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Title: Causes%20of%20the%20Civil%20War

Causes of the Civil War
  • 1850-1861

Chapter Summary
Section 1 Growing Tensions Over Slavery
Westward expansion reopened the issue of slavery
and how to keep the balance of power between free
and slave-holding states. Senator Henry Clay
proposed a series of compromises to resolve the
Slavery and the Mexican-American War, page 482-483
The Missouri Compromise did not apply to the huge
territory gained from Mexico in 1848. Would this
territory be organized as states that allowed
slavery? This issue was vital to northerners who
wanted to stop slavery from spreading. Wilson
Proviso- Asked congress ban slavery in all
territories that might become part of the United
States as a result of the Mexican-American
War. It never became law, but it scared the south
that it was even proposed.
Chapter Summary (continued)
Section 2 Compromises Fail
The Compromise of 1850 and then the
Kansas-Nebraska Act attempted to settle the
slavery question, but the issue of popular
sovereignty only increased the tensions between
the North and the South.
Democratic Party candidate election and the issue
of slavery The controversy over the Wilson
Proviso led to the rise of a new political party.
Neither the Democrats nor Whigs took a firm stand
against slavery. Each hoped to wind support in
both north and south in the election of 1848. A
democrat candidate suggested letting the people
in each new territory decided or state decided
whether or not to allow slavery. They called
this process popular sovereignty. Popular
sovereignty meant that people in the territory
or state would vote directly on issues, rather
than having their elected representatives
decide. This proposal did not take a strong
stand against slavery, but instead let people
decided. This proposal would appeal to both
north and south
But Many whigs and Democrats wanted to take a
stronger stand against the spread of slavery. In
1849, anti-slavery whigs and anti-slavery
democrats joined force to form a new party, which
they called the Free-soil, a place where
slavery was banned. A whig and a hero of the
Mexican war was elected as the Democratic
candidate. Checkpoint Why was the Free Soil
Party founded?
A Bitter Debate over Slavery- 484-485 Gold is
discovered in California. Thousands of people
rushed west. California now has enough people to
become a state. North and South realize that
Californias admission to the Union as a free
state would upset the balance between free and
slave states in the senate. Northerners agued
that California should be a free state because
most of the territory lay north of the Missouri
Compromise line. But southerners that if free
states gained a majority in the senate, and south
would not be able to block antislavery attacks
like the Wilson Proviso. Southern leaders began
to threaten to seceded, or withdraw, from the
nation if California was admitted to the Union as
a free state. Clay comes up with the Compromise
of 1850 to resolve the debate.
Compromise of 1850
  • Stalls trouble
  • Components
  • California admitted free
  • Popular sovereignty in New Mexico
  • Tougher fugitive slave law- This angers the
    North! Northerners refuse to abbey it.
  • Abolition of slave trade in DC

Vigilance Committees
  • Northern cities swear to protect freed and
    fugitive slaves.
  • Anthony Burns example
  • Violence common.

Uncle Toms Cabin
  • Published in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
  • Told the story of Uncle Tom, a kind slave who is
    physically and emotionally terrorized by sadistic
    overseer Simon Legree.
  • His death and the story shock Northern readers.

Transcontinental Railroad
  • Franklin Pierces initiative
  • Gadsen Purchase designed to add remaining
    continental territory as to build a southern
    route from coast to coast.

Gadsden Purchase
Quiz 10.2
  • Discuss the causes of violence in Kansas.
    Discuss the violence that occurred in Kansas in

Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • To support a railroad, the remaining territories
    need to be organized into statehood for the
    purpose of having the railroad.
  • Native Americans need to be relocated
  • Stephen A. Douglas emerges to prominence
  • Principal of the act If South is to accept the
    Northern railroad route, they must get
    somethingwhat do they get? Popular Sovereignty
    in Kansas/Nebraska

Slavery in Kansas/Nebraska?
  • Douglas thought the idea absurd, it was
    geographically impossible for slavery to exist
    there? So his thought, we need a railroad, so
    who cares if they want to have slaves in a
    northern climateit will die out?
  • Result wrong. This became a fury!

The race is on
  • Populate Kansas as quickly as possible with free
    soilers and pro slavery forces.
  • Congressional quotes!
  • There are 1,1000 coming over from Platte, Co. to
    vote and if that aint enough we can send
    5,000-enough to kill every abolitionist in
    the territory.

