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World War II

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World War II. Germany is treated harshly at Paris Peace ... a. most important battle of World War II. b. Soviets counterattacked and won in Feb. 1943. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
2
  • Germany is treated harshly at Paris Peace
    Conference. Became angry and vengeful.
  • Conditions of the Treaty of Versailles
  • 1. Return Alsace and Lorraine regions to France.
  • 2. French allowed economic control of the
    Saarland. Industry.
  • 3. Give territory to Poland
  • 4. No military presence in Rhineland
  • 5. Reduce military to 100,000 and no general
    staff

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  • Europe is destroyed economically and financially
    after the war, gets desperate.
  • Desperation leads to dictators
  • 1. Mussolini in Italy
  • 2. Hitler in Germany
  • 3. Facismcombination of nationalism,
    social-Darwinism, racialism, anti-communism.
    Fear mongering
  • Rise of Adolf Hitler
  • 1. born in Austria
  • 2. mother and father died very early

5
  • 3. fought bravely in World War I
  • 4. became an expert on the Jewish question in
    the army after the war.
  • Discovered his ability to grab people while
    speaking
  • 5. aspiring artist
  • 6. built the Nazi party into a viable regional
    party.
  • 7. Beer Hall PutschMunich in 1923
  • a. overthrow the government of Bavaria,
    then Berlin
  • b. members of Bavarian government spoke in
    a pub

6
  • 8. Thrown in jail, wrote Mein Kampf, My
    Struggle
  • a. undemocratic government
  • b. strong military
  • c. control of Europe
  • d. cleanse Germany of non-Germans
  • e. seek revenge for World War I
  • 9. By 1930, Nazis are the second largest party
    in Germany. Grew because of Hitlers
    determination.
  • 10. Won elections fair and square in 1932 and
    Hitler is appointed Chancellor. He moves
    quickly to take power.
  • 11. Hitlers domestic agendadestroy the Weimar
    Republic and create dictatorial rule.

7
  • 12. To accomplish the agenda
  • a. burned Reichstag and blamed it on the
    communists.
  • b. used this and economic chaos to
    suspend the constitution and rule by decree.
  • c. outlawed all political parties except
    Nazis.
  • d. purged judiciary, education,
    bureaucracy, banned labor unions imposed
    censorship.
  • e. Night of the Long KnivesHitler purged
    opposition parties and Nazis.

8
  • Aggression and Appeasement
  • 1. Hitlers Foreign Policy Goals
  • a. destroy Treaty of Versailles
  • b. Expand Germany
  • c. no one did anything about it.
  • 2. Destroying the Treaty
  • a. remilitarized Rhineland in 1936
  • b. increased size of the military
  • c. built weapons and military aircraft
  • d. removed Germany from the League of
    Nations
  • 3. Expanding Germany
  • a. uses nationalism to justify Sudetens
    and Austrians are really belong in Germany.

9
  • b. Anschluss (German for annexation).
    Annexed Austria, welcomed by the Austrians.
  • c. September 1938, Hitler wanted to annex
    the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, which is 50
    German.
  • -Czechs say no b/c of alliance with
    Great Britain and France.
  • -Hitler threatened war, but wasnt
    strong enough
  • d. MunichSeptember1938

10
  • -Neville Chamberlain says Hitler can be
    reasoned with
  • -France and Great Britain cave, Hitler
    takes Sudetenland
  • -Czechs not represented
  • e. Could Hitler have been stopped at
    Munich? Czechs able to defend themselves.

11
  • Japanese Aggression in Asia
  • 1. Japan interested in Chinese mainland since
    1800s.
  • 2. Japan was expansionist in 1930s.
  • 3. In 1931, Japan seized Manchuria by staging a
    railroad explosion.
  • Manchuria was rich in natural resources.
  • 4. China goes to the U.N
  • a. Lytton Commission Japan not provoked,
    and didnt condemn the Manchuko puppet
    government.
  • b. League does nothing, fails a big test

12
  • 5. Japan invaded China proper in 1937
  • a. Rape of Nankingraped, stole, looted,
    executions
  • b. as brutal as the Germans
  • 6. Bogged down in China in 1941, looked to
    Southeast Asia for raw materials in 1941.
  • 7. Assumed a protectorate over Indochina
  • 8. FDR restricted oil imports to Japan and froze
    Japanese assets in the U.S., and merged armed
    forces in the Philippines.

13
  • 9. The legit Japanese government was
    ineffective Kwantung Army was responsible for
    aggression.
  • Where was the U.S.?
  • 1. Return to Normalcywanted little involvement
    in overseas affair.
  • 2. Some involvement, but not much. Mostly
    isolation
  • 3. Made disarmament agreements as a substitute
    for joining U.N.
  • i.e. Washington Armaments Conference.
  • 4. Became more isolated in 1930s to remove
    itself from a corrupt Europe.

