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Introduction to Animal Science

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Title: Introduction to Animal Science


1
Introduction to Animal Science
  • AGRI 1003

2
1000 Point Course 700 objective, 300 subjective
  • Daily Assignments
  • Mid Term
  • Notebooks
  • Final
  • (other projects to be announced throughout the
    course)

3
The five Major Types of Livestock in the United
States
  • Poultry chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, game
    birds, and squab (pigeons)
  • Swine pigs
  • Ovine sheep
  • Bovine cattle
  • Equine horses
  • (Goats)

4
The Major Geographical Regions of Production
  • Chicken production is divided into two sections
    Broiler and Egg
  • Broiler production is led by Georgia, Alabama,
    and Us (Arkansas)

5
Geographical Regions of Production (continued)
  • Turkeys are scattered out from the Pacific
    region, across the western part of the North
    Central Region, and in the South Atlantic Region

6
Geographical Regions of Production (continued)
  • Swine pork production is predominant in the
    states of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, and
    Nebraska

7
Geographical Regions of Production (continued)
  • Bovine the most production comes from the
    southern and western states

8
Geographical Regions of Production (continued)
  • Ovine the leading states in production are
    Texas, California, Wyoming, Colorado, South
    Dakota, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Oregon

9
Geographical Regions of Production (continued)
  • Equine horses are everywhere however, there are
    not as many now as before 1929.

10
The Importance of Livestock to the United States
Economy
  • The average person in the United States consumes
    48 pounds of beef, 29 pounds of pork, and 24
    pounds of poultry each year.
  • We consume more meat than any other nation.

11
Products Obtained from Livestock
  • Food/ Drink
  • Clothing
  • Tools/ Equipment
  • Medicines/ Vaccinations

12
Career Opportunities in Animal Science
  • Laboratory technical support
  • Animal caretakers
  • Research scientists
  • Genetics and Animal Breeding
  • Population genetics
  • Molecular genetics
  • Genetic engineering
  • Reproductive management
  • Endocrinology
  • CloningEmbryo technology
  • Nutrition
  • Feeding programs
  • Nutrition/reproduction interactions
  • Nutrition/health/immunity interactions
  • Food Science
  • Product development
  • Food processing
  • Fermentation
  • Extension
  • Agriculture agents
  • 4-H agents
  • Teaching (high school, junior college or
    university)
  • Feed/slaughter inspection Private consulting
  • http//www.ansi.okstate.edu/information/jobs.htm
  • www.hansenagriplacement.com
  • Student Assignment choose one of the careers
    listed on this screen or web site and research
    the education required for the position, the
    duties (responsibilities) involved with the
    position, and average salary of someone in that
    career.

13
The Poultry Industry
14
The Human, Poultry Relationship
  • The earliest archeological evidence reveals
    poultry was part of the human diet.
  • Today the average American consumes almost 90
    pounds of chicken and 22 dozen eggs each year.
  • Poultry is considered a more healthy choice for
    consumption based on the fact that the level of
    cholesterol and fat is lower per pound compared
    to red meat.

15
The Poultry Industry
  • The poultry industry includes the raising of
    chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, game birds, and
    squab.
  • The largest segment is chicken production.

16
Chicken Production
  • There are two parts of the chicken industry
    Broiler and Egg.
  • At one time most producers raised chickens for
    both meat and eggs.
  • Females were used for eggs and males for meat.
  • Today there are two different types of birds
    produced.

17
Chicken Production (continued)
  • Selective breeding has developed birds that are
    thicker muscled and produce more meat.
  • Layers have been developed to produce eggs daily.
  • Layer birds are easily identified when placed
    beside meat birds, as they are more slender and
    convert much energy to egg production.

18
Hatching the Chicks in the Broiler Industry
  • Eggs are hatched in large commercial hatcheries.
  • Eggs that are hatched have to be fertile, which
    means the hens must be bred by a rooster or AI.
  • Hens that lay eggs for hatching are housed in
    facilities with laying boxes, which are designed
    to keep the eggs clean.

19
Hatching the Chicks in the Broiler Industry
  • It is essential for the hatching eggs to remain
    clean.
  • Any foreign material can contain millions of
    microorganisms.
  • Dirty eggs can not be used for hatching.
  • Washing or scrubbing of the egg will remove the
    protective coating and press the dirt into the
    pores of the egg.

20
Hatching the Chicks in the Broiler Industry
  • After the eggs are sorted and fumigated to kill
    and remove harmful organisms, they are chilled.
  • Eggs are stored at 70 to 80 degrees until placed
    in the hatchery.

21
Hatching the Chicks in the Broiler Industry
  • When the eggs reach the hatchery, they are
    incubated.
  • In commercial hatcheries the eggs are incubated
    in two separate rooms the sitting room and the
    hatching room.
  • After hatching the chicks are cleaned, dried, and
    placed in a warm environment.

22
Hatching the Chicks in the Broiler Industry
  • At approximately one day old the chicks are
    vaccinated and debeaked.
  • Chicks are then shipped to Broiler producers.

23
The Broiler Industry
  • Broilers are generally marketed at 6 to 8 weeks
    of age and weigh 3 to 5 pounds.
  • Most of the Nations broilers are produced in
    southern states.
  • The leading states are Arkansas, Georgia, and
    Alabama.

24
The Broiler Industry (continued)
  • Most broilers are raised on contract.
  • This means the producer provides the house,
    utilities, and labor.
  • The company (Tysons) supplies the chicks, feed,
    medication, and other supplies.
  • The company pays the producer at the end of the
    grow-out period.

25
The Broiler Industry (continued)
  • The first step in broiler production is hatching
    the chicks.
  • Breeder birds are selected for rapid growth, good
    feed efficiency, and heavy muscling.
  • They are usually white because white leaves no
    pigmentations on the meat.

26
Processing the Broilers
  • Broilers are generally kept in the broiler house
    7 to 8 weeks.
  • After this amount of time they are shipped to a
    processing plant.
  • At the plant birds are inspected as they are
    alive.

27
Processing the Broilers
  • After inspection, the chickens are slaughtered,
    feathers removed.
  • The intestines and internal organs are inspected.
  • After all inspection is passed they are prepared
    to sale.
  • Legs, thighs, wings, and breast or franks,
    sausage, and bologna.

