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CAT IIIII Workshop

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ICAO/FAA - CAT IIIB DH 50ft (15m) or no DH RVR 700ft (200m) not 150ft (50m) (JAA 250ft(75m) ... Landing lights can obscure required visual reference in CAT III ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CAT IIIII Workshop


1
CAT II/III Workshop
  • Flight Operations View

2
CAT II/III Flight Operations View
  • General Concepts ICAO/JAA/FAA
  • Approval Process
  • Aircraft Requirements
  • Aerodrome Requirements
  • Air Operator

3
CAT II
  • CAT II DH100(30m) and RVR 1200ft
    (350m) (JAA 1000 (300)
  • Sufficient visual reference for a manual landing
  • Equivalent level of safety by
  • airborne equipment
  • ILS Facility

4
CAT II
  • Equivalent level of safety by
  • visual aids
  • flight crew training/procedures
  • ATC procedures
  • aircraft maintenance
  • airfield maintenance
  • criteria for obstacle clearance

5
CAT III
  • ICAO/FAA - CAT IIIA DH 700ft (200m) (JAA always DH)
  • ICAO/FAA - CAT IIIB DH 700ft (200m) not
  • ICAO/FAA - CAT IIIC 0/0 (No JAA)

6
CAT III
  • Not sufficient references to permit visual
    landing
  • Minimum to allow pilot to decide whether aircraft
    will land in touchdown zone (CAT IIIA) and ensure
    safety during roll-out (CAT IIIB)
  • Desired level of safety achieved with more
    stringent requirements

7
DH/DA
  • Decision altitude/height (DA/H) - is the wheel
    height above the runway elevation by which a
    go-around must be initiated unless adequate
    visual reference has been established and the
    aircraft position and approach path have been
    assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach
    and landing in safety (JAA)

8
Decision Height
  • JAA - for CAT II and CAT IIIA the visual
    reference to contain not less than a 3 light
    segment
  • JAA - CAT IIIB visual reference to contain one
    centreline light

9
Alert Height
  • Alert Height - height above runway based on the
    characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail
    operational automatic landing system, above which
    a CAT III approach would be discontinued and a
    missed approach initiated if a failure occurred
    in one of the redundant parts of the automatic
    landing system, or in the relevant ground
    equipment

10
Alert Height
  • Fail-operational automatic landing system - if in
    the event of a failure, the approach, flare and
    landing can be completed by the remaining part of
    the automatic system.
  • Fail-passive automatic landing system - in the
    event of a failure there is no significant
    deviation of aeroplane trim, flight path or
    altitude but the landing will not be completed
    automatically.

11
Alert Height
  • Go-around above Alert Height for failures (AFM)
    affecting fail operational system
  • Below Alert Height continue except for Autoland
    warning
  • Height evaluated during certification - typically
    100 - 200feet
  • Operators can select lower Alert Height

12
RVR
  • Runway Visual Range - range over which a pilot of
    an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can
    see the runway surface markings or the lights
    delineating the runway or identifying its
    centreline
  • Transmissometers strategically located
  • Three basic portions of runway - the touchdown
    zone (TDZ), the mid-runway portion (MID) and the
    rollout portion or stop end

13
RVR
  • For CAT II TDZ required
  • For CAT III TDZ and Mid required
  • For lowest weather FAA requires all
  • For CAT III with no DH JAA require only one
  • RVR is not the Slant Visual Range (SVR) seen by
    the pilot

14
RVR Minima
  • Pilots require 1-3 seconds to establish visual
    contact
  • To establish lateral position pilots required to
    see not less than three lights
  • To maintain lateral most pilots require to be
    able to see a lateral element of ground pattern
  • Vertical plane - see a point which has low
    apparent movement relative to the aircraft

15
RVR Minima
  • Establish an RVR to to be associated with that DH
    to ensure required visual reference is
    established
  • Correlation between visual segment SVR - RVR
  • Eye position is important
  • Landing lights can obscure required visual
    reference in CAT III

16
Minimum Approach Break-off Height
  • MABH is the lowest height above ground measured
    by radio-altimeter such that if a missed approach
    is initiated without external references
  • in normal operation, the aircraft does not touch
    the ground during the procedure
  • with an engine failure it can be demonstrated
    that an accident is extremely improbably

17
Minimum Approach Break-off Height
  • Used by JAA but being phased out
  • Replaced by minimum DH or indication in AFM of
    altitude loss during automatic go around - either
    MABH or altitude loss in AFM can be use to
    determine minimum DH in CAT III operation

18
Types of Minima
  • Airfield Operating Minima - established in
    accordance with aerodrome OCH
  • Operator Minima - Lowest minima approved by
    authority for use by an air operator
  • Crew Minima - lowest for a crew depending on
    their qualification/experience
  • Aircraft minima - demonstrated during aircraft
    certification and found in the AFM

