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Title: Geographic Information Systems GIS, ServiceOriented Architectures SOA, and GRID Computing: Utility f


1
Geographic Information Systems (GIS),
Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), and GRID
Computing Utility for Public Health and Spatial
Epidemiology
  • Jim Tobias
  • BearingPoint Contractor,
  • NCPHI Enterprise GIS Team
  • July 10, 2007
  • jtobias_at_cdc.gov

2
Objectives of the Presentation
  • 1. Talk briefly about the history of
    Epidemiology.
  • 2. What is a Geographic Information System
    (GIS)?
  • 3. Talk briefly about the missions of public
    health
  • 4. What is a Service?
  • 5. What is a Service-Oriented Architecture?
  • 6. How can GIS, Services, and Service-Oriented
    Architectures
  • work together for public health?
  • 7. What is GRID computing ?
  • 8. Enterprise GIS and Shared Services
  • Put it all together….Hurricane Katrina
  • The difference between data and health
    information.
  • Thoughts on why GIS is Epidemiology and should
    drive
  • public health surveillance, detection,
    interventions, and
  • response.
  • What is next for GIS in Public Health?
  • What is Organizational Memory ? What is
    Organizational Learning?
  • Questions

3
1. Brief History of Epidemiology
Dr. John Snow is famous for the suppression of an
1854 outbreak of cholera in London's Soho
district. He identified the cause of the outbreak
as a public water pump on Broad Street and had
the handle removed, thus ending the outbreak.
This has been perceived as a major event in the
history of public health and can be regarded as
the founding event of the science of
epidemiology. Source http//en.wikipedia.org/w
iki/Epidemiology
4
Who is the Father of Modern Epidemiology?
5
Whale-oil lamps, Quill Pens, Cholera, Maps,
Public Health Action in 1850
And, in a gesture that still reverberates among
public health scholars today, he removed the
handle of the Broad Street pump."
Source http//gis.esri.com/esripress/display/in
dex.cfm?fuseactiondisplaywebsiteID90moduleID0
6
Lessons from Dr. Snows Cholera Outbreak
  • Lesson 1 Map cases 1st (not last)
  • Many died of Cholera before cases were mapped.
    Researchers were under the false impression that
    these cases were related to the distribution of
    garbage within the city of London. It was not
    until later that cases were mapped and their
    distributions were found to center around the
    Broad Street pump.