28
The Layer Industry
  • The other large segment of the poultry industry
    is the production of eggs.
  • Layers are hens that have been selectively bred
    to produce more eggs than their ancestors.
  • The average layer produces 250 eggs per year.
  • Some layers produce white eggs, some produce
    brown.

29
The Layer Industry
  • Layers in the United States are usually housed in
    cages within a large facility. Cages hold 2 to 12
    birds.
  • As eggs are layed they roll onto a conveyer that
    periodically moves the eggs to a collection
    point.

30
The Layer Industry
  • At the collection point they are placed in flats,
    refrigerated, and transferred to the processing
    plant.
  • The plant coats the eggs with mineral oil to
    prevent the escape of carbon dioxide, which helps
    keep the eggs from spoiling.

31
The Layer Industry
  • The eggs are passed over an intense light in a
    dark room for inspection.
  • The eggs are then graded, packaged, and shipped.

32
Turkey Production
  • Turkey production continues to increase in the
    United States.
  • Turkey meat is less expensive, and has fewer
    calories and less cholesterol than other meats.
  • Turkeys are the descendants of wild turkeys
    native to the United States.
  • Like chickens, most domestic turkeys are white
    and have been bred to produce much more meat than
    wild turkeys.

33
Turkey Production
  • Turkeys can tolerate cold better than hot.
  • Most are produced by small operations of 30,000
    birds or less.
  • There are two major ways of growing turkeys
    confinement and range.

34
Turkey Production
  • Confinement turkey operations offer the
    advantages of environmental control of
    temperature and humidity.
  • Open range turkey operations are less expensive.

35
Other Poultry Production
  • In some parts of the world ducks and geese make
    up a major proportion of poultry output.
  • In some ways these birds are easier to produce
    than chickens and turkeys.
  • They withstand harsh weather and are more immune
    to diseases, infections, and parasites.
  • Also, the feathers are used in goods.

36
Other Poultry Production
  • Quail and pheasant are produced for gourmet
    restaurants and restocking wildlife areas.

37
The Swine Industry
38
History of Swine
  • It is believed that the majority of the breeds we
    now know are descended from the Eurasian Wild
    Boar (Sus scrofa).
  • Archaeological evidence from the Middle East
    indicates domestication of the pig occurs as
    early as 9,000 years ago, with some evidence for
    domestication even earlier in China.
  • Figurines, as well as bones, dating to the sixth
    and seventh millennia BC have been found at sites
    in the Middle East.
  • Pigs were also a popular subject for statuettes
    in ancient Persia.
  • From here the pig spread across Asia, Europe and
    Africa.

39
History of Swine
  • One interesting point, while most livestock where
    utilized initially by nomadic peoples, swine are
    more indicative of a settled farming community.
  • The reason for this is simply because pigs are
    difficult to herd and move for long distances.
  • Pigs have become vital to the economy in parts
    of the world.
  • For example, there exists a "pig culture" in New
    Guinea as strong and complex as any African
    culture based on cattle.

40
Pork Production
  • As producers and consumers of pork, the United
    States ranks behind Asia and Europe.
  • Every year Americans produce over 85 million head
    of hogs.
  • In terms of meat, pork production and consumption
    ranks second only to beef in this country.

41
Pork Production
  • Pork is distributed throughout the country.
  • Much of the pork produced comes from the mid
    western states of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana,
    Minnesota, and Nebraska.
  • These are the states that produce corn, the major
    grain fed to swine.
  • Also there are large numbers of pigs in the
    South.

42
Swine Cuts
43
Breeds of Swine
  • There are not as many breeds of hogs as there are
    breeds of cattle grown in the United States.
  • Breeds are categorized as mother or sire breeds.

44
Breeds of Swine
  • The sire breeds, such as the Duroc and the
    Hampshire, characteristically grow rapidly and
    produce well- muscled , meaty carcasses.
  • The mother breeds include Landrace and Yorkshire,
    which have a large number of pigs per litter and
    produce greater amounts of milk.

45
Landrace
  • Originated in Denmark
  • Drooped ears
  • Known for their maternal instincts
  • White
  • Long
  • Flatter-topped than other breeds

46
Berkshire
  • Originated in England
  • Black with white legs, snout and switch
  • Once kept at Buckingham Palace
  • Known for producing high quality meats
  • Erect ears

47
Chester White
  • Originated in Chester County, Pennsylvania
  • White with drooped ears
  • Mothering breed
  • Known to produce large litters

48
Duroc
  • Originated in the United States
  • Solid red
  • Drooped ears
  • Slight dish to the face
  • Excellent meat type hog

49
Hampshire
  • Originated in the United States
  • Probably the oldest American breed
  • Black with a white belt
  • Small, erect ears
  • Well-known meat breed

50
Hereford
  • Originated in Missouri
  • Developed from crossing Berkshires and Durocs
  • Red with white face, legs and underline
  • Medium-sized, drooping ear
  • Long neck

51
Poland China
  • Originated in the US
  • Noted for ability to easily gain weight
  • Quiet dispositions
  • Black with white snouts, legs and switch
  • Generally poor mothers
  • Drooped ears

52
Spots
  • Developed in Indiana
  • Black and white spots
  • Efficient feeders
  • Noted for rapid weight gain

53
Tamworth
  • Originated in Ireland
  • Red in color
  • A noted bacon breed
  • Deep-sided
  • Well-arched back
  • Erect ears
  • Good mothers
  • Very active

54
Yorkshire
  • Originated in England
  • White
  • Large, erect ears
  • Known as The Mother Breed
  • Produces large litters
  • Bacon-type hog

55
Swine Breeds Test
56
  • Originated in England
  • Black with white legs, snout and switch
  • Once kept at Buckingham Palace
  • Known for producing high quality meats
  • Erect ears

57
  • Originated in the United States
  • Solid red
  • Drooped ears
  • Slight dish to the face
  • Excellent meat type hog

58
  • Originated in the United States
  • Probably the oldest American breed
  • Black with a white belt
  • Small, erect ears
  • Well-known meat breed