19
Approval Process
20
Regulatory Approval
Aircraft
Aerodrome
Safety
Flight Crew
Air Operator
21
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22
Topics
  • Aircraft Requirements
  • Aerodrome Requirements
  • Air Operator
  • Approval Process

23
Aeroplane and Equipment
24
Aeroplane and Equipment Certification
  • Aircraft requires CAT II/III approval
  • Operational approval is required
  • JAR AWO section 1 (Autoland), Section 2 CAT II
    and section 3 (CAT III)
  • FAA AC20-57A (autoland), AC 120-29 (CAT II) and
    AC 120-28D (CAT III)

25
Aeroplane and Equipment Certification
  • Equipment listed in AFM to be operative
  • MEL indicate status of CAT II/III
  • Automatic landing certification requires
    simulations, assessments and flight test
  • Touchdown, roll-out, automatic landing with
    various configurations and conditions tested

26
Aeroplane and Equipment Certification
  • Successful approach
  • No system failure from 150m
  • Speed maintained /- 5 knots (no turbulence)
  • Position of the aircraft between 90m and the DH -
    deviation of Glide path and Localizer do not
    exceed the values for excess deviation alerts

27
Aerodrome Requirements
  • Standards and Recommendations from ICAO Annex 10
    (ILS) and ICAO Annex 14 (Aerodrome) are
    internationally accepted
  • Additional requirements/variants may be found in
    national regulations
  • Summary view of typical CAT II/III airfield

28
Aerodrome Requirements - Runway
  • Runway length - operational requirement
  • Runway width - normally
  • Slope 1st/last quarter
  • Auto Landing - maximum 2 per 30m in area just
    before threshold (60m by 200m)
  • Objects on runway strip - nil within 60m of
    centreline (except frangible)
  • Taxi-holding positions not

29
Aerodrome Requirements Visual Aids -Aerodrome
  • Markings centreline, touchdown, taxiway,
    taxi-holding position markings
  • High intensity threshold, runway end lights,
    runway touchdown zone lights and runway
    centreline lights, taxiway centreline lights if

30
Aerodrome Requirements Visual Aids - Approach
  • Approach Lights required for CAT II only
  • Extended centreline, side row, crossbar

31
Aerodrome RequirementsObstacle Clearance Area
  • Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height (OCH/OCA) -
    lowest height above threshold (aerodrome) used in
    establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle
    clearance criteria
  • Minimum DH for CAT II cannot be less than
    established OCH/A
  • OCH/A is a function of aircraft category

32
Aerodrome RequirementsObstacle Clearance Area
  • Obstacle Free Zone
  • airspace above inner approach surface, inner
    transitional and balked landing surfaces and that
    portion of the strip
  • not penetrated by obstacles except frangible
    mounted required for air transportation purposes

33
Aerodrome RequirementsILS Facility
  • Three categories (Annex 10)
  • 60m (200ft) for CAT I
  • 15m (50ft) for CAT II (acceptable to be used for
    CAT III with the highest minima (DH not
  • Runway surface and along the runway for CAT III

34
Aerodrome RequirementsILS Facility
  • ILS Critical Area - aircraft/vehicles are
    excluded during all ILS operations because they
    will cause disturbances to ILS signal
  • ILS Sensitive Area - area extending beyond the
    critical area where movement and/or parking of
    aircraft and vehicles is controlled to prevent
    the possibility
  • ILS beam to be protected by longitudinal
    separation

35
Aerodrome RequirementsRVR Measurements
  • Number depend on type of operation
  • Generally 110 to 150m from centreline
  • Nominally 5m-10m in height
  • ICAO recommends readout of 50m increments when
    RVR less than 800m and 25m increments when RVR
    less than 150m
  • Normally ATC give Mid unless the others lower

36
Aerodrome RequirementsMaintenance
  • of unserviceable lights not to exceed 5
  • Recommended not adjacent lights
  • Secondary power supply with switchover of maximum
    of 1 second
  • ILS installations ground and flight checked

37
Aerodrome RequirementsATC
  • Each Aerodrome to develop Low Visibility
    Procedures to include
  • Procedures for ATC to be quickly informed of all
    degradations of ILS performance
  • Procedures for ATC to be quickly informed of any
    degradations in visual aids
  • Procedures for protection of OFZ by control of
    ground traffic

38
Aerodrome RequirementsATC
  • Each Aerodrome to develop Low Visibility
    Procedures to include
  • Procedures for protection of ILS critical and
    sensitive areas and between aircraft
  • Procedures for met services
  • Procedures for maintenance
  • Procedures for security

39
Air Operator Approval
40
Air Operator Approval
  • Aircraft type - AFM (Certification)
  • Aerodrome equipment - qualify
  • Aerodrome Operating Minima
  • Flight Crew Training
  • Flight Crew Procedures
  • Maintenance Program
  • Operational Demonstration

41
Air Operator Approval Minima
  • Operator take account of
  • aircraft performance
  • composition of flight crew
  • runway which may be used
  • adequacy of visual and non-visual aids
  • aircraft navigation equipment
  • obstacle clearance height
  • availability of met reports