14
  • 5. Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1939. Allowed
    President to place embargoes on belligerent
    nations.
  • 6. Became more involved by the end of the decade
    to help G.B. since they were the only democracy
    left.
  • a. Cash and carry policytake cash and
    belligerents had to carry it or ship it.
  • Tension between the U.S. and Japan
  • 1. Japanese action in Manchurian and China
  • 2. California wanted to ban Japanese immigrants
    in 1930s.
  • 3. Wilson did not include a clause against
    racism at Paris.
  • 4. Japanese upset with Washington Armaments
    Conference.

15
  • Beginning of the War in Europe
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
  • 1. Josef Stalin was the dictator of the Soviet
    Union.
  • a. lost faith in G.B. and France after
    Munich
  • b. territorial interests in Poland and the
    Baltic
  • Republics
  • c. feared Hitler
  • 2. Hitler
  • a. feared alliance between Stalin and the
    democracies.
  • 3. Terms
  • a. agreed publicly not to attack each
    other.
  • b. privately agreed to divide Eastern
    Europe after the war. Long term implications.

16
  • Hitler attacked Poland on September 1, 1939.
    Blitzkrieg, or Lightning War.
  • Poland held on for two weeks, still a chance to
    stop Hitler had Britain and France gotten
    involved.
  • By June 22, 1940, with the surrender of France,
    Hitler conquered most of Europe.
  • Allowed the British to escape at Dunkirk.

17
  • Battle of Britain
  • 1. September 1940
  • 2. Hitler wanted to bomb Britain into
    submission.
  • 3. British held on, inspired by Winston
    Churchill. Had ULTRA.
  • First Nazi defeat, called off in December.

18
  • We shall defend our island whatever the cost may
    be we shall fight on beaches, landing grounds,
    in fields, in streets and on the hills. We shall
    never surrender and even if, which I do not for
    the moment believe, this island or a large part
    of it were subjugated and starving, then our
    empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the
    British Fleet, will carry on the struggle until
    in God's good time the New World with all its
    power and might, sets forth to the liberation and
    rescue of the Old."Winston Churchill

19
  • Operation Barbarossa
  • 1. Hitler the Soviet Union
  • 2. Hitler really didnt want to share Eastern
    Europe
  • 3. Stalin taken by surprise
  • a. didnt think Hitler dumb enough to
    start a two-front war.
  • b. Didnt believe warnings of FDR and
    Churchill
  • c. Russian Winter

20
  • 4. Invasion began on June 22, 1941, and achieve
    immediate success.
  • 5. Attack failed because of Russian winter and
    they out-ran supplies.
  • 6. Stalingrad
  • a. most important battle of World War II
  • b. Soviets counterattacked and won in Feb.
    1943.
  • c. On to Berlin from here.
  • 7. Hitler sealed his fate with this decision

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22
  • Hitler declared war on U.S. Dec. 11, 1941.
  • North Africa
  • 1. Hitler came to the aid of Mussolini.
  • 2. Two goals
  • a. Suez Canal
  • b. link up with German armies in Russia.
  • 3. El-Alamein
  • a. British driven out of Libya and halfway
    thru Egypt.
  • b. British counterattacked October 23-24,
    1942.
  • c. Germans now driven back across Africa.
  • 4. Americans landed in Morocco in November of
    1942.
  • a. Commanded by General Eisenhower,
    Operation Torch.
  • 5. Allies linked up in Tunisia, Germans
    surrendered in May, 1943.

23
  • Casablanca ConferenceJanuary, 1943
  • 1. Roosevelt and Churchill
  • 2. Will only accept unconditional surrender
  • Sicily CampaignJuly to September 1943.
  • 1. Soft underbelly
  • 2. Win Sicily, then invade Italian Peninsula.
    Stuck there until the end of the war. Too
    mountainous.
  • TeheranDecember 1943
  • 1. Big ThreeRoosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
  • 2. Stalin wanted a second front, which is agreed
    to.
  • 3. Disagreements emerge over post-war plans.

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  • Operation Overlord/D-Day
  • 1. Allied invasion of France
  • Hitler realized an invasion by the Allies was
    serious. Shifted resources, but was
    overextended.
  • Erwin Rommel put in command. Atlantic
    Wall.
  • General Eisenhower commanded Allied
    forces.
  • 3. Normandy beaches chosen as landing site.
    Germans convinced the site was Pas-de-Calais.
    Had to win at the beach.
  • 4. Americans trained in Britain. Overpaid,
    oversexed, over here.