59
  • Originated in Ireland
  • Red in color
  • A noted bacon breed
  • Deep-sided
  • Well-arched back
  • Erect ears
  • Good mothers
  • Very active

60
  • Originated in England
  • White
  • Large, erect ears
  • Known as The Mother Breed
  • Produces large litters
  • Bacon-type hog

61
  • Originated in the US
  • Noted for ability to easily gain weight
  • Quiet dispositions
  • Black with white snouts, legs and switch
  • Generally poor mothers
  • Drooped ears

62
  • Originated in Denmark
  • Drooped ears
  • Known for their maternal instincts
  • White
  • Long
  • Flatter-topped than other breeds

63
  • Developed in Indiana
  • Black and white spots
  • Efficient feeders
  • Noted for rapid weight gain

64
  • Originated in Missouri
  • Developed from crossing Berkshires and Durocs
  • Red with white face, legs and underline
  • Medium-sized, drooping ear
  • Long neck

65
  • Originated in Chester County, Pennsylvania
  • White with drooped ears
  • Mothering breed
  • Known to produce large litters

66
Market Hogs
  • Most market hogs produced are crosses of various
    breeds.
  • A Yorkshire female crossed with a Duroc sire
    provides a large litter, good milk, and fast,
    vigorously growing pigs.
  • Most crossbred pigs are healthier and do better
    than purebreds.

67
Phases of the Industry
  • There are two phases of the swine industry
    farrowing and finishing.
  • The two can be separate or operated together.
  • Some producers prefer to raise only feeder pigs
    (pigs that are sold shortly after weaning).
  • Some prefer to buy feeder pigs and finish them as
    their only operation.

68
Phases of the Industry
  • Most pigs are farrowed in climate- controlled
    houses where mother is kept in a pen to prevent
    her from injuring the pigs as she lies down.
  • Good producers make great effort to provide an
    environment that is clean, dry, and comfortable
    for the piglets.

69
Confinement Operation
  • Pigs are generally weaned form the mother at six
    weeks, although they may be as young as three
    weeks or as old as eight weeks.
  • After weaning, the pigs are placed together in
    groups of similar size and age in what is called
    a confinement operation.
  • This means the hogs are kept in a pen together
    rather than running around.

70
Confinement Operation
  • Sufficient space is provided for the pigs to be
    comfortable and to grow to their optimum
    potential.
  • The pigs should be finished at approximately 20
    weeks.
  • Packers like to buy market hogs that weigh in the
    range of 220 to 260 pounds.

71
The Ovine Industry
72
Lamb and Mutton
  • Compared to beef and pork, Americans eat
    relatively little lamb and mutton.
  • Lamb refers to meat from a sheep that is over a
    year old.
  • Mutton refers to meat from sheep over one year
    old.

73
Lamb and Mutton
  • In many parts of the world lamb and mutton are a
    basic part of the diet.
  • The United States per capita consumption of
    mutton and lamb is only 2.5 pounds.
  • Of this, about 95 is lamb and only 5 mutton.
  • Americans seem to have never developed a taste
    for the stronger flavor of mutton.

74
Lamb Production
  • One advantage of producing lamb for market is
    that very good quality lambs can be produced on
    grass without having to be fed expensive grain.
  • Although an increasing number of lambs being fed
    on grain in feedlots, roughages still make up
    about 90 of all feed consumed by sheep.

75
Lamb Production
  • The leading states in sheep production are Texas,
    California, Wyoming, Colorado, South Dakota,
    Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Oregon.
  • Sheep can make better use of lower quality forage
    than cattle.

76
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77
Sheep Market Cuts
78
Ovine Breeds
  • Sheep breeds are usually grouped according to the
    wool they produce.
  • Wool type is broadly classifies as fine wool,
    long wool, medium wool, hair, and fur.
  • The medium wool breeds are most often used to
    produce lambs for slaughter.
  • Medium wool breeds commonly used to produce
    slaughter lambs are Suffolk, Hampshire, South
    Down, and Dorset.

79
Cheviot
  • Originated in Scotland
  • Resistant to cold, windy conditions
  • White, wool free faces
  • Long wool type
  • Wool has a helical crimp
  • Tend to be resistant to worms and footrot

80
Columbia
  • Developed by the US Department of Ag
  • Developed to thrive on Western ranges
  • Produce medium wool and large amounts of meat

81
Corriedale
  • Developed in New Zealand Australia
  • Dual purpose breed
  • Produces bulky, high density wool
  • Most popular breed in South America

82
Dorset
  • Originated in Europe
  • Medium-sized breed with high quality, white wool
  • Most popular white-faced breed in the United
    States
  • Horned and polled varieties exist

83
Hampshire
  • Originated in Hampshire, England
  • Black face and legs
  • Mild demeanor
  • Unbroken wool cap should extend from the neck
    over the forehead

84
Jacob
  • Originated in England
  • Two, four, or six horns
  • Black and white fleece
  • Fleece is highly sought after
  • Unimproved breed

85
Lincoln
  • Originated in England
  • The largest breed of sheep
  • Long-wooled breed
  • White faces
  • Pronounced forelock between the ears

86
Merino
  • Originated in Australia
  • Primarily a wool breed
  • White-faced
  • Most popular breed in Australia
  • High quality wool used in the textile industry

87
Oxford
  • Originated in England
  • Second largest sheep breed
  • Meat-type breed
  • Tends to forage for its own food
  • White with black ears and bridge of nose

88
Rambouillet
  • Originated in Spain
  • Shipped to France in 1801
  • White in color

89
Southdown
  • Developed in England
  • Well suited to farm flock production
  • Gray face with white body
  • Adapted to wet conditions

90
Suffolk
  • Originated in England
  • Most popular breed in the US today
  • Produce large amounts of meat
  • White with black faces and legs

91
Sheep Breeds Test
92
Developed by the US Department of AgDeveloped to
thrive on Western rangesProduce medium wool and
large amounts of meat
  • A. Suffolk
  • B. Lincoln
  • C. Columbia
  • D. Dorset

93
Originated in Spain , Shipped to France in
1801White in color
  • A. Rambouillet
  • B. Corriedale
  • C. Lincoln
  • D. Dorset

