance in developing appropriate response
procedures. Train employees to recognize and
report hazardous material spills and releases.
Train employees in proper handling and
storage. Identify other facilities in your area
that use hazardous materials. Determine whether
an incident could affect your facility. Identify
highways, railroads, and waterways near your
facility used for the transportation of hazardous
materials. Determine how a transportation
accident near your facility could affect your
operations. Establish a hazardous materials
response plan. What would you include in your
hazardous materials response plan? What
else can you do about hazardous materials?
31
Floods are the most common and widespread of all
natural disasters. Most communities in Oregon
can experience some degree of flooding after
spring rains, heavy thunderstorms or winter snow
thaws.
HAZARD FLOODS AND FLASH FLOODS
Consider the following when preparing for
floods Learn the history of flooding in your
area. Learn the elevation of your facility in
relation to streams, rivers, and dams. Review
the communitys emergency plan. Learn the
community's evacuation routes. Know where to
find higher ground in case of a flood. Establish
warning and evacuation procedures for the
facility. Make plans for assisting employees who
may need transportation. Inspect areas in your
facility subject to flooding. Identify records
and equipment that can be moved to higher
location. Make plans to move records and
equipment in case of flood. Consider the
feasibility of floodproofing your
facility. How might you go about
floodproofing your facility? What else
might you do to prepare for or deal with floods
and flash floods?
32
Severe winter storms bring heavy snow, ice,
strong winds, and freezing rain. Winter storms
can prevent employees and customers
from reaching the facility., leading to
a temporary shutdown until roads are cleared.
Heavy snow and ice can also cause structural
damage and power outages.
HAZARD SEVERE WINTER STORMS
Following are considerations in preparing for
winter storms Purchase a NOAA Weather Radio
with a warning alarm and battery backup. Listen
to NOAA Weather Radio and local radio and TV
stations for weather information,
including Winter Storm Watch - Severe winter
weather is possible. Winter Storm Warning -
Severe winter weather is expected. Blizzard
Warning - Severe winter weather with sustained
winds of at least 35 miles per hour is
expected. Travelers Advisory - Severe winter
conditions may make driving difficult or
dangerous. Establish procedures for facility
shutdown and early release of employees. Store
food, water, blankets, battery-powered radios
with extra batteries and other emergency supplies
for employees who become stranded at the
facility. Provide a backup power source for
critical operations. Arrange for snow and ice
removal from parking lots, walkways, loading
docks, and anywhere snow and ice may accumulate
and present a hazard to employees or anyone else.
33
Tornadoes are some of the most terrifying of
weather phenomenon. Winds in an F5 tornado - the
highest of five rankings - can reach 300 miles
per hour and can lift homes off their foundations
and send cars flying through the air. Tornadoes
are also deadly, killing an average of 42 people
in the U.S. each year. Last year, FEMA responded
to 14 tornado-related federal disasters. The
tornadoes that struck Georgia in the early
morning of February 14, killed more than a dozen
people and left whole neighborhoods destroyed.
Spring is a traditionally busy tornado time,
although tornadoes can occur in virtually any
state at any time. What do you need to know about
responding to a tornado threat?
HAZARD TORNADOS
  • The difference between tornado watches and
    warnings
  • A tornado watch is issued by the National
    Weather Service when tornadoes are possible in
    your area. Remain alert for approaching storms.
    This is time to remind family members where the
    safest places within your home are located, and
    listen to the radio or television for further
    developments.
  • A tornado warning is issued when a tornado has
    been sighted or indicated by weather radar.
    Mobile homes are particularly vulnerable. A
    mobile home can overturn very easily even if
    precautions have been taken to tie down the unit.
    When a tornado warning is issued, take shelter
    in a building with a strong foundation. If
    shelter is not available, lie in ditch or
    low-lying area a safe distance away from the
    unit.
  • What to do if you're at home during a tornado
  • Go to the basement, storm cellar, or the lowest
    level of the building. If there is no basement,
    go to an inner hallway or a smaller inner room
    without windows, such as a bathroom or closet.