7
Lessons from Dr. Snows Cholera Outbreak
Lesson 2 Integrate Datasets The incidence
of cases (alone) did not solve this
epidemic. The mapped distribution of water pumps
played a major role in stopping the epidemic.
Public health needs a comprehensive enterprise
geodatabase that integrates disparate
datasets.
8
Lessons from Dr. Snows Cholera Outbreak
Lesson 3 Map at the household level. Dr. John
Snows maps show street names, households, and
dots of cases on the top dead center of the
household. These maps were used for internal
public health purposes (only) and did not
violate privacy of individuals. If Dr. Snow can
do this in 1850….. all of modern public health
should do this in 2007 !
9
Lessons from Dr. Snows Cholera Outbreak
Lesson 4 GIS is Synonymous with
Epidemiology. Indeed, without GIS, the London
Cholera outbreak would have been much worse as
most Epidemiologists at the time were focused on
trash distributions and not mapping their
cases. There were those that questioned the
value of disparate datasets such as water pumps
and did not realize that new patterns may
emerge through overlay of data layers (the most
powerful feature of GIS).
10
Lessons from Dr. Snows Cholera Outbreak
Lesson 5 GIS should be a driving force in
Public Health Dr. John Snow is not immortalized
for his geography skills. If Dr. Snow simply
made a map of the Cholera cases….history would
have forgotten him in the blink of an eye. Dr.
Snow used GIS to determine the public health
threat and armed with this information and his
wrench, he removed the handle from the broad
street pump !! GIS drove the public health
action in 1850 and a single doctor stopped an
epidemic. Today, we have forgotten this lesson
and many of our epidemics last longer and infect
more persons because we are not utilizing GIS and
not letting GIS drive our public health action
and response.
11
THIS TEXT SHOULD BE GIVEN TO NEW PUBLIC
HEALTH EMPLOYEES DURING ORIENTATION. This text
examines outbreaks over the Last 300 years and
the mapping, GIS, And Epidemiological response to
public Health threats. Chapter 8 Entitled the
Great Divorce, Chronicles the divorce of GIS
and Epidemiology at the turn of the century. Dr.
Koch makes the argument that it is Critical that
public health returns to our Roots (Dr. John
Snow) and reunites GIS and Epidemiology to
meet Emerging public health threats.
ISBN 1-58948-120-8    2005   408 pages   
http//gis.esri.com/esripress/display/index.cfm?fu
seactiondisplaywebsiteID90moduleID0
12
Even if you feel that you have read the Story of
Dr. John Snow in the past… I highly recommend
this text. The text examines not only the story
of Dr. Snows endeavors….but also deals
Specifically with the use of applied science To
solve public health problems in the face of
miasma theories and superstition. Finally, this
text shows how a single anethesiologist with no
formal training in geography was able to map
cases of cholera, perform geovisualization,
spatial analysis, and suggest public health
action to stop an epidemic.
ISBN 1-59448-925-4
13
Geographic Information Systems
CDC can examine disease data and outbreaks in the
same Manner as Dr. John Snow……
14
2. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
GIS is a collection of computer hardware,
software, and geographic data for capturing,
managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of
geographically referenced information.
Source http//www.gis.com/whatisgis/index.cfm
15
What are the Basic Elements of GIS?
  • Managing Datasets, Workflows in a Common
    Environment

…Encapsulating Five Basic Elements
…Abstracting Geographic Knowledge
Source ESRI
16
How Does GIS Work?
Population Health Characteristics Vital
Events/Critical Incidents Service Areas/Referral
Regions Health Human Service Workers Health
Facilities and Services Streets/Rivers/Land
Features
think of data in layers - with every type of data
a layer . . .
Source ESRI
17
Embedding Geospatial Intelligence into Existing
Information Systems
…Encapsulating Knowledge
GIS Software
  • Improving Our
  • Efficiency
  • Decision Making
  • Science
  • Accountability
  • Planning
  • Communication