94
Originated in Europe,Medium-sized breed with high
quality, white wool,Most popular white-faced
breed in the United States,Horned and polled
varieties exist
  • A. Dorset
  • B. Columbia
  • C. Corridale
  • D. Lincoln

95
Originated in England, Black face and legsMild
demeanor,Unbroken wool cap should extend from the
neck over the forehead
  • A. Suffolk
  • B. Cotswold
  • C. Shire
  • D. Hampshire

96
Developed in New Zealand Australia,Dual purpose
breed,Produces bulky, high density woolMost
popular breed in South America
  • A. Dorset
  • B. Columbia
  • C. Corridale
  • D. Lincoln

97
Originated in England Most popular breed in the
US today. Produce large amounts of meat .White
with black faces and legs
  • A. Crossbred
  • B. Suffolk
  • C. Hampshire
  • D. Merino

98
Originated in Australia,Primarily a wool
breedWhite-faced, Most popular breed in
AustraliaHigh quality wool used in the textile
industry
  • A. Merino
  • B. Rambouillet
  • C. Corriedale
  • D. Jacob

99
Originated in England,Two, four, or six
hornsBlack and white fleece,Fleece is highly
sought afterUnimproved breed
  • A. Dorset
  • B. Jacob
  • C. Rambouillet
  • D. Suffolk

100
Originated in England,The largest breed of
sheepLong-wooled breed, White faces,Pronounced
forelock between the ears
  • A. Oxford
  • B. Lincoln
  • C. Columbia
  • D. Coverdale

101
Originated in England,Second largest sheep
breedMeat-type breed,Tends to forage for its own
foodWhite with black ears and bridge of nose
  • A. Hampshire
  • B. Cheviot
  • C. Merino
  • D. Oxford

102
Developed in England ,Well suited to farm flock
production. Gray face with white body.Adapted to
wet conditions
  • A. Suffolk
  • B. Dorset
  • C. Southdown
  • D. Rambouillet

103
Originated in Scotland,Resistant to cold, windy
conditions,White, wool free facesLong wool
type,Wool has a helical crimpTend to be
resistant to worms and footrot
  • A. Columbia
  • B. Cheviot
  • C. Dorset
  • D. Corridale

104
A female sheep is termed a
  • A. Ram
  • B. Wether
  • C. Ewe
  • D. Lamb

105
A male sheep is termed a
  • A. Ewe
  • B. Ram
  • C. Lambing
  • D. Mutton

106
A Male sheep that has been castrated
  • A. Wether
  • B. Ewe
  • C. Doe
  • D. Suffolk

107
Goats
  • The goat, along with sheep, were among the
    earliest domesticated animals.
  • Goat remains have been found at archaeological
    sites in western Asia, such as Jericho, Choga,
    Mami, Djeitun and Cayonu, which allows
    domestication of the goats to be dated at between
    6000 and 7000 B.C.
  • However, unlike sheep, their ancestry is fairly
    clear.

108
Goats
  • The major contributor of modern goats is the
    Bezoar goat which is distributed from the
    mountains of Asia Minor across the Middle East to
    Sind.
  • Unlike sheep, goats easily revert to feral or
    wild condition given a chance.
  • In fact, the only domestic species which will
    return to a wild state as rapidly as a goat is
    the domestic cat.

109
Goat Breeds French-Alpine
  • French-Alpine
  • originated in the Alps
  • http//www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/goats/

110
Goat Breeds Cashmere
  • Cashmere the fiber of kings, produced from the
    lowly Cashmere goat

111
Goat Breeds Boer
  • The Boer is an improved indigenous breed with
    some infusion of European, Angora and Indian goat
    breeding many years ago.
  • This particular goat expresses excellent body
    conditioning

112
Goat Breeds LaMancha
  • The LaMancha goat originated in Oregon by Mrs.
    Eula Frey from short-eared goats of a type found
    not only in LaMancha, but throughout spain.
  • excellent dairy temperament
  • an all-around sturdy animal that can withstand a
    great deal of hardship and still produce.
  • established itself in milk production with high
    butterfat.

113
Goat Breeds Oberhasli
  • The Oberhasli is a Swiss dairy goat.
  • This breed is of medium size, vigorous and alert
    in appearance.
  • http//www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/goats/

114
Goat Breeds Saanen
  • The Saanen dairy goat originated in Switzerland,
    in the Saanen Valley.
  • Saanen does are heavy milk producers and usually
    yield 3-4 percent milk fat.
  • It is medium to large in size (weighing
    approximately 145 lbs/65kg) with rugged bone and
    plenty of vigor.

115
Goat Breeds Toggenburg
  • The Toggenburg is a Swiss dairy goat from
    Toggenburg Valley of Switzerland at
    Obertoggenburg.
  • They are also credited as being the oldest known
    dairy goat breed.

116
Goat Production
  • Pre breed CDT
  • Utilize teaser buck to induce estrus
  • Gestation is 134
  • At 100 days of gestation another CDT
  • At 6 weeks dehorn, castrate, and CDT kids
  • At 12 weeks wean (entirely separating kids and
    does move does to area where they may slowly dry
    up)

117
Goat Production
  • Reproductive Physiology and efficiency is key in
    production of goat operation
  • Doe and buck conditioning is essential for
    selection of replacements
  • Both doe and buck should have good horn sets

118
Goat Production
  • Does good body conditioning and femininity (no
    ribs, hooks, pins, showing no jaggedness or
    shoulder blades protruding no fish tail tits or
    other abnormalities fleshy straight back smooth
    overall appearance)
  • Bucks good body conditioning (athletic overall
    appearance no penis or testis abnormalities)

119
Goat Production
  • 1 pair permanent teeth one year old
  • 4 pair permanent teeth 4 yr old

120
Dairy Industry
121
The Dairy Industry
  • The dairy industry includes all products made
    from milk.
  • Approximately 13 of all sales of farm
    commodities are from dairy products.
  • Americans consume 28.8 gallons of milk, 23.7
    pounds of cheese, 16 pounds of ice cream, 4.3
    pounds of butter, and 4.2 pounds of yogurt per
    person, per year.