    Get away from the windows. Go to the center of
    the room. Stay away from corners because they
    tend to attract debris. Get under a piece of
    sturdy furniture such as a workbench or heavy
    table or desk and hold on to it. Use arms to
    protect head and neck. If in a mobile home, get
    out and find shelter elsewhere.
  • What do to if you're outdoors
  • If possible, get inside a building. If shelter
    is not available or there is no time to get
    indoors, lie in a ditch or low-lying area or
    crouch near a strong building. Be aware of the
    potential for flooding. Use arms to protect
    head and neck.
  • What to do if you're in a car
  • Never try to outdrive a tornado in a car or
    truck. Tornadoes can change direction quickly and
    can lift up a car or truck and toss it through
    the air. Get out of the car immediately and take
    shelter in a nearby building. If there is no
    time to get indoors, get out of the car and lie
    in a ditch or low-lying area away from the
    vehicle. Be aware of the potential for flooding.
  • FEMA is urging people who live in tornado-prone
    areas to make sure they have a tornado-safe place
    to go during a tornado. In the absence of a
    basement, a tornado-safe room build within the
    house will protect your family during a tornado.
    Properly built safe rooms can provide protection
    against winds of 250 miles per hour and against
    flying objects travelling at 100 miles per hour.

34
Earthquakes occur most frequently west of the
Rocky Mountains, although, historically, the most
violent earthquakes have occurred in the central
US. Earthquakes happen suddenly and without
warning.
HAZARD EARTHQUAKES
Drop Cover!
Following are guidelines in preparing for
earthquakes Assess your facilitys
vulnerability to earthquakes. Ask local
government agencies for seismic information for
your area. Have your facility inspected by a
structural engineer. Develop and prioritize
strengthening measures. Strengthening measures
may include adding steel bracing to frames,
adding sheer walls to frames, strengthening
columns and building foundations, and replacing
unreinforced brick walls. Follow safety codes
when constructing a facility or making major
renovations. Inspect non-structural systems such
as air conditioning, communications, and
pollution control systems. Assess the potential
for damage. Prioritize measures to prevent
damages. Inspect your facility for any item that
could fall, spill, break or move during an
earthquake. Take steps to reduce these
hazards. What steps can you take to reduce the
hazards from items that could fall, break or move
during an earthquake? Keep copies of design
drawings of the facility to be used in assessing
the facilitys safety after an
earthquake. Review processes for handling and
storing hazardous materials. Have incompatible
chemicals stored separately. Establish
procedures to determine whether an evacuation is
necessary after an earthquake. Designate areas
in the facility away from exterior walls and
windows where occupants should gather after an
earthquake if evacuation is not
necessary Conduct earthquake drills. What
safety information will you provide personnel for
earthquake drills?
35
Technological emergencies include any
interruption or loss of a utility service, power
source, life support system, information system
or equipment needed to keep the business or
organization in operation.
HAZARD TECHNOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES
Following are suggestions in planning for
technological emergencies Identify all critical
operations, including utilities, security and
alarm systems, elevators, lighting, manufacturing
equipment, communication systems, and
transportation systems What other critical
operations would you identify in planning for
technological emergencies? Determine the
impact of service disruption. Ensure that key
personnel and maintenance personnel are
thoroughly familiar with all building
systems. Establish procedures for restoring
systems. Determine need for backup
systems. Establish preventive maintenance
schedules for all systems and equipment. What
other matters/issues do you want to pay attention
to when considering technological emergencies?
