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Leadership

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Academic Subfields: Leadership, Power and Influence, Groups, Motivation, ... Figurehead. Spokesperson. Negotiator. Coach and motivator. Team builder. Team player ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership


1
Leadership
  • Day One

2
Dr. Gary Yukl
  • Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley, 1967
  • Academic Subfields Leadership, Power and
    Influence, Groups, Motivation, Training and
    Development
  • Research Interests Leadership, Power and
    Influence, Managerial Skills
  • Applied Interests Management Training and
    Development, Management of Organization Change,
    Strategic Leadership, Attitude Surveys

3
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Yulk points out that, in the extreme, it is
    possible to think of a...
  • leader who is not a manager, and
  • manager who is not a leader.

4
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • At the same time, Yukl emphasizes that a
    successful manager must necessarily lead others.
    In both your text and this course...
  • the terms leaders and managers are used
    interchangeably

5
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • According to Yukl leadership is the process of...
  • influencing others to understand and agree about
    what needs to be done and how it can be done
    effectively, and
  • facilitating individual and collective efforts to
    accomplish shared objectives.

6
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Among other things, the effectiveness of
    leaders, may be defined in terms of...
  • the consequences of their actions for others,
  • the attitudes of their subordinates,
  • their impact on group processes (e.g.,
    decision-making, conflict resolution, etc.), and
  • their impact on productivity.

7
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Team Activity
  • Take not more than 30 minutes to decide what the
    best measure of a leaders effectiveness in the
    workplace is. The team reporter should take
    sufficient notes to explain to the class...
  • what the teams decision is, and
  • why the team chose that measure rather than
    others.

8
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • In the workplace, managers are typically accorded
    more internal value to the organization than
    employees without formal management
    responsibilities.
  • Why?

9
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Other things being equal, managers are more
    internally valuable than non managers because
    they...
  • are accountable for accomplishing results through
    other people and, consequently,
  • can accomplish more than any single person
    theyre responsible for.

10
Nature of Managerial Leadership
  • Staff managers in many organizations may...
  • find it difficult to define the results for which
    they are accountable,
  • mistakenly come to think of typical management
    processes such as hiring, performance appraisal,
    counseling, etc. as their primary duty, and
  • forget that their value to the organization
    depends upon their ability to accomplish specific
    results through other people.

11
Nature of Managerial Work
  • According to Yukl, managerial work is typically
    characterized by...
  • hectic and unrelenting activity,
  • fragmented work that makes follow-through
    difficult,
  • reactions to issues, information, events, etc.
    that are not planned,
  • interaction with peers and outsiders that place a
    premium on networking,
  • oral communications,
  • disorderly and politically-oriented decisions,
    and
  • informal and adaptive planning that emphasizes
    short-term (i.e., gt 30 days) issues.

12
Nature of Managerial Work
  • The managers ability to engage in these types of
    activities is constrained by situational
    determinants including the level of managerial
    decision-making, or whether it is..
  • strategic,
  • tactical, and/or
  • operational.

13
Nature of Managerial Work
  • A second key situational determinant is span of
    control (i.e., number of subordinates).
  • Is smaller always better?

14
Nature of Managerial Work
  • Other situational determinants mentioned by Yukl
    include the...
  • degree of interdependence with other
    organizational units,
  • crisis orientation of the decision-making,
  • stage in the organizations life cycle (e.g.,
    start-up, growth, maturity revitalization/declin
    e)

15
Nature of Managerial Work
  • An additional situational constraint is the
    organizations work culture, or the way in which
    work actually gets done.
  • Culture Cube


  • H

  • Measurable Results

    H

  • L

    Accountability



  • L

  • L
    Teamwork Orientation H

16
Nature of Managerial Work
  • The current nature of managerial work is changing
    dramatically as a result of...
  • cultural diversity ( and the diversity paradox)
  • emphasis on flatter organizational structures,
  • extensive outsourcing ( and the virtual
    organization), and
  • technology and information management (and its
    impact on the employee-employer relationship).

17
Nature of Managerial Work
  • Regarding technology and information management,
    the substitution of machinery and/or computer
    hardware for human labor allows for both...
  • continuous improvement, and
  • mass customization.

18
Nature of Managerial Work
  • The continuous improvement process (e.g., Jack
    Welchs six sigma) aims toward zero variation in
    the quality of products/services. As a result,
    there is...
  • an increasing emphasis on routinization,
    formality and other structural mechanics, and
  • a race with no finish line.

19
Nature of Managerial Work
  • Mass customization allows a manufacturer (e.g.,
    Dell, Saturn) to customize their products for
    masses of customers, and is characterized by a
    strong need for...
  • coordinated work processes (or job clusters), and
  • work teams that can accommodate the entire
    production process.