122
Milk
  • Dairy products are high in protein and contain
    essential minerals and vitamins.
  • Milk has been described as natures most perfect
    food.
  • Milk is the only substance intended by nature for
    no other purpose than as food.

123
Dairy Cattle
  • Selective Breeding of dairy cattle has developed
    bovine species that produce much more milk each
    year than a calf can consume.
  • This allows us to use the surplus for human
    consumption.
  • There are an estimated 50 less dairy cattle
    numbers in this country now compared to the
    number in 1950 however, the amount of milk
    production remains the same.

124
Bovine Dairy Breeds and Selection
125
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Holstein
  • Black and White or Red and White color pattern
  • Large sized
  • Heavy milk producers

126
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Jersey
  • Color varies (light gray to a dark fawn being
    darker around the head and hips)
  • Medium sized
  • Produces more pounds of milk per body weight than
    any other dairy breed.

127
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Guernsey
  • Red (Fawn) and White in color
  • Medium sized
  • High milk production to feed intake ratio
  • Milk is high in betacarotene

128
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Brown Swiss
  • Solid brown, varying from very light to dark
  • Large sized
  • Light colored band around the muzzle
  • One of the oldest Dairy breeds

129
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Ayrshire
  • Red and white in color (amount varies)
  • Medium sized
  • Purebred Ayrshires only produce red offspring
  • Average milk production

130
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Milking Shorthorn
  • Red and white or any combination of red and white
  • Dual purpose breed
  • Split from the American Shorthorn Assoc. in 1949

131
Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Milking Devon
  • Red in color
  • Triple purpose (Draft, beef, milk)
  • Medium sized

132
Breeds of Dairy CattleReview
  • Jersey

133
Breeds of Dairy CattleReview
  • Milking Shorthorn

134
Breeds of Dairy CattleReview
  • Brown Swiss

135
Breeds of Dairy CattleReview
  • Guernsey

136
Breeds of Dairy CattleReview
  • Milking Devon

137
Breeds of Dairy CattleReview
  • Ayrshire

138
Breeds of Dairy CattleReview
  • Holstein

139
Major Breeds of Dairy CattleQuiz
1
2
3
4
140
Major Breeds of Dairy CattleQuiz
5
6
7
141
Major Breeds of Dairy CattleQuiz Answers
  • 1. Brown Swiss 2. Holstein
  • 3. Milking Devon 4. Guernsey

142
Major Breeds of Dairy CattleQuiz Answers
  • 5. Ayrshire 6. Milking Shorthorn
  • 7. Jersey

143
Bovine Somatotropin
  • In recent years consumers have been concerned
    over a substance given to dairy cattle to
    increase production Bovine Somatotropin or BST.
  • BST is a naturally occurring hormone that helps
    stimulate milk production in bovine.
  • BST was once scarce and expensive however, due
    to genetic engineering, the hormone can be
    produced rapidly and cost efficient.

144
Bovine Somatotropin (continued)
  • The use of BST has caused much controversy over
    the safety of the substance.
  • Some say that no studies have been conducted to
    determine the long-term effects of drinking milk
    from cows that have been given BST.
  • They point out the fact that large doses can
    cause inflammation of udders drawing the
    assumption the hormone is unsafe.

145
Bovine Somatotropin (continued)
  • The National Institute of Health and the Food and
    Drug Administration have declared BST to be safe
    for both cattle and human consumption.
  • ALL milk contains a small amount of BST .
  • BST is a natural occurring substance that is
    digested by milk and none enters the blood stream.

146
Milk Production
  • The most popular breed of dairy cattle in the
    United States are Holstein.
  • Most of the milk produced in the United States
    comes from California, Wisconsin, New York,
    Minnesota, and Pennsylvania.

147
Milk Production (continued)
  • In order for cows to produce they must produce an
    offspring each year.
  • The cycle of birth stimulates the mammary system
    of cows to produce milk.
  • Most dairy producers breed by the method of
    artificial insemination (AI).
  • The first milk produced contains colostrum.

148
Colostrum
  • Colostrum is loaded with the dams antibodies.
  • These antibodies give the offspring a boost of
    immunity from diseases and infections.
  • Cows that have just given birth are separated in
    order to keep colostrum out of human consumption.

149
Dairy Cattle Feeding
  • Most dairy animals are fed on pasture.
  • Grass makes relatively inexpensive feed for
    cattle.
  • Cattle in lots are commonly fed silage.

150
Silage
  • The process of producing silage begins by
    chopping green corn (ears, stalks, and leaves).
  • The chopped corn then is stored for fermentation.
  • This chemical change preserves the feed.

151
The Parlor
  • Cows are milked in a scientifically designed area
    called a parlor.
  • The parlors are design to prevent injury and
    increase comfort.
  • Upon entering the parlor the cows are stationed
    in front of their food ration so they may stand
    to feed while being milked.

152
The Parlor (continued)
  • A milker enters the parlor and milks a small
    amount of milk by hand into a container called a
    strip cup.
  • This allows the milker to observe the milk for
    impurities and cleanse the teat.
  • Lumbs or blood can indicate a common disease
    called ___________ ?
  • mastitis

153
The Parlor (continued)
  • The udder is then washed using warm water
    solution and dried.
  • The teat cups are then attached and milking
    begins.
  • The teat cups are lined with a soft material that
    is attached to a tube that gently pulls a vacuum
    on the cup to draw milk from the teat.

154
The Parlor (continued)
  • The milk is all removed in three to six minutes
    depending on the cow.
  • Care is given that the cups are left the
    appropriate amount of time.
  • Too little time results in the udder not being
    properly milked out, too much time will result in
    injury to the udder.
  • Teat cups are cleaned between cows to prevent
    disease.

155
The Parlor (continued)
  • The milk is drawn into lines and into a holding
    tank.
  • In modern dairies the cooling of moo juice begins
    in the lines. The lines are refridgerated so that
    milk is cooled as it is transported to the tank.
  • The tank is where milked is cooled to approx. 40
    degrees F to prevent spoiling.