36
In a major emergency, time is a critical factor
in minimizing injuries. Most small businesses do
not have a formal medical program, but they are
required to have the following medical and
first-aid services
HAZARD Medical Emergencies
In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, or
hospital in close proximity to the workplace that
can be used for treatment of all injured
employees, the employer must ensure that a person
or persons are adequately trained to render first
aid. Where the eyes or body of any employee may
be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, eye
washes or suitable equipment for quick drenching
or flushing must be provided in the work area for
immediate emergency use. Employees must be
trained to use the equipment. The employer must
ensure the ready availability of medical
personnel for advice and consultation on matters
of employees health. This does not mean that
health care must be provided, but rather that, if
health problems develop in the workplace, medical
help will be available to resolve them. To
fulfill the above requirements, the following
actions should be considered Survey the medical
facilities near the place of business and make
arrangements to handle routine and emergency
cases. A written emergency medical procedure
should then be prepared for handling accidents
with minimum confusion. If the business is
located far from medical facilities, at least one
and preferably more employees on each shift must
be adequately trained to render first aid. The
American Red Cross, some insurance carriers,
local safety councils, fire departments, and
others may be contacted for this
training. First-aid supplies should be provided
for emergency use. Emergency phone numbers
should be posted in conspicuous places near or on
telephones. Sufficient ambulance service should
be available to handle any emergency. This
requires advance contact with ambulance services
to ensure they become familiar with plant
location, access routes, and hospital locations.
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS When employees are required
by the employer to provide first aid, the
employer must follow the procedures in the 29 CFR
1910.1030 Bloodborne Pathogen Standard. If an
employee is exposed to blood from responding to
an injured worker as a Good Smaritan to render
first aid, the employer must provide
post-exposure evaluation and follow-up care as
required by the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard.
For those employees who are exposed to blood from
these volunteer situations, the employer must
also make available the Hepatitis B vaccination.
The employer must ensure that they have adequate
first aid supplies for any anticipated injuries.
37
Workplace violence is a topic of great concern to
many Americans. According to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS), homicide was the second
leading cause of job-related deaths, accounting
for 17 of the fatally injured workers in the
1990s, and is the leading cause of death in the
workplace for women.
HAZARD Workplace Violence
  • The most effective action is to develop a
    workplace Violence Prevention Plan. The plan
    should form part of the organizations overall
    health and safety program. It should be
    developed and implemented in cooperation with
    your Workplace Safety and Health Committee,
    and/or with input from workers knowledgeable
    about your worksite.
  • Resources exist in the community for help in
    developing your workplace violence prevention
    plans. Invite local police onto your worksite to
    promote good relations and to help them become
    more familiar with your facility and how your
    business can better work with police when
    incidents occur. Use law enforcement, Employee
    Assistance Programs (EAP) counselors, mental
    health professionals, and security experts to
    educate employees on how to prevent violence in
    the workplace, with crime prevention information,
    building security inspections, and victim
    avoidance training.
  • The following is a quick summary of the steps you
    should consider when creating a Workplace
    Violence Prevention Plan. These steps are
    explained in greater detail in OR-OSHAs
    Guidelines for Preventing Violence in the
    Workplace it is a publication available through
    OR-OSHAs Resource Center, Labor Industries
    Building, 350 Winter St, NE Salem, OR 97310.
    Phone (800) 922-2689 or (503) 378-3272
  • STEP ONE Conduct an Initial Assessment Review
    Security Procedures
  • Evaluate past incidents of violence
  • Consider the location of your business
  • Review your OSHA 200 Log for incidents related
    to violence
  • Determine the nature of interactions between
    your workers and the public
  • STEP TWO Develop a written policy
  • State your overall approach to the prevention
    of violent incidents
  • Convey a message of zero tolerance for violence
  • Outline the duties and responsibilities of
    management
  • Establish ground rules for behavior
  • STEP THREE Prevention Procedures
  • Provide for periodic risk assessments
  • Provide a means to document the risk
    assessments
  • Make the results available to workers
  • Develop instructions detailing the prevention
    procedures to be followed

38
HAZARD Workplace Violence (Continued)
  • STEP FOUR Workers Manager Training
  • Train at-risk workers and supervisors in
    correct response procedures
  • Ensure that workers and supervisors can act on
    prevention procedures
  • Maintain records of training
  • STEP FIVE Procedures for incident reporting and
    Investigation
  • Prepare policies, procedures, and documentation
    for
  • Reporting incidents of violence
  • Supervisor actions to address reported
    incidents of violence
  • Implement corrective action
  • Review actions taken in response to incidents
    to evaluate effectiveness
  • STEP SIX Provide Incident Follow-Up
  • Provide EAP or Critical Stress Debr
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