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Academic Subfields: Leadership, Power and Influence, Groups, Motivation, ... Figurehead. Spokesperson. Negotiator. Coach and motivator. Team builder. Team player ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership

  • Day One

Dr. Gary Yukl
  • Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley, 1967
  • Academic Subfields Leadership, Power and
    Influence, Groups, Motivation, Training and
  • Research Interests Leadership, Power and
    Influence, Managerial Skills
  • Applied Interests Management Training and
    Development, Management of Organization Change,
    Strategic Leadership, Attitude Surveys

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Yulk points out that, in the extreme, it is
    possible to think of a...
  • leader who is not a manager, and
  • manager who is not a leader.

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • At the same time, Yukl emphasizes that a
    successful manager must necessarily lead others.
    In both your text and this course...
  • the terms leaders and managers are used

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • According to Yukl leadership is the process of...
  • influencing others to understand and agree about
    what needs to be done and how it can be done
    effectively, and
  • facilitating individual and collective efforts to
    accomplish shared objectives.

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Among other things, the effectiveness of
    leaders, may be defined in terms of...
  • the consequences of their actions for others,
  • the attitudes of their subordinates,
  • their impact on group processes (e.g.,
    decision-making, conflict resolution, etc.), and
  • their impact on productivity.

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Team Activity
  • Take not more than 30 minutes to decide what the
    best measure of a leaders effectiveness in the
    workplace is. The team reporter should take
    sufficient notes to explain to the class...
  • what the teams decision is, and
  • why the team chose that measure rather than

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • In the workplace, managers are typically accorded
    more internal value to the organization than
    employees without formal management
  • Why?

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Other things being equal, managers are more
    internally valuable than non managers because
  • are accountable for accomplishing results through
    other people and, consequently,
  • can accomplish more than any single person
    theyre responsible for.

Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Staff managers in many organizations may...
  • find it difficult to define the results for which
    they are accountable,
  • mistakenly come to think of typical management
    processes such as hiring, performance appraisal,
    counseling, etc. as their primary duty, and
  • forget that their value to the organization
    depends upon their ability to accomplish specific
    results through other people.

Nature of Managerial Work
  • According to Yukl, managerial work is typically
    characterized by...
  • hectic and unrelenting activity,
  • fragmented work that makes follow-through
  • reactions to issues, information, events, etc.
    that are not planned,
  • interaction with peers and outsiders that place a
    premium on networking,
  • oral communications,
  • disorderly and politically-oriented decisions,
  • informal and adaptive planning that emphasizes
    short-term (i.e., gt 30 days) issues.

Nature of Managerial Work
  • The managers ability to engage in these types of
    activities is constrained by situational
    determinants including the level of managerial
    decision-making, or whether it is..
  • strategic,
  • tactical, and/or
  • operational.

Nature of Managerial Work
  • A second key situational determinant is span of
    control (i.e., number of subordinates).
  • Is smaller always better?

Nature of Managerial Work
  • Other situational determinants mentioned by Yukl
    include the...
  • degree of interdependence with other
    organizational units,
  • crisis orientation of the decision-making,
  • stage in the organizations life cycle (e.g.,
    start-up, growth, maturity revitalization/declin

Nature of Managerial Work
  • An additional situational constraint is the
    organizations work culture, or the way in which
    work actually gets done.
  • Culture Cube

  • H

  • Measurable Results


  • L


  • L

  • L
    Teamwork Orientation H

Nature of Managerial Work
  • The current nature of managerial work is changing
    dramatically as a result of...
  • cultural diversity ( and the diversity paradox)
  • emphasis on flatter organizational structures,
  • extensive outsourcing ( and the virtual
    organization), and
  • technology and information management (and its
    impact on the employee-employer relationship).

Nature of Managerial Work
  • Regarding technology and information management,
    the substitution of machinery and/or computer
    hardware for human labor allows for both...
  • continuous improvement, and
  • mass customization.

Nature of Managerial Work
  • The continuous improvement process (e.g., Jack
    Welchs six sigma) aims toward zero variation in
    the quality of products/services. As a result,
    there is...
  • an increasing emphasis on routinization,
    formality and other structural mechanics, and
  • a race with no finish line.

Nature of Managerial Work
  • Mass customization allows a manufacturer (e.g.,
    Dell, Saturn) to customize their products for
    masses of customers, and is characterized by a
    strong need for...
  • coordinated work processes (or job clusters), and
  • work teams that can accommodate the entire
    production process.

