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Addressing Risk and Protective Factors in the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 1

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Anthony Santiago. What is the Definition of an. Evidence-based ... Annie E. Casey Foundation Family Strengthening Award in 2006. Recent Awards. SFP 10-14 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Addressing Risk and Protective Factors in the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 1


1
Addressing Risk and Protective Factors in the
Strengthening Families Program forParents and
Youth 10-14 CYFAR Conference 2008 Marilyn
Bode Eugenia Hanlon Anthony Santiago
2
What is the Definition of an Evidence-based
Program?
3
Varying Terms/Lingo
  • Best Available Practices
  • Promising Approaches
  • Research-based
  • Science-based
  • Evidence-based (empirically proven)
  • Others?....Model programs, Exemplary programs,
    Effective programs

4
Whats the difference?
  • Best Available Practice
  • Knowledgeable people say this is the best
    available practice.
  • Promising Approaches
  • We really think this will workbut we need time
    to prove it.
  • Research-based
  • This program/intervention is based on research
    about the causes the problem addressed and what
    may work.
  • Evidence-based
  • This intervention has been tested and shown to
    work.

5
What is the Definition of Fidelity of
Implementation?
6
Fidelity of Implementation
  • The program is implemented with the appropriate
    age group or grade level
  • The program facilitator has been trained to use
    the program most effectively
  • The program facilitator implements all of the
    activities in the curriculum in the same way that
    they were implemented in the research

7
Why Does Fidelity Matter?
  • Only by implementing the program in the same way
    in which it was tested can we expect to achieve
    the same positive results

8
Strengthening Families Program For Parents and
Youth 10-14Program Overview
9
Program Description
  • The Strengthening Families Program for Parents
    and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) is a video-based
    program designed to reduce adolescent substance
    abuse and other problematic behaviors in youth
    10-14 years old.
  • The program is delivered within parent, youth,
    and family sessions using narrated videos that
    portray typical youth and parent situations.
  • Highly interactive sessions include role-playing,
    discussions, learning games, and family projects
    designed to
  • Improve parenting skills
  • Build skills in youth
  • Strengthen family bonds

10
Goals of SFP 10-14 Program
  • Reduce and delay substance use and initiation
  • Reduce behavior problems during adolescence
  • Improve parental nurturing and limit-setting
    skills
  • Improve communication skills for both parents and
    youth
  • Improve youth pro-social skills development

11
How it Works
  • SFP 10-14 is delivered to groups of 8-13 families
    during seven weekly two-hour sessions.
  • Program activities include
  • Parent Sessions consisting of presentations,
    role-plays, group discussions, and other
    skill-building activities
  • Youth Sessions that engage each youth in small
    and large group discussions, learning games,
    group skill practice, and social bonding
    activities
  • Family Sessions that use specially designed games
    and projects to increase family bonding, build
    positive communication skills, and facilitate
    learning to solve problems together

12
SFP 10-14 Topics
13
Implementation
  • SFP 10-14 is typically delivered in public
    schools, church, community centers, or
    family-serving agencies on weekday evenings or
    weekends
  • At least two rooms (one for youth and one for
    parents) are required for each session, with
    family sessions taking place in the larger of the
    two rooms.
  • Program planning and family recruitment should
    begin at least two months prior to the seven-week
    program.
  • Three group leaders are needed, one for the
    parent sessions and two for the youth sessions.

14
What is the Evidence of the Effectiveness of SFP
10-14?
  • During the last sixteen years, there have been
    several studies using randomized intervention and
    control communities.
  • SFP 10-14 was offered to families of all 6th
    grade students in intervention communities.
    Families in control communities did not receive
    any programming.
  • Students in both intervention and control
    communities filled out self-report questionnaires
    annually until graduating from high school.

15
Program outcomes What the Data Say. Parenting
Behaviors
  • Comparisons between the intervention andcontrol
    communities showed significantlyimproved
    parenting behaviors
  • Communicating specific rules and consequences for
    using substances
  • Controlling anger when communicating with the
    child
  • Positive involvement with the child
  • Better communication with the child

16
What the Data SayLifetime alcohol use without
parental permission
  • At the 8th grade, students in intervention
    communities reported a 49 relative reduction in
    alcohol use and at 10th grade, a 32 relative
    reduction in alcohol use compared to control
    community students (p

17
What the Data SayLifetime Marijuana Use
  • Students in intervention communities were 53
    less likely than students in the control
    communities to use marijuana at a follow-up
    evaluation four years later.

18
What the Data SayCigarette Use
  • Students from intervention communities were
    approximately half as likely as studentsin
    control communities to smoke cigarettes at
    follow-up evaluations two years andfour years
    later.

19
Reduced Meth Use
Students in intervention communities where both
SFP 10-14 and Life Skills Training were
implemented were only one-third as likely as
students in control communities to have used
methamphetamines in the 12th grades.
20
Self-reported Aggressive Behavior
Students in intervention communities were 58
less likely than students in control communities
to report aggressive behavior at follow-up
evaluations two and four years later.
21
Age of 1st Use Predicts Alcoholism
National Institutes of Health, News Release,
January 1998. www.niaaa.nih.gov
22
Goal
  • To delay use of alcohol and other drugs by
    teens.
  • The earlier young people experiment with alcohol
    and other drugs, the more likely they are to
    develop serious substance abuse as older teens
    and adults.