42
Air Operator Approval CAT II DH
  • Air Operator to ensure DH not lower than
  • DH specified in the AFM
  • Minimum DH to which precision approach can be
    used
  • The OCH for category of aircraft
  • The DH for which the flight crew is authorised
  • 100ft(30m)

43
Air Operator Approval CAT III DH
  • An air operator to ensure that DH not lower than
  • Minimum DH in the AFM
  • Minimum DH to which the precision approach can be
    used
  • The DH to which the crew is authorised

44
Air Operator Approval CAT II/III RVR
  • ICAO/JAA/FAA slight differences
  • RVR Minimum related to DH
  • Increase DH Increase RVR
  • For RVR values less than 300m a go-around is
    assumed in event of auto-pilot failure

45
Air Operator ApprovalFlight Crew Procedures
  • Satisfactory check of aircraft equipment
  • Effect on minima of failures - aircraft and
    ground
  • Procedures for approach, flare and roll-out
  • Procedures for failures/warnings
  • Minimum visual reference
  • Importance of correct seating eye position
  • Action to take if visibility deteriorates

46
Air Operator ApprovalFlight Crew Procedures
  • Allocation of crew duties to permit PIC to devote
    himself to supervision/decision making
  • Calls below 200ft - one pilot on instruments at
    all times
  • Requirement for localizer area to be protected
  • Use of information relating to wind, turbulence
  • Procedures to use for practice approaches
  • Information on maximum deviation allowed

47
Air Operator ApprovalFlight Crew Procedures
  • Flight preparation procedures
  • Approach preparation procedures
  • Approach Procedures
  • Failures and associated actions
  • Continue
  • Revert to higher minimum
  • Go Around and reassess

48
Air Operator ApprovalFlight Crew Procedures
  • Failures - Continue/Revert/Go Around
  • 1000 Continue with higher DH if conditions met
  • Below AH go around required for autoland warning
  • Abnormal Procedures
  • Provided in AFM
  • Simplified procedures found in FCOM

49
Air Operator ApprovalFlight Crew Training
  • CAA requirements to be met
  • Ground training requirements
  • Simulator Training requirements
  • Initial, recurrent, conversion training/checking
  • Type and command experience

50
Air Operator ApprovalMaintenance
  • Airbus aircraft CAT II/III inherent functions
  • Air operator required to seek approval from CAA
  • Specific maintenance program
  • Reliability program to be extended to monitor,
    track and control - 95

51
Air Operator ApprovalMaintenance
  • Procedures to govern the capability of aircraft
  • Upgrading/downgrading procedure to be defined
  • Dispatch policy based on MEL
  • Dispatch criteria and status recorded in the
    Technical Log
  • Requirements for tests to verify the CAT III
    capability to be established

52
Air Operator ApprovalOperational Demonstration
  • To establish that the air operator can carry out
    CAT II/III with the appropriate success rate and
    level of safety
  • Performance and reliability meet airworthiness
    certification
  • Attention given to flight and maintenance
    procedures

53
Air Operator ApprovalOperational Demonstration
  • Flight reports and/or recordings
  • Recordings required for DH
  • Resulting approach/landing success rate
  • Unsuccessful approaches due to ATC factors and/or
    ground facility difficulties may be excluded if
    proofs provided

54
Air Operator ApprovalOperational Demonstration
  • Data Collection Crew Report
  • airfield and runway used
  • weather conditions
  • time, adequacy of speed control
  • out of trim
  • capability of information (FD, AFCS, raw)
  • position through 100 ft and at touchdown
  • reason for failure if approach aborted

55
Air Operator ApprovalOperational Demonstration
  • New Type
  • 6 months at 200ft with procedures for lower
    limits in place
  • Summary report to indicate to 90 confidence
    level that 95 would be successful
  • No failure for 30 approaches
  • then 6 months at 50 ft with procedures for lower
    limits in place

56
Air Operator ApprovalOperational Demonstration
  • New Type
  • then 6 months at 50 ft with procedures for lower
    limits in place
  • summary report to indicate to 90 confidence
    level that deviations are not worse than recorded
    during the certification programme
  • typically 100 landings
  • sources of data distributed evenly

57
Air Operator ApprovalContinuos Monitoring
  • Continue to provide reports of service
  • Number of approaches, by type where CAT II or III
    equipment was utilised to make satisfactory,
    actual or practice approaches to the applicable
    CAT II or III minima
  • Unsatisfactory approaches by aircraft/airfield
  • Detect any decrease in the level of safety

58
Air Operator ApprovalAutoland in CAT I
  • Training purposes or data gathering
  • CAT I beam - to be checked
  • Terrain profile to be checked
  • Generally accepted without activation of low
    visibility procedures
  • Crew authorisation to be required
  • Crew procedures established
  • Vigilant for ILS disturbances

59
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60
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