Models
Maps
Metadata
Data Models
Geodatabase
Source ESRI
18
Geocoding Methodology
Oak St
198
100
5950
6011
101
199
123
Pine Av
Attributes of Streets
Parity
Street_
To
Street
Side
From
Type
5950
98
Oak
R
E
2
St
5950
99
Oak
L
O
1
St
198
Oak
R
E
100
St
6011
199
Oak
L
O
101
St
6011
Source ESRI
19
For Immediate Release April 11, 1994 EXECUTIVE
ORDER 12906 COORDINATING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
ACQUISITION AND ACCESS THE NATIONAL SPATIAL DATA
INFRASTRUCTURE -----------------------------------
--------------------------------------------- Geog
raphic information is critical to promote
economic development, improve our stewardship of
natural resources, and protect the environment.
Modern technology now permits improved
acquisition, distribution, and utilization of
geographic (or geospatial) data and mapping. The
National Performance Review has recommended that
the executive branch develop, in cooperation with
State, local, and tribal governments, and the
private sector, a coordinated National Spatial
Data Infrastructure to support public and private
sector applications of geospatial data in such
areas as transportation, community development,
agriculture, emergency response, environmental
management, and information technology.
Source http//govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/librar
y/direct/orders/20fa.html
20
GEOSPATIAL LINE OF BUSINESS A NEW EXECUTIVE
INITIATIVE
21
Source http//www.fgdc.gov/training/nsdi-trainin
g-program/materials/IntroGeoBusinessPlanning.ppt3
28,7,Geospatial Profile of the FEA
22
Healthy People 2010 Goals Section 23-3 GIS
and Geocoding
  • 23-3.
  • Increase the proportion of all major national,
    State, and local health data systems that use
    geocoding to promote nationwide use of geographic
    information systems (GIS) at all levels.
  • Target 90 percent.
  • Baseline 45 percent of major national, State,
    and local health data systems geocoded records to
    street address or latitude and longitude in 2000.
  • Target setting method 100 percent improvement.
  • Data source CDC, NCHS.
  • Public health rests on information. The
    information technology revolution, including
    online systems, the Internet, and other
    electronic information systems, continues to
    expand both the volume and the accessibility of
    information. Increased use of geocoding in health
    data systems will provide the basis for more
    cost-effective disease surveillance and
    intervention. At the same time, challenges arise
    in synthesizing and disseminating the huge amount
    of available information as well as ensuring that
    the data are scientifically accurate and have
    appropriate safeguards for confidentiality.
  • The capacity to achieve national goals is related
    to the ability to target strategies to geographic
    areas.11 Extension of geocoding capacities
    throughout health data systems will facilitate
    this ability. A GIS is a powerful tool combining
    geography, data, and computer mapping. With GIS,
    digital maps and databases are stored with linked
    georeferenced identifiers to facilitate rapid
    computer manipulation, analysis, and spatial
    display of information. Geocoding (street address
    matching or assignment of latitude and longitude)
    will be the basis for data linkage and analysis
    in the 21st century. The versatility of GIS
    supports the exploration of spatial
    relationships, patterns, and trends that
    otherwise would go unnoticed.12 In 1999, 10 of
    22 major health data systems, defined as data
    systems responsible for tracking five or more
    Healthy People 2010 objectives, geocoded data.
    However, public access to data below the county
    level is prohibited or severely restricted
    because of confidentiality and privacy issues. A
    major challenge in the coming decade will be to
    increase public access to GIS information without
    compromising confidentiality.13 (See Tracking
    Healthy People 2010 for a discussion of these
    major health data systems.)

SOURCE http//www.healthypeople.gov/Document/HTM
L/Volume2/23PHI.htm
23
Source http//www.hsph.harvard.edu/thegeocodingp
roject/webpage/monograph/geocoding.htm
24
CDC Goals 2007
Healthy People Healthy Places Prepare for
Emerging Threats Healthy World
Source http//www.cdc.gov/
25
3. Missions of Public Health
Public Health Prevents epidemics and the spread
of disease Protects against environmental
hazards Prevents injuries Promotes and
encourages healthy behaviors Responds to
disasters and assists communities in recovery
Assures the quality and accessibility of health
services Essential Public Health
Services Monitor health status to identify
community health problems Diagnose and
investigate health problems and health hazards in
the community Inform, educate, and empower
people about health issues Mobilize community
partnerships to identify and solve health
problems Develop policies and plans that support
individual and community health efforts Enforce
laws and regulations that protect health and
ensure safety Link people to needed personal
health services and assure the provision of
health care when otherwise unavailable Assure a
competent public health and personal health care
workforce Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility,
and quality of personal and population-based
health services Research for new insights and
innovative solutions to health problems SOURCE
http//www.health.gov/phfunctions/public.htm
26
4. What are Services?
A Service is a software component of distinctive
functional meaning that typically encapsulates a
high-level business concept. It consists of
several parts
Source Enterprise SOA Service-Oriented
Architecture Best Practices Dirk Krafzig, Karl
Banke, ISBN 0131465759
27
How do Public Health Services translate to Web
Services?
28
Portal GIS, Services, SOA, can all work
together for Public Health
Routing Health Workers
Site Location
SOURCE County of San Diego Health and Human
Services Agency
29
COMMUNITY VIZ…..communities are starting to use
geospatial scenarios For planning and
preparedness.
Source http//www.placeways.com/communityviz/?p
brochures
30
Examples of Health GIS Services
31
Enterprise GIS Data for Public Health
Vital Events Birth Death Marriage Program
Data Demographics Clients Utilization
Resource Distribution Administrative
Boundaries Districts Service Areas
Planning Areas Legislative Area
Infrastructure Buildings Roads
Features Facilities Services Permits
Inspections Variances Locations
Assets Environmental Topographic
Biohazards Toxic Sites
SOURCE ESRI
32
Metadata Services
  • Use ArcCatalog as the publishing client.
  • Author/create the metadata to be published using
    the available metadata editors. (currently
    supporting ISO FGDC standards).
  • If validation is enabled on the server, all
    required fields must be filled in (with specific
    valid strings where applicable) before attempting
    to publish the data or will get an error at
    publishing time.