23
Recent Awards
SFP 10-14 is now part of the National 4-H
Programs of Distinction database, added in
2006. Annie E. Casey Foundation Family
Strengthening Award in 2006
24
Results of Cochrane Review
SFP 10-14 3 Programs 12 Programs Narrowed to
50 Programs 6,000 studies of adolescent alcohol
reduction programs
25
Conclusion from Meta Analysis Sponsored by the
World Health Organization
Disappointing results from school-based
programmes have encouraged interest in family
interventions. The one with the best track record
is the US Strengthening Families Programme, an
approach now being tried in Britain. David
Foxcroft, Oxford Brookes University (Cochrane
Collaboration Systematic Review,
2002) Foxcroft, Ireland, Lister-Sharp, Lowe and
Breen
26
Risk and Protective Factors
27
Definition of Risk and Protective Factors
  • Risk factors are any circumstances that may
    increase the likelihood of youths engaging in
    risky behaviors
  • Protective factors are any circumstances that
    promote healthy youth behaviors and decrease the
    chance that youth will engage in risky behaviors

28
Risk FactorsWhat do we Know?
  • Risk factors have been identified
  • within individuals,
  • in family environments and interactions,
  • in school experiences,
  • in peer or social relationships,
  • and in community contexts.
  • A persons overall risk may result from the
    interaction of personal dispositions and
    environmental risk factors.

29
More About Risk Factors
  • Exposure to many risk factors has cumulative
    effects
  • There are different risk factors for different
    age groups
  • It is desirable for prevention to occur before
    the first onset of the risky behavior

30
Group Activity
  • Circulate between the five pieces of newsprint
    and identify risk and protective factors for each
    of these five domains
  • Individual risk and protective factors
  • Family risk and protective factors
  • Peer risk and protective factors
  • School risk and protective factors
  • Community risk and protective factors

31
Individual Risk Factors
  • Alienation or rebelliousness
  • Anti-social behavior
  • Anxiety or depression
  • Early first use of drugs
  • Favorable attitudes toward risky behaviors
  • Lack of religious commitment
  • Sensation-seeking

32
Family Risk Factors
  • Adapting to divorce, remarriage, or a marked
    worsening of family relations
  • Distant, uninvolved, and inconsistent parenting
  • Negative parent-child communication
  • Poor parental monitoring
  • Unclear family rules and expectations
  • Parent or sibling drug and alcohol use

33
Peer Risk Factors
  • Associating with peers who use drugs
  • Perceived use of substances by others
  • Peer rejection
  • Gang involvement

34
School Risk Factors
  • Academic failure
  • Low commitment to school
  • School transitions
  • Poorly organized and functioning school
  • Negative labeling by teachers
  • Truancy and frequent absences
  • Suspension and dropping out of school

35
Community Risk Factors
  • Permissive community laws and norms
  • Drug availability
  • Lack of concerted law enforcement
  • Lack of meaningful roles
  • Low neighborhood attachment and community
    disorganization
  • Low socioeconomic status

36
Protective FactorsWhat do we Know?
  • Individual characteristics, temperament,
    dispositions, and skills may cushion the effects
    of adversity or stress.
  • Attributes of the childs environment, such as
    social support, parental warmth, appropriate
    discipline, adult monitoring and supervision, and
    bonding to family or other positive role models
    may also function as protective factors

37
Individual Protective Factors
  • Positive and resilient temperament
  • Valuing involvement in organized religious
    activities
  • Social competencies and problem-solving skills
  • Social support from adults and peers
  • Healthy sense of self
  • Positive expectations for the future
  • High expectations
  • Gender

38
Family Protective Factors
  • Good relationships with parents
  • Opportunities and rewards for positive family
    involvement
  • Having a stable family
  • High family expectations

39
Peer Protective Factors
  • Involvement with positive peer group activities
    and norms
  • Good relationship with peers
  • Parental approval of friends

40
School Protective Factors
  • Positive attitude toward school
  • Student bonding
  • Attachment to teachers
  • Academic achievement
  • Opportunities and rewards for positive school
    involvement
  • High quality schools with clear standards
  • High expectations of students
  • Involvement of caring, supportive adults

41
Community Protective Factors
  • Stable communities
  • Safe and health-promoting environment
  • Supportive law enforcement presence
  • Positive social norms
  • Opportunities and rewards for positive community
    involvement
  • High community expectations
  • Neighborhood social cohesion

42
SFP 10-14
  • An activity from the program
  • Youth Session 6

43
SFP 10-14
  • What are the risk and protective factors
    addressed in this activity?

44
SFP 10-14 Risk Factors
  • Family
  • Family history of the problem behavior/Parent
    criminality
  •  Family management problems/Poor parental
    supervision /monitoring
  •  Pattern of high family conflict
  •  Poor family attachment/Bonding
  •  Parental use of physical punishment/Harsh and/or
    erratic discipline practices
  • Individual
  • Anti-social behavior and alienation/Delinquent
    beliefs/General delinquency involvement/Drug
    dealing
  •  Favorable attitudes toward drug use/Early onset
    of AOD use/Alcohol and/or drug use
  •  Early onset of aggression and/or violence
  •  Poor refusal skills

45
SFP 10-14 Protective Factors
  • Family
  • Effective parenting
  • Good relationships with parents/Bonding or
    attachment to family
  • Opportunities for pro-social family involvement
  • Having a stable family
  • High expectations
  • Individual
  • Social competencies and problem-solving skills
  • Self-efficacy
  • Healthy / Conventional beliefs and clear
    standards
  • Perception of social support from adults and
    peers

46
How would we monitor fidelity?
  • The most effective way to monitor fidelity is to
    have trained observers use a checklist of
    activities for a given session. Feedback from
    these observations can be used to improve
    fidelity of implementation.

47
Strengthening Families Program 10-14
I learned that its easier to talk it out than
fight and yell.
48
Strengthening Families Program 10-14
We learned more rules, because we didnt have
any.
49
Strengthening Families Program 10-14
I learned to listen to my child and his
feelings.
50
Strengthening Families Program 10-14
I learned what a fantastic child I have.
51
More Information
  • www.extension.iastate.edu/sfp
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