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Egyptian Gods

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The Egyptian gods were represented with human torsos and human or animal heads ... The sun was then in the sign of Capricorn, then known as the Stable of Augeus, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Egyptian Gods


1
Egyptian Gods
2
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • Part II. Sacred cities
  • Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Part IV. Animals
  • Conclusion
  • References

3
Introduction
  • What is now known as Egyptian mythology was the
    religion of Ancient Egypt (3300-30 BC)
  • The Egyptian gods were represented with human
    torsos and human or animal heads
  • The ka, a duplicate of the body, accompanied the
    body throughout life and, after death, departed
    from the body to take its place in the kingdom of
    the dead
  • The ka, however, could not exist without the
    body the corpse had to be preserves. Bodies were
    embalmed and mummified
  • After arriving in the kingdom of the dead, the ka
    was judged by Osiris, the king of the dead

4
Eye of Horus
5
Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • The Egyptians believed that in the beginning, the
    universe was filled with the dark waters of chaos
  • The first god, Re-Atum, appeared from the water
    as the land of Egypt appears every year out of
    the flood waters of the Nile
  • Re-Atum spat and out of the spittle came out the
    gods Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture)
  • The world was created when Shu Tefnut gave
    birth to 2 children Nut (sky) Geb (the Earth)

6
Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • Osiris was the son of Re-Atum and king of Egypt.
    His brother Seth represented evil in the universe
  • He murdered Osiris and himself became the king.
    After killing Osiris Seth tore his body into
    pieces, but Isis rescued most of the pieces for
    burial beneath the temple
  • Seth made himself king but was challenged by
    Osiris's son-Horus. Seth lost and was sent to the
    desert. He became the God of terrible storms
  • Osiris was mummified by Anubis and became God of
    the dead. Horus became the King and from him
    descended the pharaohs

7
Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • Egypt had a highly developed view of the
    afterlife with elaborate rituals for preparing
    the body and soul for a peaceful life after death
  • Beliefs about the soul and afterlife focused
    heavily on preservation of the body, or ba (the
    soul was known as the ka). This meant that
    embalming and mummification were practiced, in
    order to preserve the individual's identity in
    the afterlife
  • The intestines, lungs, liver and the stomach were
    preserved separately and stored in canopic jars
    protected by the Four sons of Horus

8
Part II. Sacred cities
  • Karnak Temple is the largest ancient religious
    site in the world (north of Luxor) Construction
    work began in the 16th century BC 30 pharaohs
    contributed to the buildings cult of Amun
  • Luxor Temple is a large temple complex located on
    the east bank of the River Nile in the city of
    Luxor (Thebes) Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and
    Chons
  • Memphis, founded around 3100 BC by Menes, who
    united the two kingdoms of Egypt cult of Ptah

9
Part II. Sacred cities
  • Abydos, one of the most ancient cities of Upper
    Egypt the history of the city begins in the late
    prehistoric age worship of Anubis, Horus
  • Heliopolis unfortunately it is now mostly
    destroyed, its temples and other buildings being
    used for the construction of mediaeval Cairo
    most information about it comes from textual
    sources the chief deity of Heliopolis was the
    god Atun

10
EgyptDivided into Upper Egypt or Southern
Egypt because it is upstream, closer to the
source of the Nile Lower Egypt or Northern Egypt
because it is downriver along the Nile
11
Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Isis Egyptian Goddess wife of Osiris First
    mentions of Isis date back to the 5th dynasty
  • Isis was pictured as a woman wearing a long
    sheath dress depicted with her son, the great
    god Horus, with a crown and a vulture, and
    sometimes as a kite bird flying above Osiris's
    body
  • As a funerary deity, she was associated with
    Osiris, god of the underworld, thus was
    considered his wife
  • By merging with Hathor, Isis mother of Horus

12
Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Osiris Egyptian God of the dead and the
    underworld
  • First mentioned in the 4th Dynasty one of the
    four children of the earth (Geb) and the sky
    (Nuit), and was the husband of Isis (Aset), who
    represented life
  • Usually depicted as a mummified man, with a
    beard, and, as ruler of the underworld, was also
    given the symbols of kingship - the crown and
    crozier (staff)
  • Osiris killed by Set Horus became thought of as
    the resurrected version of Osiris, i.e. Osiris
    re-incarnated

13
Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Horus the Eye of Horus is an important Egyptian
    symbol of power
  • God of the sky, Horus became depicted as a
    falcon, or as a falcon-headed man
  • Son of Isis and Osiris The legend of Osiris,
    Isis, Horus and Seth became one of the most
    important and powerful in Egyptian mythology
    during the New Kingdom (16-11th centuries BC)
  • Concerns the death of Osiris and birth of Horus

14
Isis
15
Part IV. Animals
  • Many creatures were also mummified, sometimes
    thought to be pets of Egyptian families, but more
    likely they were the representations of the Gods.
    The ibis, crocodile, cats, nile perch and baboon
    can be found in perfect mummified forms
  • Gods and animals
  • Wepwawet was shown as a wolf, or as a jackal, or
    as a man with the head of a wolf or a jackal

16
Part IV. Animals
  • Bast Egyptian cat goddess of the home and of the
    domestic cat daughter of the sun god Re
  • Hathor Egyptian cow goddess. Daughter of Nut and
    Re merged with Isis
  • Sobek Egyptian crocodile god aids in the
    destruction of Seth
  • Anubis Egyptian god of the dead, represented as
    a black jackal or dog

17
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18
Conclusion
  • In Egypt 3000 years ago, the birthday of the sun
    god was celebrated on the 25 December
  • The sun was then in the sign of Capricorn, then
    known as the Stable of Augeus, the infant sun god
    was said to have been born in a stable
  • The stories of Jesus and Horus are very similar.
    Osiris, the father of Horus was a supreme and
    transcendental god Horus was born of the virgin
    Isis-Meri, Isis the Beloved, on December 25th

19
Conclusion
  • Osiris was the god who suffered, died and rose
    again, to reign eternally over the souls of the
    righteous dead
  • His worshippers believed that, like their god,
    they would inherit eternal life. Osiris's coming
    announced by Three Kings or Three Wise Men the 3
    stars Mintaka, Anilam and Alnitak in the belt of
    Orion
  • Even Horus and his Father, Osiris, were
    interchangeable, reminding us that Jesus said "I
    and my Father are one."

20
One of these two images is a famous mediaeval
icon of Mary and Jesus, the other is a bronze
statue of Isis nursing Horus dating from the
Ptolemaic era of Egypt
21
References
  • http//www.pantheon.org/areas/mythology/africa/egy
    ptian/articles.html
  • http//interoz.com/egypt/gods1.htm
  • http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/home.html
  • http//www1.pu.edu.tw/bmon/Egypt.htm

22
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