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Title: Medicinal Herbs Class Poster Presentations


1
Medicinal Herbs Class Poster Presentations
  • Chemistry 4205
  • Spring 2008

2
Aloe
Chemicals found in aloe
Specifically refers to the Aloe vera species
By Chase Bishop
Uses
  • aloin
  • Used in sunscreens, lotions, rubs, taken orally,
    and used as a flavoring
  • barbaloin
  • aloe-emodin
  • Other flavanoid compounds
  • Used to treat wounds, burns, digestive issues,
    diabetes, HIV, cancer, many skin conditions such
    as herpes, ulcers, or dermatitis, and many other
    diseases and disorders

History
  • Used by Egyptians in rituals and as gifts
  • Began to be used as medicine to treat very minor
    wounds, minor burns, and constipation
  • Leaf parts used as products
  • Gel-like substance within the leaf pulp, used
    naturally or refined and put into lotions

Scientific Analysis
  • Aloe may be effective for treating minor burns,
    minor wounds, and is a effective
    anti-constipation medicine
  • Green dermal tissue, used to make juice or
    refined into a latex
  • Aloe is unlikely to help with other issues, and
    may have detrimental effects
  • Aloe may reduce the absorption of some drugs,
    due to induced diarrhea

Works cited http//www.druzillabrown.com/store,
http//nccam.nih.gov/, Bushra and Anwar, Chang
et. al., http//www.dkimages.com,
http//riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-
bin/direct_frame_top.cgi, http//www.titomarketing
.com
3
AN APPLE A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY
Created By Julie Kornder
What is it Used for? Protects
Heart Anti-Constipation Anti-Diarrheal Anti-Ast
hma/Allergies Slows Aging Process Cushions
Joints Hyperacidity Heartburn Side
Effects? -unpasteurized cider or juice may
contain E.coli -grown with pesticides -Amygdalin
e cyanide occurs naturally in seeds.
Interactions with Drugs? -potent inhibitor of
cytochrome P-450 metabolism -Decreases
Digitoxin absorption
What Part of the Plant is Used? Leaves Bark
(astringent properties) Fruit Active
Component? Pectin (insoluble fiber)
Homogalacturon Rhamnogalacturonan I and II
Antioxidants Quercetin (heart
lungs) Magnesium Potassium Boron (for
joints) Malic Tartaric Acid -keeps food
from fermenting Method of Administration? Orally
Apple Cider Vinegar Apple Juice
Sauce Whole Apple Tea (Bark/Leaves) As
a Poultice sore throats skin inflammations
Reduces blood sugar Removal of toxic
metals Reduces bad cholesterol Hemetic (builds
blood)
References EAT HEAL (FCA Medical
Publishing) http//www.herballegacy.com/Lovett-Bro
wn_Medicinal.html http//www.herbcraft.org/apple.h
tml http//mars.ark.com/squeeze/nutrient/herbal.h
tml http//home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/inte
ractions/Nutrients/Flavonoids.htm http//www.uspha
rmacist.com/oldformat.asp?urlnewlook/files/feat/a
cf2f08.htm http//www.instituteforvibrantliving.co
m/glossary/a/apple_pectin.php http//www.herballeg
acy.com/Lovett-Brown_Contra.html
http//hcs.osu.edu/hcs300/biochem1.htm
4
Basil
Scientific name Ocimum basilicum
Hitaa Gandhi
References http//www.ayurveda-herbal-remedy.com/
herbal-encyclopedia/ayurveda-encyclopedia-b.html h
ttp//www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/medicinal/basil
.htmlintroduction http//www.hort.purdue.edu/newc
rop/CropFactSheets/basil.htmlRTFToC8
5
Bay HERB
  • Bay Laurel
  • small tree
  • Mediterranean and Asia.
  • Admired for it
  • beauty and aromatic leaves
  • What is it used for
  • Dried and used for flavoring in
  • in soups, fish, meat, vinegars, and
  • beverages.
  • medicine
  • rheumatism, skin rash,
  • insect repellant, Stress relieve
  • Cosmetic industry
  • perfumes, creams and soaps,
  • Part of plant used
  • Leaves
  • oil accumulate in mesophyll and
    palisade cells
  • Side effects
  • Umbellulone mucous irritant
  • toxicological effect
  • Safrole
  • carcinogenic and hallucinogic