SOURCE ESRI
33
Sharable Geographic Information
SOURCE ESRI
34
Geocoding Services
  • Read the address table
  • Match addresses
  • Search for aliases
  • Spelling sensitivity
  • Minimum candidate score
  • Minimum match score
  • Intersections
  • Output information
  • Offsets
  • Output fields

Source ESRI
Section 3
35
Map Production Services
Transportation/Public Access
Online status of maps
Telephone Outages
Standard Maps - Response Maps - Situational Maps
36
Vaccine and Pharmaceuticals Spatial Accessibility
Services
SOURCE ESRI
37
Hospital Bed Capacity Models and Services
SOURCE http//mapgistics.com/
38
Health Planning Services
Source ESRI
39
Field Data Collection
Pocket GIS - ArcPad
SOURCE ESRI
40
Health Data Collection Services
Source ESRI
41
Mobile GIS Mapping Services
SOURCE ESRI
42
MORE MOBILE GIS SERVICES
SOURCE ONSTAR
43
Public Health Surveillance Services
SOURCE Pennsylvania West Nile Surveillance
Program
44
Terror Incident Response Services
Not affected
Needs cleaning
Damaged but stable
Major damage
Destroyed
In danger of collapse
SOURCE ESRI
45
Preparedness Services
Data Inventories Access to Distributed
Geographic Databases
SOURCE ESRI
46
Preparedness Services Plume Models
  • Chemical Dispersion Modeling

SOURCE ESRI
47
Preparedness Services
Architectural drawings linked to digital building
footprints for quick verification references
SOURCE ESRI
48
Preparedness Services Search and Rescue
  • Search Rescue Map Series