20
Leadership
  • The ability to inspire confidence and support
    among the people who are needed to achieve
    organizational goals
  • May be considered a long-term relationship, or
    partnership, between leaders and group members

21
Partnership
  • The power between leader and group members is
    approximately balanced
  • Four things necessary in a partnership
  • Exchange of purpose
  • A right to say no
  • Joint accountability
  • Absolute honesty

22
Leadership versus Management
  • Leadership deals with
  • Change
  • Inspiration
  • Motivation
  • Influence
  • Management deals with
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Directing
  • Controlling

23
Leadership Matters
  • The results of one study showed
  • transactional leadership was not significantly
    related to performance
  • charismatic leadership was slightly, positively
    related to performance
  • in an uncertain environment, charismatic
    leadership was more strongly related to
    performance

24
Attribution Theory
  • The process of attributing causality to events
  • To simplify and understand complex social systems
    of human interaction, people interpret events in
    human terms
  • Most organizational successes are attributed to
    heroic leaders

25
Leadership Does Not Matter
  • Three major arguments against the importance of
    leadership include
  • Substitutes for leadership
  • Leader irrelevance
  • Complexity theory

26
Substitutes for Leadership
27
Leader Irrelevance
  • Situational factors, outside the leaders
    control, have the largest impact on outcomes
  • High-level leaders have unilateral control over
    only a few resources, and the control over these
    resources is limited by obligations to
    stakeholders
  • Firms choose new leaders whose values and
    behaviors are similar to previous leaders

28
Complexity Theory
  • Organizations are complex systems that cannot be
    explained by the usual rules of nature
  • Leaders and managers can do little to alter the
    course of the complex organizational system
  • A companys fate is determined by factors outside
    the leader/managers control

29
Leadership Roles
  • Figurehead
  • Spokesperson
  • Negotiator
  • Coach and motivator
  • Team builder
  • Team player
  • Technical problem solver
  • Entrepreneur
  • Strategic planner

30
Sources of Leader Satisfaction
  • A feeling of power and prestige
  • A chance to help others grow and develop
  • High income
  • Respect and status
  • Good opportunities for advancement
  • A feeling of being in on things
  • An opportunity to control resources

31
Leader Frustrations
  • Too much uncompensated overtime
  • Too many headaches
  • Not enough authority to carry out responsibility
  • Loneliness
  • Too many problems involving people
  • Too much organizational politics

32
A Framework forUnderstanding Leadership
  • Leader characteristics and traits
  • Leader behavior and style
  • Group member characteristics
  • Internal and external environment

33
Summary
  • Leading is a major part of a managers job
  • Although some research supports the view that the
    leader affects organizational performance, the
    concepts of substitutes for leadership, leader
    irrelevance, and complexity theory suggest that
    leadership matters little

34
Summary
  • Leadership involves carrying out at least nine
    different roles
  • There are many sources of both satisfaction and
    frustration to leaders
  • Leadership is a function of leader
    characteristics and traits, leader behavior and
    style, group member characteristics, and the
    internal and external environments

35
Universal Theory of Leadership
  • The belief that certain personal characteristics
    and skills contribute to leadership effectiveness
    in many situations
  • Three categories
  • Personality traits
  • Motives
  • Cognitive factors

36
Leader Personality Traits
  • General Personality Traits
  • Traits observable both within and outside the
    context of work
  • Task-Related Personality Traits
  • Traits closely associated with task accomplishment

37
General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
38
Task-Related Personality Traits of Leaders
39
Leadership Motives
  • Leaders generally have a strong desire to
    influence and control others
  • This desire is evident in four needs or motives

40
Leadership Motives
41
Cognitive Factors
  • Leaders must have problem-solving and
    intellectual skills to effectively gather,
    process, and store essential information
  • Five cognitive factors related to leadership
    effectiveness have been identified

42
Cognitive Factors and Leadership
43
Nature versus Nurture
  • Are leaders born or are they made? Both.
  • Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop
    personality traits and mental ability that sets
    an outer limit on how extensively these traits
    can be developed
  • Environmental influences, in turn, determine how
    much of an individuals potential will be
    developed

44
Trait Approach
  • Strengths
  • Serves as a guide to leader selection
  • Can guide individuals in preparing for leadership
  • Limitations
  • Does not identify which characteristics are
    absolutely needed
  • Does not specify how much of a trait or
    characteristic is needed
  • Can breed an elitist conception of leadership

45
Summary
  • The universal theory of leadership asserts that
    certain personality traits, leader motives, and
    cognitive factors contribute to leadership
    effectiveness
  • Personality traits include both general traits
    and task-related traits
  • Leaders can often be distinguished by their needs
    or motives

46
Summary
  • Mental ability is important for leadership
    success
  • Traits, motives, and characteristics required for
    leadership are a combination of heredity and
    environment
  • Traits do appear to distinguish leaders from
    nonleaders and effective leaders from
    less-effective leaders

47
Traits Skills
  • Although traits refer to a characteristic of a
    person, and skills refer to the ability to do
    something...
  • the distinction has little practical utility
    since both must impact behavior to have a bearing
    on managerial effectiveness.