26
  • 5. Patton used as a decoy.
  • 6. Andrew Higgins built LCVP. Man who won the
    war.
  • Invasion set for June 5, 1944. Postponed until
    June 6 because of bad weather.
  • Most important person was the weatherman.
  • Decision to go at 300pm on June 5 by
    Eisenhower. O.k., lets go.
  • 8. Largest amphibious assault in history
    175,000 men, 50,000 vehicles, 5,333 ships, and
    11,000 airplanes.
  • 9. Omaha Beach. Steep cliffs
  • 10. 4,900 casualties.

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  • Operations Cobra and Market Garden. V-2 Missiles
  • July 20, 1944, assassination attempt against
    Hitler. Klause von Stauffenberg.
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • Hitlers effort to break Allied Lines
  • Siege of Bastogne.
  • Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945.
    Germany surrenders May 8, 1945.
  • Soviets take Berlin. Paused in Poland to allow
    Poles and Germans to watch them fight and kill
    each other.

29
  • Pacific Theater
  • Entirely American operation
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Threatened by U.S. military activity
  • Achieved surprise despite warnings
  • Dec. 7, 1941, 755 am
  • European First Strategyall supplies sent to
    Europe first. Limited number of men and
    material.
  • Island Hoppingbypass strongly defended islands
    and cut off supplies. Avoid bloody battles.

30
  • Attack the Philippines on Dec. 8, 1941. Wiped
    out the air force there.
  • 1. U.S. retreats to the Bataan Peninsula.
  • 2. U.S. surrenders the Philippines on April 9,
    1942.
  • Remaining U.S. soldiers marched off the
    Peninsula. Bataan Death March.
  • 600-650 Americans
  • 10-15,000 Filipinos.
  • U.S. forces regroup in Australia. Key leaders
    are Douglas MacArthur and Chester Nimmitz.

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  • Battle of the Coral SeaMay 1942
  • 1. naval battle
  • 2. first American success, not a clear victory,
    but Japanese forced to retreat.
  • 3. prevented invasion of Australia
  • Battle of MidwayJune 1942
  • 1. Naval battlefirst American victory
  • 2. Japanese lost several planes and ships.
  • 3. Halted the Japanese offensive.

33
  • Milne Bay
  • 1. on the island of New Guinea
  • 2. first American ground success.
  • Guadalcanal August 7, 1942
  • 1. Japanese built airstrips for attacks on New
    Guinea
  • 2. Marine operation
  • 3. jungle fighting
  • 4. fighting ended February 1943.
  • Philippines
  • 1. Attack or bypass?
  • 2. Staging area for Formosa (Taiwan)

34
  • 3. October 20, 1944, U.S. attacked.
  • Japanese knew that losing this meant loss of oil,
    etc. from East Indies. Sent three fleets.
  • 5. Battle of Leyte Gulf
  • a. largest naval in history
  • b. Japanese navy finished
  • c. emergence of the KamikazeDivine Wind
  • 1944 Election
  • 1. most people were sure FDR wouldnt survive
    another term.
  • 2. sure of victory, needed to get rid of VP
    Henry Wallace.
  • 3. Harry Truman nominated, from Missouri.
  • 4. Truman had little contact with FDR.

35
  • Iwo JimaFebruary 1945
  • 1. Landing strip for air raids on Japan.
  • 2. Japanese fighting more fiercely since
  • six week battle 20,000 casualties, 7,000 killed.
  • OkinawaApril 1945
  • 1. staging area for Japanese invasion.
  • 2. Ended in June 140,000 Japanese dead. Last
    man.
  • Manhattan Project
  • 1. Einstein letter in 1939 potential for a
    destructive bomb, Germans working to develop it.

36
  • 2. Fission of uranium atoms. Enrico Fermi
  • 3. First bomb tested on July 16, 1945 in New
    Mexico
  • FDR dies April 12, 1945.
  • Truman at Potsdam July-August. Approves use of
    the bomb
  • August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb is dropped on
    Hiroshima. 80,000 dead. Second one dropped on
    Nagasaki on August 9. Japanese surrender on
    August 14. Signed September 2.

37
  • Decision to drop the bomb
  • 1. Invasion of Japan1 million casualties.
  • 2. Japanese fighting more fiercely closer to
    their homeland.
  • 3. Alternatives
  • a. naval blockade
  • b. warn the Japanese about the weapon
  • Arsenal of Democracy
  • 1. Out-produced Axis
  • a. supplying Allies in 1937 and 1938
  • b. produced twice as much as Germans, 5
    times as much as Japanese.

38
  • 2. GNP
  • 88.6 billion in 1935
  • 198.7 billion in 1944
  • 3. created 17 million jobs.
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