SOURCE ESRI
49
GIS was used during terror attacks to provide
information to first responders.
SOURCE ESRI
50
Insecticide Spray Zone Definition Application
Source ESRI
51
Real Time Clinical Data Surveillance Services
SOURCE RODS SYSTEM, UNIV. OF PITTSBURGH
52
Time-Series Mapping Services
SOURCE ESRI
53
Crime Analysis Services
54
Environmental Health Services
Toxic Exposures
Toxic Spills
Source Environmental Protection Agency
55
Environmental Surveillance
56
Outside Infection Control ?
Cases Clinic Exposure Apartment Unit
Orientation Sanitary Sewer Gases Ambient Air
Circulation Building Infection Rates
SOURCE ESRI
57
Mapping of Pre 1950 Housing and Blood Lead Level
Tests
SOURCE ESRI
58
Raster Surface for Elevated Blood Lead Level
Tests
SOURCE ESRI
59
Lead Poisoning
60
Current asthma prevalence among children 017
years of age, by state, annual average for the
period 20012005--National Health Interview
Survey
DC
NOTES Ranges are based on approximate quartiles
among states with available estimates.
Differences portrayed in this map should be
interpreted with caution. The 95 percent
confidence intervals for many states overlap.
Current asthma prevalence estimates are based on
the questions Has a doctor or other health
professional ever told you that child's name
had asthma?" and Does childs name still have
asthma? Estimates for Delaware, the District of
Columbia, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, and New
Hampshire have a relative standard error greater
than 30 percent and less than or equal to 50
percent and should be interpreted with caution as
they do not meet the standard of reliability or
precision. The estimates for Alaska, Idaho,
Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota,
Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming have a
relative standard error greater than 50 percent
and therefore are not represented in this figure.
SOURCE CDC/NCHS, National Health Interview
Survey.
61
What is a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)?
A geospatial service-oriented architecture allows
common GIS functions to be delivered as services
throughout the enterprise. Source ESRI
62
6. GIS, Services, SOA, work together for Public
Health
Routing Health Workers
Site Location
SOURCE County of San Diego Health and Human
Services Agency
63
GIS-Science and Geo-Science Embrace SOA and GRID
computing Example Geologists
Cyberinfrastructure Summer Institute for
Geoscientists
San Diego Supercomputer Center August 13-17,
2007 San Diego, CA Application Deadline Extended
to June 15, 2007 APPLY ONLINE!
A week-long Cyberinfrastructure Summer
Institute for Geoscientists (CSIG) will be held
from August 13-17, 2007 at the San Diego
Supercomputer Center, University of California,
San Diego. The CSIG is designed to introduce
geoscientists to commonly-used as well as
emergent information technology (IT) tools.
64
THE GEOSCIENCES NETWORK GEON GRID
Source http//www.geongrid.org/
65
Health GRID US
GIS-Science and Geo-Science Embrace SOA and GRID
computing Example Physicians
The HealthGrid.US Alliance (HG.US) is a
partnership of scientific, medical and technology
professionals from academia, industry and
government, whose shared mission is to promote
the application of advanced information
technology to solve cutting-edge problems in
Biomedical Science and Healthcare. The HG.US
technology focus includes Distributed and
High-Performance Computer and Communication
Systems and Cyberinfrastructure, notably Grid
architectures and Knowledge Engineering
techniques. HG.US encourages open, interoperable
systems and standards but is specifically
technology neutral. HG.US is an affiliate of the
international HealthGrid Association.
Source http//www.healthgrid.us/
66
GIS-Science and Geo-Science Embrace SOA and GRID
computing Example Cancer Epidemiologists
Source https//cabig.nci.nih.gov/overview?pidp
rimary.2006-07-07.4911641845sidaboutstatusTrue
67
Grass Root Efforts for GRID computing, SOA, and
GIS
Projects to Date Grid.org projects include
(2001) Cancer Research Project, with Intel
(2002) Anthrax Project, with Intel and Microsoft
(2004) Smallpox Research Grid Project, with IBM
(2005) Human Proteome Folding Project, with IBM
Source http//www.grid.org/
68
Grass Root Efforts for GRID computing, SOA, and
GIS
Source http//worldcommunitygrid.org/
69
Grass Root Efforts for GRID computing, SOA, and
GIS
Source http//www.computeagainstcancer.org/
70
Grass Root Efforts for GRID computing, SOA, and
GIS
Source http//fightaidsathome.scripps.edu/
71
Grass Root Efforts for GRID computing, SOA, and
GIS
Source http//athome.web.cern.ch/athome/
72
CDC GRID Computing
Source CDC NCPHI / BearingPoint Collaboration
73
Desktop GIS vs. Enterprise GIS
DESKTOP GIS GIS Users operate as Lone
Rangers Datasets are duplicated Models are
duplicated Maps and services are
duplicated Knowledge sharing is
minimal Standards may or may not be followed
ENTERPRISE GIS GIS Users utilize an Enterprise
Geodatabase Datasets, Models, Maps, and
Services are shared Knowledge sharing
increases Standardization increases
74
8. Enterprise GIS and Shared Services
CDC Organization
SOURCE ESRI
75
Enterprise GIS Vision
Centers, Institute, and Offices (C/I/Os)
SOURCE CDC and ESRI
76
Detection Prevention
  • Space Time
  • Stove-Pipes of Information

SOURCE ESRI
77
Next slide will show enlarged view of this
scale bar.
SOURCE CDC AND PENN STATE
78
Putting it All Together Hurricane Katrina
SOURCE
http//www.dailykos.com/storyonly/2005/9/4/11430/1
7556
79
WEB BLOGGERS DOCUMENT NURSING HOMES UNDERWATER
BETHANY HOME 2535 ESPLANADE AVENUE NEW ORLEANS,
LA 70119 (504) 949-1738          
                                                  