Active component eugenol, eugenol acetate,
methyl eugenol, 1-tepinol acetate, sabinene,
1,8-cineole, 1-linolool, phelladrine and other
terpenoids and esters
Sources www.azarboretum.org/plantlis www.laurelca
nyonlhebook.com
6
Blackberry
  • Plant
  • Stems are long, arching, or trailing stems called
    canes
  • Canes are dull green and often have thorns, some
    varieties dont have thorns
  • Leaves come in leaflets of three to five
    compound leaves
  • Fruit
  • A small dark purplish cluster berry, the fruits
    that make up the cluster are called drupes
  • Sweet, tangy taste
  • Changes color from red to dark purple
  • White hard core in the center of cluster
  • Immature, red berries are hard, mature purple
    berries are fragile and soft
  • Cures Diseases
  • Diarrhea
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Anticancer properties
  • Diabetes
  • Constipation
  • Minerals
  • Vitamin C
  • Bioflavonoids
  • Folate
  • Iron
  • Calcium
  • Anthocyanins
  • Ellagic acid
  • Salicylate

Hemorriods Proanthocyanidins strengthens the
capillaries and veins in the anus
Diarrhea Roots and leaves made into a tea With
three teaspoons in one cup of hot water.
Cancer Ellagic acid has anticancer properties
Diabetes The leafs of the black berry when made
into a tea help to lower blood sugar.
Constipation A cup of water and blackberries
mixed.
Reference Perdue University Horticulture 2006.
http//www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/senior/fruits/black
berry1.htm Diabetes natural cures remedies 2007.
http//www.theherbalbeauty.com/diabetes.html
Home remedies for constipation, causes, symptoms
2007. http//www.natural-cure-guide.com/home-remed
ies/constipation.htm Reader digest staff. Foods
That Harm, Foods That Heal An A-Z Guide to Safe
and Healthy Eating. 2004 Trivieri Larry, Anderson
John W., Goldberg Max Allan Alternative Medicine
The definitive guide. Ten Speed Press 2002 White,
Linda B., Foster, Steven, The Herbal Drugstore
The Best Natural Alternatives to Over-the-Counter
and Prescription Medicines! Rodale Press,
Incorporated. 2003 Yeager, Selene Doctors Book of
Food Remedies The Newest Discoveries in the
Power of Food to Cure and Prevent Health
Problems--from Aging and Diabetes to Ulcers and
Yeast Infections. Rodale Press, Incorporated 2000
7
Burdock By Zuzana Barbret
  • What is it?
  • A weed found in Europe,
  • Asia, and United States
  • A large biennial that grows
  • in the wild
  • Root is sweet and has
  • gummy consistency
  • Method of administration
  • Oral (dried root, capsules,
  • decoctions, tinctures, fluid
  • extract, root tea)
  • Topical (compress or
  • plaster)
  • What is it used for?
  • Diabetes
  • Fluid retention
  • Blood thinning
  • Skin ulcers
  • Eczema
  • Acne
  • Psoriasis
  • Bacterial infections
  • Arthritis
  • Tonsillitis
  • Cancer prevention
  • What part of plant is used?
  • Root
  • Seeds
  • Leaves
  • Side effects
  • Not common with oral
  • ingestion
  • Occasional allergic
  • reactions when using
  • topical plasters
  • Active components
  • arcigen, calcium, potassium
  • chlorogenic acid, resin, iron
  • essential oil, tannin, mucilage
  • flavonoids, lactone, inulin
  • polyacetylenes, taraxosterol
  • vit A, B, essential fatty acids
  • Drug interactions
  • Not well known
  • May alter effects of the
  • following drugs
  • - Antidiabetics
  • - Diuretics
  • - Anticoagulants
  • - Birth control pills