  • The ability to inspire confidence and support
    among the people who are needed to achieve
    organizational goals
  • May be considered a long-term relationship, or
    partnership, between leaders and group members

  • The power between leader and group members is
    approximately balanced
  • Four things necessary in a partnership
  • Exchange of purpose
  • A right to say no
  • Joint accountability
  • Absolute honesty

Leadership versus Management
  • Leadership deals with
  • Change
  • Inspiration
  • Motivation
  • Influence
  • Management deals with
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Directing
  • Controlling

Leadership Matters
  • The results of one study showed
  • transactional leadership was not significantly
    related to performance
  • charismatic leadership was slightly, positively
    related to performance
  • in an uncertain environment, charismatic
    leadership was more strongly related to

Attribution Theory
  • The process of attributing causality to events
  • To simplify and understand complex social systems
    of human interaction, people interpret events in
    human terms
  • Most organizational successes are attributed to
    heroic leaders

Leadership Does Not Matter
  • Three major arguments against the importance of
    leadership include
  • Substitutes for leadership
  • Leader irrelevance
  • Complexity theory

Substitutes for Leadership
Leader Irrelevance
  • Situational factors, outside the leaders
    control, have the largest impact on outcomes
  • High-level leaders have unilateral control over
    only a few resources, and the control over these
    resources is limited by obligations to
  • Firms choose new leaders whose values and
    behaviors are similar to previous leaders

Complexity Theory
  • Organizations are complex systems that cannot be
    explained by the usual rules of nature
  • Leaders and managers can do little to alter the
    course of the complex organizational system
  • A companys fate is determined by factors outside
    the leader/managers control

Leadership Roles
  • Figurehead
  • Spokesperson
  • Negotiator
  • Coach and motivator
  • Team builder
  • Team player
  • Technical problem solver
  • Entrepreneur
  • Strategic planner

Sources of Leader Satisfaction
  • A feeling of power and prestige
  • A chance to help others grow and develop
  • High income
  • Respect and status
  • Good opportunities for advancement
  • A feeling of being in on things
  • An opportunity to control resources

Leader Frustrations
  • Too much uncompensated overtime
  • Too many headaches
  • Not enough authority to carry out responsibility
  • Loneliness
  • Too many problems involving people
  • Too much organizational politics

A Framework forUnderstanding Leadership
  • Leader characteristics and traits
  • Leader behavior and style
  • Group member characteristics
  • Internal and external environment

  • Leading is a major part of a managers job
  • Although some research supports the view that the
    leader affects organizational performance, the
    concepts of substitutes for leadership, leader
    irrelevance, and complexity theory suggest that
    leadership matters little

  • Leadership involves carrying out at least nine
    different roles
  • There are many sources of both satisfaction and
    frustration to leaders
  • Leadership is a function of leader
    characteristics and traits, leader behavior and
    style, group member characteristics, and the
    internal and external environments

Universal Theory of Leadership
  • The belief that certain personal characteristics
    and skills contribute to leadership effectiveness
    in many situations
  • Three categories
  • Personality traits
  • Motives
  • Cognitive factors

Leader Personality Traits
  • General Personality Traits
  • Traits observable both within and outside the
    context of work
  • Task-Related Personality Traits
  • Traits closely associated with task accomplishment

General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
Task-Related Personality Traits of Leaders
Leadership Motives
  • Leaders generally have a strong desire to
    influence and control others
  • This desire is evident in four needs or motives

Leadership Motives
Cognitive Factors
  • Leaders must have problem-solving and
    intellectual skills to effectively gather,
    process, and store essential information
  • Five cognitive factors related to leadership
    effectiveness have been identified

Cognitive Factors and Leadership
Nature versus Nurture
  • Are leaders born or are they made? Both.
  • Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop
    personality traits and mental ability that sets
    an outer limit on how extensively these traits
    can be developed
  • Environmental influences, in turn, determine how
    much of an individuals potential will be

Trait Approach
  • Strengths
  • Serves as a guide to leader selection
  • Can guide individuals in preparing for leadership
  • Limitations
  • Does not identify which characteristics are
    absolutely needed
  • Does not specify how much of a trait or
    characteristic is needed
  • Can breed an elitist conception of leadership

  • The universal theory of leadership asserts that
    certain personality traits, leader motives, and
    cognitive factors contribute to leadership
  • Personality traits include both general traits
    and task-related traits
  • Leaders can often be distinguished by their needs
    or motives

  • Mental ability is important for leadership
  • Traits, motives, and characteristics required for
    leadership are a combination of heredity and
  • Traits do appear to distinguish leaders from
    nonleaders and effective leaders from
    less-effective leaders

Traits Skills
  • Although traits refer to a characteristic of a
    person, and skills refer to the ability to do
  • the distinction has little practical utility
    since both must impact behavior to have a bearing
    on managerial effectiveness.