                 
Source http//www.dailykos.com/storyonly/2005/9/
4/11430/17556
80
Katrina Response
SOURCE HHS SOC, CDC, and American Red Cross
81
SOURCE HHS SOC, CDC, and American Red Cross
82
Kentucky Hurricane Reponse
SOURCE KENTUCKY DEPT OF PUBLIC HEALTH
83
What is DGInet?
  • Web Services
  • Easy to rapidly discover, fuse and display
    information from across the community in your own
    environment
  • Geospatial and geospatial intelligence data
    services
  • Geoprocessing application services
  • DGInet is a distributed/shared web services
    framework that allows each individual
    organization to be the focal point
  • Everything is accessible within your site
  • You can customize your site
  • You can share as many or as few of your (data and
    geoprocessing) services
  • Your clients only require an browser

SOURCE ESRI
84
What is DGInet?
  • Geoprocessing Web Services
  • Server side analytical tools available via a thin
    web client
  • Allows for discovery of geoprocessing services
    via metadata broadcast search
  • Allows for client to specify parameters
  • Future Geoprocessing services
  • Line of Sight
  • View shed
  • On-road mobility (network) analysis
  • Off-road mobility analysis

SOURCE ESRI
85
PH-DGInet WAN (Discovery)
SOURCE ESRI
86
… and Portals are the way into the WEB
Search
Web Mapping
Portal
Metadata Catalog
Gazetteer
SOURCE ESRI
87
PH-DGInet WAN (Display/Fusion)
SOURCE ESRI
88
MIDB 2525B Symbology
SOURCE ESRI
89
Joint WebCOP
SOURCE ESRI
90
3-D Visualization
SOURCE ESRI
91
Databases
10. Data Silos Vs. Health Information
  • Not easy to interpret

SOURCE ESRI
92
GIS Turns Data into Information
93
Maps and Databases are Interactive
SOURCE ESRI
94
Sharable Geographic Information
Preparedness Public Outreach
SOURCE ESRI
95
SOURCE JOSSELIN PHAN
96
Demographic Studies Brookings Institution Report
Back to Prosperity
97
CDC Public Health GIS
  • The following slides show examples of Public
    Health GIS produced by various CIOs within the
    CDC.
  • These examples were produced by many geographers
    at the CDC. I have provided contacts at the
    bottom of each slide.

98
National Center for Environmental Health
Contact Jerry Curtis NCEH
99
National Center for Infectious Disease
Contact Jesse Blanton, NCID
100
National Center for Birth Defects and
Developmental Disabilities
Investigation of a Possible Birth Defects Cluster
in Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia 20002003
CONTACTS ANN MCCLELLAN, DEBORAH BLOCKMAN, CSABA
SIFFEL, LESLEY WOLF
101
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
and Health Promotion
CONTACTS DABO BRANTLEY, ISHMAEL WILLIAMS, TOM
RICHARDS, JIM HOLT, BOB GERZOFF
102
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
and Health Promotion
CONTACTS DABO BRANTLEY, ISHMAEL WILLIAMS, TOM
RICHARDS, JIM HOLT, BOB GERZOFF
103
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
and Health Promotion
CONTACTS DABO BRANTLEY, ISHMAEL WILLIAMS, TOM
RICHARDS, JIM HOLT, BOB GERZOFF
104
National Immunization Program
CONTACT VISHNU-PRIYA SNELLER , NCIRD
105
GIS use in the National Center for Chronic
Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP)
CONTACTS DABO BRANTLEY, ISHMAEL WILLIAMS, TOM
RICHARDS, JIM HOLT, BOB GERZOFF
106
Centrus use in the National Center for Chronic
Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP)
CONTACT DABO BRANTLEY
107
CONTACT HUA LU, NCEH
108
CONTACT KELLY ASADI, NCEH
109
What is Intelligent GIS? (Knowledge Encapsulation)
Documents Knowledge of Experts Establishes
Process and Workflow Standards Creates Knowledge
Repositories Improves Decision Making/Modeling Pub
lishes Knowledge for Others to Use
110
GIS LISTSERVE AND PUBLIC HEALTH
NEWSLETTER http//www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract
/gis/gis_publichealthinfo.htm
CONTACT CHUCK CRONER, NCHS
DABO BRANTLEY, NCCDPHP
111
CDC Enterprise GIS Knowledgebase
http//team.cdc.gov/
CONTACT JIM TOBIAS, NCPHI
112
11. What is Next for GIS in Public Health?
  • Near-real-time disease surveillance
  • Codeless programming environments
  • Better Geovisualization tools
  • Object-oriented databases and GIS
  • Leveraging Shared Services and SOA