References Burdock (Arctium lappa). (2008).
MedlinePlus Retrieved April 10, 2008 from
http//www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natura
l/patient-burdock.html Burdock Root. (2008).
Natural Herbs Guide Retrieved April 10, 2008 from
http//www.naturalherbsguide.com/burdock.html Burd
ock Root. (2008). Vitamins and Supplement Guide
Reetrieved April 10, 2008 from http//www.vitamins
-supplements.org/herbal-supplements/burdock-root.p
hp Images www.wildmanstevebrill.com/JPEG'S/T-Shir
t20Im... vitanetonline.com/.../burdock20root.jp
g, www.horizonherbs.com/images/burdock-seed.jpg
www.fushi.co.uk/images/products/Herbal-Tinctu...
www.garysmarketplace.com/ProdImages/413438.jpg
images.jupiterimages.com/.../18/58/23405818.jpg
8
Celery Seeds (Apium
graveolans)
  • Uses
  • Diuretic
  • Arthritis
  • Lower blood pressure and cholesterol
  • Anticoagulant
  • Phytochemicals
  • Coumarins
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Unidentified alkaloids
  • Method of Administration
  • Fresh/dried seeds
  • Tablets
  • Capsule filled w/ celery seed oil
  • Celery seed extract
  • Plant description
  • 2-3 ft tall
  • 3-5 segmented leaves and flowers with small white
    petals
  • Seeds are small tan to dark brown with a pleasant
    smell found in the flower
  • Active ingredient
  • 3nB
  • Side effect
  • Uterine bleeding and muscle contraction in uterus
  • Causes photodermatitis

References www.healthandage.com/html/res/com/Cons
Herbs/CelerySeedch.html www.mdidea.com/products/ne
w/new018.html www.metagenic.com/resources/imc/OneM
edicineCons/ConsHerbs/CelerySeedch.html
9
Chammomile
Scientific name Chamaemelum nobile (Roman) 8
other species
German chamomile essential oil
Places where it is used, and some history behind
it
Active ingredients
Side effects
  • Bisabolol in german chamomile
  • Essential oils such as chamazeulene,
    flavanoids,coumarin
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Drowsiness or sedation
  • Increased risk of bleeding due to coumarin
  • Allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, throat
    swelling,
  • Shortness of breath
  • Anglo-saxons believed it was 1 of 9 sacred herbs
    from god woden
  • Used by Romans, Germans and Hungarians

Method of Administration
  • Capsules
  • Tea bags
  • Essential oils

Parts used for herbal remedies
Interaction with drugs
  • Flowers of the plant chammomile
  • Dried flowers used in tea
  • Prepacked tea bags and capsule form
  • Essential oils extracted from leaves and flowers

Its uses
  • Increases the risk of bleeding when used with
    anticoagulants and antiplatelets such as warfarin
  • May interact with cardiac depressants glycosides
  • alles zutraut good for everything
  • Sleep/Sedation
  • Carminative
  • Calms mind, eases stress
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-helementhic
  • Eczema
  • Diarrhea in children
  • Eye irritation and hemorrhoids

References http//www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Ch
amomile.html http//www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dr
uginfo/natural/patient-chamomile.html http//www.d
rugs.com/mtm/chamomile.html
Poster by Hardik Modi
10
Cranberry By Montara Peavy
  • Vaccinium macrocapron
  • Oral method of administration via beverages,
    extracts, capsules, and tablets
  • Common uses include wounds, urinary disorders,
    diarrhea, diabetes, stomach aliments, liver
    aliments, dental health, potential
  • anticancer and antiviral agent
  • Side effects diarrhea and gastrointestinal
    upset
  • Active Components Antioxidants-proanthocyanidins
    a class of anthocyanosides