156
The Parlor (continued)
  • After all the cows have been milked, the lines,
    teat cups, and equipment are cleaned thoroughly.
  • Approximately every other day the milk is
    retrieved and delivered to the processing plant.
  • The plant tests the milk for bacteria, drug
    residue, and any indications of infection.

157
Milk Processing
  • When milk arrives it is filtered to remove any
    foreign entities.
  • Milk sits to allow cream removal for low fat milk
    production.
  • Cream is the part of milk that contains fat.
  • As concumers become more conscious of the amount
    of fat in their diet, they want milk that is
    lower in milk fat.

158
Milk Processing
  • In recent years sales of lowfat and skim milk
    have increased sharply.
  • Lowfat milk is milk that has had the percentage
    of milkfat lowered to between 0.5 and 2.0
    percent.
  • Skim or nonfat milk is milk that contains less
    than 0.5 percent milkfat.
  • Milkfat that is removed is used to produce cream
    products.

159
Milk Processing
  • Whole milk contains about 4.0 percent milkfat.
  • The globules of fat are what makes the cream
    float to the top of raw, unprocessed milk.
  • Homogenization is the process that reduces the
    size of large cream globules to the size of milk
    globules.
  • The processed milk, called homogenized milk, will
    not separate out.

160
Milk Processing
  • To kill any harmful organisms in the milk the
    milk is heated and then cooled.
  • This heat and cool process is referred to as
    pasteurization.
  • The time and temperature of pasteurization is
    controlled in order to protect the nutritive
    value and flavor of the milk.

161
Milk Processing
  • Milk is graded according to the dairy from which
    it came.
  • Dairies that sell grade A milk must pass rigid
    standards that include cleanliness and other
    conditions.
  • Only grade A milk can be used as fluid or
    beverage milk.
  • Grade B milk can only be used for manufactured
    dairy products.

162
Milk Processing
  • Price is determined by class.
  • Class I milk is used for beverage consumption.
  • Class II is used for manufacturing soft products
    such as ice cream, yogurt, and cottage cheese.
  • Class III is used with Grade B milk in the
    processing of cheese, butter, and nonfat dry milk.

163
Cheese
  • The United States produces more cheese than any
    other country in the world.
  • There are hundreds of types of cheese.
  • Cheeses are broadly classified according to the
    type of milk used and the type of processing
    conducted.
  • Cheeses are often named for the town or region
    where they originate.

164
Cheese
  • The cheese produced in the United States from
    cows milk.
  • Goat milk is also used in some parts of the world
    (Chevre cheese).
  • Ovine milk is also produced (Roquefort).
  • Some countries even produce milk from equine and
    camels.

165
Cheese
  • Cheese contains one of the highest concentrations
    of nutrients of any food we eat.
  • Only 3.5 ounces of cheese supplies about 36
    percent of the protein, 80 percent of the
    calcium, and 34 percent of the fat recommended in
    a human daily diet.
  • Cheese is rich in essential amino acids,
    minerals, vitamins, and has a high caloric
    content.

166
Yogurt
  • Yogurt is also processed from milk.
  • This food product has been around for hundreds of
    years.
  • When yogurt is frozen, it is delicious and is
    lower in calories than ice cream.
  • Processing begins by heating concentrated milk.
  • Bacteria is added to yogurt which cause the milk
    to ferment.

167
The Dairy Industry
  • All content of this lesson was copied from the
    Exploring Agriscience text book by Ray V. Herren,
    and published by ITP.

168
The Beef Cattle Industry
169
Wheres the BEEF?
  • The beef industry is by far the largest segment
    of the meat industry.
  • In the United States there are over 800,000 beef
    producers.
  • The average size of beef herds in the United
    States is approximately 100 animals.

170
Beef Breeds and Selection
  • In the United States there are over 40 different
    breeds of beef cattle.
  • A breed is a group of animals with common
    ancestry and like characteristics.
  • Livestock producers choose breeds based on
    several factors.

171
Beef Breeds and Selection
  • The factors are commonly based on environmental
    conditions, the market, and personal likes and
    dislikes of the producer.
  • Some breeds are large and produce a large
    carcass.
  • Some are smaller and produce a small carcass.

172
Beef Breeds and Selection
  • A carcass is the part of the meat animal
    remaining after slaughter and hide, head, feet,
    and internal organs have been removed.
  • Both small and large frame cattle have a place in
    the meat market therefore, both carcasses are
    desired and produced.

173
Beef Breeds and Selection
  • Some breeds are adapted to hot, humid climates
    and some tolerate cold and snow better.
  • A producer may like color pattern or the docile
    nature of a particular breed and prefer that
    breed based on that trait.

174
Beef Breeds and Selection
  • Some breeds make excellent mothers (dam breeds)
    while others grow rapidly and produce high
    quality, meaty carcasses (sire breeds).
  • Most animals produced for slaughter are
    crossbreeds.
  • A crossbreed is an animal with parents of
    different breeds.

175
Beef Breeds and Selection
  • A crossbreeding program helps producers take
    advantage of the attributes of both breed types.

176
Angus
  • Originated in Scotland
  • Solid black in color
  • Naturally polled
  • Consumer preference led to Certified Angus Beef

177
Hereford
  • Originated in Hereford, England
  • Red with white head, legs, and underline
  • Horned
  • Early maturing
  • Mothering breed

178
Polled Hereford
  • Developed in Iowa by Warren Gammon
  • Naturally hornless
  • Red with white face, legs and underline

179
Shorthorn
  • Originated in England
  • Red red white or roan in color
  • Originally used as a dual purpose breed for meat
    and milk
  • Sometimes called the Durham breed

180
Simmental
  • Originated in Switzerland
  • Oldest breed of cattle in the world
  • Large, powerful breed
  • Brought to the United States in 1971
  • Orange/Yellow and white to black in color

181
Gelbvieh
  • Originated in Germany
  • Red in color
  • Noted for superior fertility and mothering
    ability
  • Tend to be extra fleshy under the throat

182
Charolais
  • Originated in France
  • Traditionally white in color
  • Long bodied, large cattle
  • Heavily muscled
  • Coarse looking

183
Maine Anjou
  • Originated in France
  • Dark red with white markings or black
  • Developed by crossing the Mancelle breed with the
    Shorthorn breed