113
NEAR-REAL-TIME DISEASE SURVEILLANCE.....
Source http//www.healthmap.org/
114
AVIAN FLU CASES AND GRIDDED POULTRY DENSITY
GOOGLE EARTH
SOURCE http//declanbutler.info/Flumaps1/avianfl
u.html
115
WHO IS SICK ? - Communities Tired of Waiting
for Disease Surveillance
Source http//whoissick.org/sickness/
116
BETTER GEOVISUALIZATION TOOLS LINKED BRUSHING
TECHNIQUES
Source http//www.geovistastudio.psu.edu/jsp/ind
ex.jsp
117
CODELESS PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS WITH GEOVISTA
STUDIO
Source http//www.geovistastudio.psu.edu/jsp/in
dex.jsp
118
CODELESS PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS WITH ORANGE
SOURCE http//www.ailab.si/orange/screenshots.as
p
119
NEW GEOVISUALIZATION TOOLS SUCH AS NEXUS (Penn
State) IMPROVED LINKED BRUSHING TECHNIQUES
INFORMATION DENSITY
SOURCE PENN STATE
120
SELF ORGANIZING MAPS (SOM) and Parallel
Coordinate Plots (PCP) will be Increasingly used
to visualize and explore n-dimensional public
health datasets. Dimensions may include
population data, environmental data, mortality
rates, Morbidity rates, poverty rates, crime
data, years of potential life lost, education,
Health insurance rates, and availability of
health care.
SOURCE PENN STATE NEXUS TOOLS
121
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                               
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
             
Countries organized on a self-organizing map
based on indicators related to poverty           
A map of the world where countries have been
colored with the color describing their poverty
type (the color was obtained with the SOM in the
previous figure)                                 
Source Helsinki Univ of Technology
122
INCREASED USE OF CARTOGRAMS TO VISUALIZE POVERTY
Source http//www.chronicpoverty.org/pdfs/CPR12
0FINAL/CPRfinCOMPLETE.pdf
123
INTEGRATION OF CLINICAL DATA AND GIS BODY
VIEWER (www.geohealth.com)
124
Outbreaks at Hotels Visualizations in Space
and Time
SOURCE Weaver et al Visual Analysis of
Historic Hotel Visitation Patterns
125
BETTER TEMPORAL VISUALIZATIONS OF SEASONAL
DISEASE PATTERNS
Source Code http//www2.sas.com/proceedings/sugi
30/137-30.pdf
126
DETECTION OF DISEASE SPATIAL, TEMPORAL, AND
SPATIOTEMPORAL CLUSTERS
SOURCE http//www.satscan.org/
127
Acknowledgements
  • I would like to thank the Public Health GIS
    community that is emerging on the CDC GIS
    listserve and Enterprise GIS knowledgebase.
  • Secondly, I would like to thank all of the
    Geographers at CDC and other agencies.
  • I would specifically like to thank individuals
    whose work is represented in the examples of GIS
    work at CDC and other agencies.
  • Finally, I would like to thank the audience and
    challenge the CDC and other public health
    agencies to make GIS the highest priority and to
    make GIS the driving force of public health.

128
QUESTIONS?
  • Jim Tobias
  • BearingPoint Consultant
  • NCPHI
  • Enterprise Geodatabase Manager
  • jtobias_at_cdc.gov
  • 404-498-6649
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