  • Helps control of growth
  • E. coli
  • Proteus bacteria
  • H. pylori

Mechanism of Actions
Proanthocyanidins prevent the oxidation of
vitamin C to dehydroascorbate by providing
hydrogen ions which reduce glutathione - keeping
the levels of the active form of vitamin C
(ascorbate) higher.
Anthocyanosides stabilize phospholipids of the
endothelial cells and enhance synthesis of
collagen and mucopolysaccharides and therefore
help maintain the structural integrity of the
arterial walls.
References National Center for Complimentary and
Alternative Medicine. 2007. 11 Dec. National
Institute of Health. 9.April 2008. lt
http//nccam.nih.gov/health/cranberrygt Vitaminstuf
f.com. Vitamins Alternative Medicine. 9.
April.2008. ltvitaminstuff.comgt Building a Better
Cranberry. Tufts University Health Nutrition
Letter 2008-03 261 3(0) ISSN 15260143
CRANBERRIES ANTIOXIDANTS CHEMICAL inhibitors
UNITED States. Agricultural Research Service
UNITED States 2004. Healthy Publisher. 13
April.2008lt http//www.proanthocyanidins.comgt
11
Dandelion
External fight bacteria and help heal wounds.
Sap can be used to remove corns and
warts. Internal Gall bladder, kidney and
urinary disorders, gallstones, liver conditions,
gout, anemia.
Leaves are a powerful diuretic. Roots are a
detoxifier.
Flowers contain helenin and vitamins A and B-2
(riboflavin), may be helpful in treating night
vision problems.
Dandelion Tea infuse 1 oz. dandelion in pint of
water for 10 minutes, decant, sweeten with honey.
(bilious affections and dropsy) Tonic wine
pick flowers on warm, dry day. Macerate 1 cup
flowers and steep in 4 cups white wine for 1
month in airtight container. Strain out flowers
and sweeten to taste with honey. (Gallbladder
tonic) Juice of stalk can be applied to remove
warts.
In Spring, roots produce mannitol. Which is used
in the treatment of hypertension and a weak heart.
References http//www.botanical.com/botanical/mgm
h/d/dandel08.html http//www.altnature.com/gallery
/Dandelion.htm http//www.1001herbs.com/dandelion
http//www.herbalremediesinfo.com/Dandelion.html
12
ECHINACEA
  • What is it used for?
  • Stimulate the immune system to help fight
    infections
  • Colds, coughs, flu, sore throat, UTI, combat
    herpes, wounds, regenerate skin, Psoriasis and
    eczema.

commonly called Purple coneflower
  • Part of plant used
  • Roots
  • Aboveground parts
  • Method of Administration
  • Orally, topical
  • Tablets, teas, tinctures, topical formulations
  • Take at first sign of a cold every 2-4hrs.
  • Side effects
  • Allergic reactions- most people with asthma,
    atopy or people who are allergic to related
    plants in the daisy family
  • Fever, vomiting, and nausea (less common)
  • Active
  • Component
  • Phenols- Cichoric and caftaric
  • Interactions with drugs
  • Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, azathioprine,
    methotrexate, or other immune system suppresants.
  • Steroid Medicine
  • Cortisone
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Prednisone
  • Alkylamides
  • polysaccharides

References http//health.yahoo.com/flu-medications
/echinacea/heallthwise--d0447a1.html http//nccam.
nih.gov/health/echinacea/ http//www.herbs.org/gre
enpapers/echinacea.htm http//en.wikipedia.org/wi
k/Echinacea
By Ashley Wyche
13
Garlic
  • The bulb is the part mainly used
  • Active component Allicin
  • - used to supress oxidative stress and immune
    response
  • oily, yellow liquid bad odor
  • Eaten raw or cooked
  • Capsules and powdered form also administered
  • Used to
  • manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol
  • Artherosclerosis
  • Prevent cancers stomach and colon cancers
  • Side effects
  • bad breath, body odor, heartburn, upset stomach,
    allergic reactions
  • Cautions and interactions
  • Used as a blood thinner careful caution before
    and after surgery
  • Saquinavir, used to treat HIV infection
  • References
  • http//nccam.nih.gov/health/garlic/