184
Chianina
  • Originated in Italy
  • One of the oldest breeds of cattle
  • Tallest breed of beef cattle
  • Short hair that is white to steel gray
  • Terminal breed
  • Low milk production

185
Salers
  • Originated in France
  • Fastest growing breed in the United States
  • Mahogany red to black in color
  • One of the last breeds to be imported into the
    United States

186
Brahman
  • Originated in India
  • Able to survive on very little, poor feed
  • Insect heat resistant
  • Excess skin and large hump on back
  • White to gray, red to black
  • Sweat glands

187
Santa Gertrudis
  • Developed on the King Ranch in Texas
  • All Santa Gertrudis are descendants of the bull,
    Monkey
  • They were created by crossing shorthorn cows and
    Brahman bulls

188
Texas Longhorn
  • Developed entirely by nature in North America
  • Known for its long horns
  • High fertility
  • Were near extinction in 1927

189
Beefmaster
  • ¼ Hereford, ¼ Shorthorn and ½ Brahman
  • Variety of colors
  • Originated in Texas
  • Gentle , intelligent and early maturing

190
Brangus
  • 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Angus
  • Black
  • Developed in Oklahoma and Texas
  • Heat tolerant and have a good growth rate

191
Limousin
  • France
  • Golden wheat to deep red gold with lighter color
    almost yellow on extremities
  • Good rate of gain

192
http//www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/
193
Cuts of Beef
194
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry
  • The beef industry consists of four major
    segments purebred operations, cow-calf
    operations, stocker operations, and feed lot
    operations.

195
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Purebred
Operations
  • Purebred Operation cattle are produced as a seed
    stock.
  • This is the first phase of the industry.
  • The term purebred means the animal is of one
    certain breed and has only that breed in its
    ancestry.

196
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Purebred
Operations
  • Purebred animals are eligible for registration
    which certifies the animal is purebred.
  • These cattle are grown for the production of
    calves used for market.

197
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Cow- Calf
Operations
  • This is the second phase of the beef industry.
  • The calves are weaned from their mothers and sold
    to the next phase of the industry.
  • Most of these calves are crossbreeds of purebred
    sires and dams.
  • A large portion of this industry is centered in
    the southern and western states.

198
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Cow- Calf
Operations
  • The mild winters of the south are ideal for
    calving.
  • In the west producers can take advantage of the
    vast amount of government lands that are open for
    grazing.
  • Often, cows are left on free range to have their
    calves and then rounded up, weaned, and sold.

199
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Cow- Calf
Operations
  • Calves are usually sold upon weaning.
  • They are weaned at about six to seven months in
    age (205 days).
  • They ideally weigh between 500 and 600 pounds.
  • At this age they are ready to begin feeding for
    market.

200
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Stocker
Operations
  • The next phase of the beef industry is the stock
    operation.
  • Stocker producers purchase the animals from cow-
    calf operations and sell them to feedlot
    operations.
  • The stocker provides a transition period for the
    calves between the time they are weaned to the
    final feedlot phase.

201
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Stocker
Operations
  • The calves are fed a ration, which is the amount
    of food necessary during a 24 hour period, that
    ensures they make sufficient gains in order to
    move to the feedlot phase.
  • It is not uncommon for feedlot owners to run
    stocker operations.

202
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Stocker
Operations
  • The trend of the industry has been away from the
    stocker operation as most calves produced today
    are at the ideal weight to go from the cow-calf
    phase to the feedlot.

203
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Feedlot
Operations
  • The feedlot operation is the final phase before
    the animals are sent to slaughter.
  • The animals are fed on high concentrate rations
    designed to put on the proper amount of fat
    cover.
  • A concentrate is a feed that is high in grain
    content.

204
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Feedlot
Operations
  • Many feedlots are situated in the Midwest because
    this section of the United States produces most
    of the grain.
  • It is usually more economically feasible to feed
    the animals there versus shipping the grain
    across the country.
  • An exception to this is the state of Texas.

205
Segments of the Beef Cattle Industry Feedlot
Operations
  • Texas has more feedlots than any other state.
  • When the animals are slaughtered, they are
    generally between the ages of 18 to 24 months.
  • The average slaughter weight is between 800 and
    1500 pounds (1250 being the ideal).

206
The Equine Industry
207
The Human/ Horse History
  • Humans have used horses for food, transportation,
    work, and war as far back as history records.
  • Almost all civilizations at one time relied on
    the horse.
  • In the United States much of our history has been
    built around power supplied by horses and mules.

208
The Human/ Horse History
  • The number of horses and mules in this country
    grew until the 1920s when the car, truck, and
    tractor caused a sharp decline in their numbers.
  • From that time until 1960, the numbers steadily
    declined.
  • Since the 1960s, however, the number of horses
    and mules in the US has increased dramatically.

209
The Human/ Horse History
  • Today horses are classified as light, draft, or
    pony.
  • Within these classifications horses are
    classified by breed and blood line.

210
Light Horses
  • Light horses are animals that weigh between 900
    to 1400 pounds.
  • These horses are further divided according to
    use.
  • Gaited saddle horses and walkers are usually used
    for pleasure riding and show.
  • Driving horses are used to pull carriages.

211
Light Horses
  • Stock horses are used all across the country to
    work cattle or other animals.
  • Race horses are used to compete with each other
    in one of the worlds largest spectator sports
    the horse races.

212
Draft Horses
  • These animals weigh more than 1400 pounds and are
    commonly taller than 18 hands (but do not have to
    be tall).
  • At one time these animals provided the power for
    pulling heavy loads needed for the establishing
    of civilization.
  • Today they are commonly used for show.

213
Ponies
  • These animals weigh less than 900 pounds and must
    be less than 14.2 hands.
  • While some are used for show, the majority of
    ponies are used as horses for children.