48
Traits Skills
  • According to Yukl, the most widely accepted
    taxonomy of skills includes...
  • technical skills or the ability to apply specific
    techniques,
  • interpersonal skills, and
  • conceptual skills, or problem-solve using
    deductive and inductive analytic skills.

49
Traits Skills
  • Regarding conceptual skills, Boyatzis (1982)
    research indicates that effective managers have
    the ability to reason...
  • inductively, moving from specific facts to
    general conclusions (i.e., bring order to chaos),
    and
  • deductively, moving from general principles to
    specific applications.

50
Traits Skills
  • Based upon McClellands research, studies
    indicate that effectiveness in large
    organizations is correlated with need cluster
    including a...
  • strong socialized power need,
  • moderately strong need for affiliation, and
  • low need for affiliation.

51
Traits Skills
  • Miners research...
  • confirms the importance of the needs for power
    and achievement for effectiveness in large
    organizations, but
  • indicates these indices are not useful predictors
    of effectiveness in small organizations.

52
Traits Skills
  • Other traits and skills associated with
    managerial effectiveness in large organizations
    include...
  • energy level stress tolerance,
  • self-confidence,
  • integrity,
  • internal locus of control, and
  • emotional intelligence.

53
Traits Skills
  • Regarding emotions, Stephen Robbins makes a
    useful distinction between...
  • felt emotions that employees are actually
    feeling, and
  • displayed emotions that are more or less job
    requirements.

54
Traits Skills
  • Managers ability to make use of the distinction
    between felt and displayed emotions will be
    affected by their emotional intelligence (EI)
    or...
  • empathy,
  • emotional self-awareness,
  • emotional self-management,
  • self-motivation, or ability to maintain a
    persistent focus, and
  • social skills.

55
Traits Skills
  • Research on derailed managers at the Center for
    Creative Leadership indicates that...
  • a lack of emotional intelligence in the form of
    emotional stability and interpersonal skills is
    key to derailing managers.

56
Traits Skills
  • According to Yukl, the following indicates the...
  • relationship between required skill level and
    managerial level in large organizations.

57
Traits Skills

High
Conceptual Skills
Interpersonal Skills
Skill Level
Technical Skills
Low
Lower Level
Middle Level
Top Level
58
Traits Skills
  • What would this relationship look like for small
    organizations?

59
What do leaders need to make it in the 21st
century corporation?
  • Core Qualities Intelligence, passion and an
    ability to motivate
  • Obtain, distribute and act on information quickly
    and insist staff follows suit
  • Spontaneity, adaptable, team orientation, genuine
    concern for employees, and..

Humor
Wanted Electic Visionary with a Sense of
Humor, Business Week, August 28,2000
60
Why Use Humor?
  • Health Help respond to stress
  • Understanding Communication Cooperation
  • Management Avoid power struggles improve
    influence
  • Opportunity Shape positive action
  • Recognition Build self-esteem

Making work fun doing business with a sense of
humor, Hospital Material Management Quarterly,
February, 2001
61
Other reasons.
  • Research suggests a positive correlation between
    humor and performance
  • Improves group cohesion and employee retention
  • Cope with change
  • Enhance creative thinking
  • Makes people more likable
  • Keeps attention and arouses interest
  • Makes information more memorable

62
Successful Companies Who Use It
  • Southwestern Airlineshttp//www.spiritmag.com/abo
    ut/index.php
  • Ben Jerrys Ice Cream http//www.benjerry.com
  • Sun Microsystems

63
Does it work for every leader?
  • Transformational Leader
  • Linked with strong work unit performance
  • Not linked to leader performance
  • Contingent Reward Style Leader
  • Lower levels of work unit performance
  • Lower levels of leader performance
  • Laissez-faire Leader
  • Higher levels of work unit performance
  • Higher levels of leader performance

Did you hear the one about.? Leading with
humor pays dividends, The Academy of Management
Executive, Nov., 1999
64
Potential Risks
  • Inappropriate or offensive humor
  • Out of character could change perceptions
    negatively
  • Counter to the culture
  • Inappropriate moment
  • Wrong person
  • Laughing at others

65
Steps to Improve Your Humor
  • Surround yourself with humor
  • Become more playful and overcome terminal
    seriousness
  • Laugh more heartily and start telling jokes
  • Play with language, puns, and other verbal humor
  • Look for humor in every day life the
    unexpected, bizarre, ridiculous
  • Take yourself lightly and laugh at your mistakes
  • Find humor in the midst of stress

The key to stress management, retention
profitability? More workplace fun, HR Focus,
Sept. 2000
66
Conclusion
  • Humor can be beneficial in stimulating
    performance for the right manager, right setting
    and right audience
  • As with any tool, the trick is knowing when and
    how to use it
  • Proceed with caution
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