14
Moyosore Olagoke Ginkgo Biloba
  • Administration
  • Standardizecapsules
  • Tablet
  • Liquid
    extract
  • Tea
  • Interesting Facts
  • Oldest living Species
  • Frequently misspell Gingko
  • Classified in its own group
  • Enhances Memory
  • Therapeutic values
  • Treat circulatory disorder
  • Eye problem
  • Intermittent claudication
  • Menopause
  • Improve functional Measure
  • Side Effect Few
  • Gastrointestinal upset,
  • Headache,
  • Skin reaction
  • Dizziness
  • Drug Interactions
  • Anticonvulsant medication
  • Antidepressant medication
  • Blood-thinning medication

Active component
References "University Of Maryland Medical Center
." Ginkgo biloba. 1/26/2007. UMMC. 12 Apr 2008
"DRUGS AND SUPPLEMENT." Ginkgo (Ginko biloba).
Feb 8 2008. Mayo foudation for medical education
and research. 14 Apr 2008 lthttp//www.mayoclinic.c
om/health/ginkgo-biloba/NS_patient-ginkgogt.
  • Trepenoids

Flavanoid
15
Goldenseal Hydrastais canadensis
  • Applications
  • Used to treat variety of infections
  • Postpartum hemorrhage
  • Inflammation
  • Once believed to cure cancer
  • Possible reduction of blood pressure
  • Rhizome contains berberine
  • Alkyloid
  • Used to treat various infections
  • Methods of Administration
  • Dry extracts
  • Tea
  • Tincture (mouthwash)
  • Topical ointment
  • Drug Interactions
  • Very poorly studied
  • No known interactions

References Golden Seal, 2008. 14 April 2008.
http//www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_goldense
al.htm Herbs at a glance Goldenseal, Dec. 2006.
14 April 2008 http//nccam.nih.gov/health/goldens
eal/ What You Need to Know About Goldenseal, 25
Oct. 2007. 14 April 2008 http//nccam.nih.gov/hea
lth/goldenseal/
  • Side effects and health risks
  • Reduced absorbtion of B12
  • Uterine Contractions
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

16
Licorice
What part of the herb is used? The medicinally
used part of licorice is the root and dried
rhizome of the low-growing shrub   Glycyrrhiza
glabra . Currently, most licorice is produced in
Greece, Turkey, and Asia.
Drug interactions- Ace-inhibitors and diuretics
- If you are taking angiotensin-converting enzyme
(ACE) inhibitors or diuretics (except
potassium-sparing diuretics) to regulate blood
pressure, do not use licorice products. Licorice
could interfere with the effectiveness of these
medications or could worsen possible side
effects. Digoxin - Because licorice may
dangerously increase the risk of toxic effects
from digoxin, this herb should not be taken with
this medication. Corticosteroids - Licorice may
increase the effects of corticosteroid
medications. Insulin - Licorice may enhance
some of the adverse effects of insulin. Laxative
s - Licorice may cause substantial potassium loss
in people taking stimulant laxatives. Oral
contraceptives - There have been reports of women
developing high blood pressure and low potassium
levels when they took licorice while on oral
contraceptives. Therefore, you should avoid
licorice if you are taking birth control
medications
Active ingredient- glycyrrhiza or glycyrrhizic
acid
Method of Administatrion- Orally in form of
Tincture Capsule
Side Effects- High Blood Pressure, Hypokalemia
(low potassium levels), fluid retention
Uses- Ulcers, Fever, hinders spread of Herpes
Simplex virus, proposed as possible therapies for
viral hepatitis, Reducing body fat mass.
References- "Possible Interactions with
Licorice." University of Maryland Medical Center.
2008. 13 Apr. 2008 lthttp//www.umm.edu/altmed/arti
cles/licorice-000917.htmgt. "Licorice
(Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.) and DGL
(Deglycyrrhizinated Licorice)." MedlinePlus. 1
Nov. 2006. 14 Apr. 2008 lthttp//www.nlm.nih.gov/me
dlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-licorice.htmlgt.