214
Breeds of Equine
215
Mustang
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as light horses
  • Usually 14-15 hands tall
  • Come in ALL colors
  • Original Cow-Pony, feral horses of the American
    west, tough

216
American Quarter Horse
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as light horses
  • 15.2-16.1 hands tall
  • Any solid color mostly chestnut
  • Most versatile horse in the World

217
(No Transcript)
218
American Saddlebred
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as light horses
  • 15-16 hands tall
  • Black, bay, brown white markings on face and
    legs
  • Very showy, amiable, gaited

219
American Standardbred
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as a light horse breed
  • 14-16 hands tall
  • Any solid color
  • Developed as a trotter/pacer direct line can be
    traced to one male, Messenger

220
Thoroughbred
  • Originated in England
  • Classified as light horses
  • Bred mainly for racing must be handled carefully

221
Dutch Warmblood
  • Originated in Holland
  • Classified as a warmblood (light) horse
  • 16 hands in height
  • Any color
  • Mix of Groningen and Gelderland breeds willing
    temperament

222
American Warmblood
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as a light horse
  • Relatively new breed common crosses are
    Thoroughbred/Draft or Thoroughbred/ Warmblood

223
Appaloosa
  • Originated in Spain, finished up in United States
  • Classified as light horses
  • Bred by the Nez Perce Indians third largest
    breed registry in the World

224
Arabian
  • Originated in Arabia
  • Classified as light horses
  • 14.3-16 hands in height
  • Bay, brown, chestnut, grey, or black
  • Large nostrils, long eyelashes, adapted to desert
    conditions one less vertebra than any other
    breed can carry more weight over longer distance
    than Thoroughbreds or Quarter horses OLDEST
    Purebred horse.

225
Lipizzaner
  • Originated in Austria
  • Classified as a light horse
  • Mostly grey
  • Most famous horses from Spanish Riding School of
    Vienna performing haute ecole riding performing
    airs-above-the-ground

226
Missouri Fox Trotter
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as light horses
  • Any color, usually sorrel
  • Natural ability for specialized gaits

227
Morgan
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as a light horse
  • Bay, brown, black, chestnut
  • One common foundation sire, Justin Morgan of
    Massachsetts

228
Paint
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as a light horse
  • Overos have NO whites crossing the spine
    Tobianos have white crossing the spine
  • ALL Paint horses must be sired by a registered
    Paint, Quarter horse, or Thoroughbred.

229
Palomino
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as light horses
  • Gold coat white mane and tail NO markings
  • Not possible to breed true to color FIRST color
    registry

230
Pinto
  • Originated in Spain and finished up in the
    United States
  • Classified as a light horse
  • Black and white in bold patches all over the body
  • Native American horse

231
Tennessee Walking Horse
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as a light horse
  • Well known for two unique gaits the flat walk
    and running walk bred for comfort, good for the
    beginning rider

232
Pony of the Americas (POA)
  • Originated in the United States
  • Classified as a pony
  • 11.2-13 hands in height
  • Cross between an appaloosa and shetland

233
Shetland
  • Originated in England
  • Classified as a pony
  • 11.2 hands in height maximum
  • Popular with kids, very hardy, and gentle

234
Welsh Pony
  • Originated in Wales
  • Classified as pony horses
  • 13.2 Hands in height maximum
  • Very hardy, good trotters, good jumpers
    influence the trotters World wide

235
Percheron
  • Originated in France
  • Classified as a draft horse
  • Grey or Black
  • Most popular cart horse in the World slight
    Arabian features in the face

236
Belgian
  • Originated in Belgium
  • Classified as a Draft horse
  • Mostly roan with black points, chestnut,
    sometimes bay, brown, dun, gray
  • Descendent of medieval great horses magnificent
    animal one of the most powerful of all horse
    breeds

237
Clydesdale
  • Originated in Scotland
  • Classified as draft horses
  • Bay, brown, black, roan, much white on face and
    legs
  • Displays action, much feathering on the feet,
    regularly exported from Britain

238
Friesian
  • Originated in Holland
  • Classified as a draft horse
  • BLACK
  • Used by Knights heavily feathered legs

239
The Horse Industry
  • Altogether the horse industry in this country is
    a 15 to 20 billion dollar industry.
  • Surprisingly, horse racing ranks third behind
    auto racing and baseball among spectator sports
    in the United States.
  • Each year there are approximately 7000 horse
    shows in this country.
  • Recreation remains the horse of todays primary
    function.

240
Digestive System of Animals
241
Digestion
  • Is where large complex molecules are broken down
    into more simple molecules.
  • Is basically a long tube beginning with mouth and
    ending with the anus.

242
Digestion
  • Purpose reduce feed particles to molecules that
    can be absorbed into the blood
  • Mechanical breakdown of food
  • chewing
  • Chemical breakdown of food
  • HCl in the stomach
  • enzymes
  • Contractions of digestive tract

243
Animals are classified by the types of food they
ingest
  • Carnivore - animal products
  • Dogs, Cats
  • Herbivore - plant products
  • Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Horses
  • Omnivore - combination of plant and animal
    products
  • humans, pigs

244
Animals are also classified by the type of
stomach they have
  • Monogastrics or non-ruminants
  • Ruminants

245
Digestive Systems
  • Man Pig have a simple stomach with an extensive
    intestinal system.
  • Ruminants have a complex stomach with a simpler
    intestinal system.
  • Horses Rabbits have a simple stomach with an
    extensive intestinal system and an enlarged cecum.

246
Monogastric Animals
  • Monogastric one or simple stomach structure
  • mostly carnivores and omnivores
  • Very simple mink and dog
  • Cecal digestion horse, rabbit or rat
  • Sacculated stomach kangaroo

247
Ruminant Animals
  • Ruminant - 4 compartment stomach with the
    compartments before the true stomach
  • herbivores
  • cattle, sheep, goats and pseudoruminants (llamas)

248
Common Parts of the Digestive System
  • Mouth Prehension tool (grasps food)
  • Salivary Glands secrete juices containing
    enzymes (digest food)
  • Esophagus muscular tube that connects mouth to
    stomach (Peristaltic Movement sequential
    contraction of ring like muscles of the esophagus
    Reverse Peristalsis blowing chunks)

249
Digestion
  • Prehension
  • Bringing the food to the mouth
  • Upper limbs, head, beak, claws, mouth, teeth and
    lips
  • Mastication or chewing
  • To crush the food, increase surface area and
    allow enzymes to act on molecules
  • Carnivores need only to red
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