  • Come on Gentleman of the slave states, since
    there is no escaping your challenge,, I accept it
    on behalf of freedom. We will engage in
    competition for the virgin soil of Kansas, and
    God give victory of the side which is stronger in
    numbers as it is in right.

Impacts of Kansas/Nebraska Act
  • The reopening of the slavery question in the
    territories with almost immediate tragic results
    in Bleeding Kansas
  • The president's hope for reelection dashed
  • The complete realignment of the major political
  • The Democrats lost influence in the North and
    were to become the regional proslavery party of
    the South
  • The Whig Party, which had opposed the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act, died in the South and was
    weakened in the North
  • A new Republican Party emerged as an immediate
    political force, drawing in anti-Nebraska Whigs
    and Democrats.

Bleeding Kansas
(No Transcript)
Bleeding Kansas Defined
  • The Raid on Lawrence, Kansas. In May 1856, a band
    of Border Ruffians crossed the border from
    Missouri and attacked the free-soil community of
    Lawrence, looting and burning a number of
    buildings. Only one person was killed (one of the
    Ruffians), but the door to violence had been
  • The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre. A few days
    later, in retaliation for the Lawrence raid,
    abolitionist forces under the zealot John Brown
    attacked a small proslavery settlement on
    Pottawatomie Creek. On Browns orders, five men
    were executed with a scythe.

Chapter Summary (continued)
Section 3 The Crisis Deepens
A new antislavery party was formed, the Supreme
Court ruled on the Dred Scott case, and John
Brown led a raid to protest slavery. Abraham
Lincoln and Stephen Douglas engaged in a series
of debates about slavery.
John Brown
Election of James Buchanon
  • Northern doughface. Northern (Penn) man able to
    move in Southern political circles

The most shocking event?
  • Charles Sumner is beaten to within an inch of his
    life for slandering a relative of Preston Brooks
    and his pro slavery views.
  • Problemthe beating occurred in the US Senate!

Dred Scott
  • Scott was transported from slave Missouri, to
    Wisconsin, sued for his freedom as he entered
    into free territory he must be free.

Impact of Dred Scott
  • North outraged
  • Slavery rendered possible everywhere, Mo.
    Compromise and Great compromise abolished.
  • Slaves now have constitutional protection thanks
    to a vile 7-2 decision led by Southerner Roger B.
  • Dred Scott was labeled property.

LeCompton Constitution
  • A proslavery constitution thatwas arrived at
  • When passed by the pro-slavery forces illegally
    it was backed by President Buchannan! Outrage.
  • Even some southern senators insisted on a more
    democratic process.
  • Result the constitution was defeated by a 6-1
    margin! Buchannan shamed and humiliated.

  • The legislature shall have no power to pass laws
    for the emancipation of slaves without the
    consent of the owners
  • Free negroes shall not be permitted to live in
    this State under any circumstances.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Senate seat in Illinois, young representative and
    lawyer Abraham Lincoln v. Stephen A. Douglas.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates
John Brown and Harpers Ferry
(No Transcript)
Chapter Summary (continued)
Section 4 The Coming of the Civil War
After Lincoln won the presidential election of
1860, southerners felt they had lost
representation in the national government.
Several southern states seceded from the Union.
The Civil War began when Confederate troops fired
on Fort Sumter.
Election of 1860
Election of 1860
  • I will say then that, I am not nor have ever
    been, in favor of bringing about in any way the
    social and political equality of the black and
    white race.

  • South Carolina Dec. 20, 1860
  • Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia,
    Louisiana, Texas Feb. 1, 1861
  • Confederate States of America
  • President Jefferson Davis

Order of secession
  • South Carolina (December 21, 1860),
  • Mississippi (January 9, 1861),
  • Florida (January 10, 1861),
  • Alabama (January 11, 1861),
  • Georgia (January 19, 1861),
  • Louisiana (January 26, 1861), and
  • Texas (February 1, 1861).

The Confederacy
Border States?
  • Lost
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • Arkansas
  • Preserved
  • Maryland
  • Delaware
  • Kentucky
  • Missouri

  • Missouri-Border Ruffians
  • Maryland-suspension of Habeas Corpus
  • Delaware-only 2 slave
  • Kentucky-losing Kentucky is like losing the
    whole game Abraham Lincoln.

Antebellum Review 1848-1860
  • What are the primary causes of the Civil War?
  • What were the key events during the Antebellum
    that fostered the coming of war?
  • What could have been done during the Antebellum
    to stop the war?
  • Some have argued that the civil war had been
    coming since 1776would you agree?