17
Petroselinum crispum and P.sativum Parsley by
Marina Wilkes
  • What part of the plant is used? Leaves are used
    as garnish. Taproot, leaves, and seeds are used
    medically.
  • Active component? Apiol which is an essential oil
    component of the parsley leaf.
  • Method of administration? Oral in infusion or as
    a tincture
  • What is it used for?
  • Parsley is used in cooking as a condiment.
  • It is also used as a company plant to protect
    other plants
  • It is used medically as enema.
  • It has shown to have antibiotic properties
  • Side effects?
  • Can induce preterm labor during pregnancy.
  • Can predispose to kidney stones since it is rich
    in oxalic acid.
  • It is important not to confuse wild parsley with
    fools parsley Aethusa cynapium because it can
    cause skin hives, or rash
  • Parsley's volatile oil is toxic in high doses,
    and overdose can lead to poisonings.
  • It can cause photosensitivity
  • Interactions with drugs?
  • Because parsley contains furocumarins in its
    oil, it can interact with certain drugs as
    grapefruit does inhibiting P450.
  • Cite references
  • http//findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2603/is_000
    5/ai_2603000578

18
Anthony Hawkins
SAGE
Rosmarinic Acid
Leaves and Essential Oils
Astringent Aromatic Carminative Antiseptic
Antihydrotic Spasmolytic
Sources http//www.ageless.co.za/sage.htmwhich2
0part20to20use , http//www.pdrhealth.com/drugs/
altmed/altmed-mono.aspx?contentFileNameame0149.xm
lcontentNameSagecontentId312 ,
http//www.purplesage.org.uk/profiles/sage.htm ,
http//www.phytochemicals.info/phytochemicals/rosm
arinic-acid.php
19
Witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana
Active Components
  • Methods of Administration
  • Liquid Tincture
  • Tea or gargle
  • Poultice
  • Lotion
  • Suppositories
  • Hemorrhoidal pads
  • Applied directly to skin

proanthocyanidins
Tannin (Gallic Acid)
History Native Americans used as a poultice ( a
soft, moist mass) that is applied directly to the
skin to alleviate swelling
  • Uses
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Astringent properties
  • Treats burns, blisters, swelling, inflammation
    of the skin, mosquito bites, stings and bruises
  • Tighten pores
  • Treat varicose veins
  • Treat hemorrhoids
  • Stop internal and external bleeding of the
    stomach, lungs, and uterus
  • Diarrhea

Combinations of other herbs Witch Hazel with
goldenseal and calendula can treat swimmers ear
Witch Hazel with arnica makes a topical remedy
for bruises and swelling
Tannins Help speed healing, treat inflammation,
and guard against infection
Drug-Drug Interactions Taking Witch Hazel orally
can lessen the bioavailability and absorption of
some drugs. There are no documented interactions
when used externally
Side Effects Can cause nausea, vomiting,
constipation and in extreme cases, kidney and
liver failure, if taken orally. May sting and
burn raw skin caused by extensive injuries and
skin inflammation when used externally.
http//www.bol.sapphiremoon.info/jerb/emcy_nz.htm
http//health.howstuffworks.com/witch-hazel-herbal
-remedies.htm http//www.botanical.com/botanical.m
gmh/w/withaz27.html http//www.herbs2000.com/herbs
/herbs_witch_hazel.htm http//www.herbalremedies.c
om/witchhazel.html http//www.revolutionhealth.com
/articles/witch-hazel/hn-herb_frugix_witch_hazel
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