Traits Skills
  • According to Yukl, the most widely accepted
    taxonomy of skills includes...
  • technical skills or the ability to apply specific
  • interpersonal skills, and
  • conceptual skills, or problem-solve using
    deductive and inductive analytic skills.

Traits Skills
  • Regarding conceptual skills, Boyatzis (1982)
    research indicates that effective managers have
    the ability to reason...
  • inductively, moving from specific facts to
    general conclusions (i.e., bring order to chaos),
  • deductively, moving from general principles to
    specific applications.

Traits Skills
  • Based upon McClellands research, studies
    indicate that effectiveness in large
    organizations is correlated with need cluster
    including a...
  • strong socialized power need,
  • moderately strong need for affiliation, and
  • low need for affiliation.

Traits Skills
  • Miners research...
  • confirms the importance of the needs for power
    and achievement for effectiveness in large
    organizations, but
  • indicates these indices are not useful predictors
    of effectiveness in small organizations.

Traits Skills
  • Other traits and skills associated with
    managerial effectiveness in large organizations
  • energy level stress tolerance,
  • self-confidence,
  • integrity,
  • internal locus of control, and
  • emotional intelligence.

Traits Skills
  • Regarding emotions, Stephen Robbins makes a
    useful distinction between...
  • felt emotions that employees are actually
    feeling, and
  • displayed emotions that are more or less job

Traits Skills
  • Managers ability to make use of the distinction
    between felt and displayed emotions will be
    affected by their emotional intelligence (EI)
  • empathy,
  • emotional self-awareness,
  • emotional self-management,
  • self-motivation, or ability to maintain a
    persistent focus, and
  • social skills.

Traits Skills
  • Research on derailed managers at the Center for
    Creative Leadership indicates that...
  • a lack of emotional intelligence in the form of
    emotional stability and interpersonal skills is
    key to derailing managers.

Traits Skills
  • According to Yukl, the following indicates the...
  • relationship between required skill level and
    managerial level in large organizations.

Traits Skills

Conceptual Skills
Interpersonal Skills
Skill Level
Technical Skills
Lower Level
Middle Level
Top Level
Traits Skills
  • What would this relationship look like for small

What do leaders need to make it in the 21st
century corporation?
  • Core Qualities Intelligence, passion and an
    ability to motivate
  • Obtain, distribute and act on information quickly
    and insist staff follows suit
  • Spontaneity, adaptable, team orientation, genuine
    concern for employees, and..

Wanted Electic Visionary with a Sense of
Humor, Business Week, August 28,2000
Why Use Humor?
  • Health Help respond to stress
  • Understanding Communication Cooperation
  • Management Avoid power struggles improve
  • Opportunity Shape positive action
  • Recognition Build self-esteem

Making work fun doing business with a sense of
humor, Hospital Material Management Quarterly,
February, 2001
Other reasons.
  • Research suggests a positive correlation between
    humor and performance
  • Improves group cohesion and employee retention
  • Cope with change
  • Enhance creative thinking
  • Makes people more likable
  • Keeps attention and arouses interest
  • Makes information more memorable

Successful Companies Who Use It
  • Southwestern Airlineshttp//www.spiritmag.com/abo
  • Ben Jerrys Ice Cream http//www.benjerry.com
  • Sun Microsystems

Does it work for every leader?
  • Transformational Leader
  • Linked with strong work unit performance
  • Not linked to leader performance
  • Contingent Reward Style Leader
  • Lower levels of work unit performance
  • Lower levels of leader performance
  • Laissez-faire Leader
  • Higher levels of work unit performance
  • Higher levels of leader performance

Did you hear the one about.? Leading with
humor pays dividends, The Academy of Management
Executive, Nov., 1999
Potential Risks
  • Inappropriate or offensive humor
  • Out of character could change perceptions
  • Counter to the culture
  • Inappropriate moment
  • Wrong person
  • Laughing at others

Steps to Improve Your Humor
  • Surround yourself with humor
  • Become more playful and overcome terminal
  • Laugh more heartily and start telling jokes
  • Play with language, puns, and other verbal humor
  • Look for humor in every day life the
    unexpected, bizarre, ridiculous
  • Take yourself lightly and laugh at your mistakes
  • Find humor in the midst of stress

The key to stress management, retention
profitability? More workplace fun, HR Focus,
Sept. 2000
  • Humor can be beneficial in stimulating
    performance for the right manager, right setting
    and right audience
  • As with any tool, the trick is knowing when and
    how to use it
  • Proceed with caution
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