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Communication in the Workplace

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Title: Communication in the Workplace


1
Communication in the Workplace
  • Ma. Lourdes V. Rodriguez, MBA

2
SEMINAR Objectives
  • To be able to define Communication.
  • To be able to identify the two types of
    Communication (verbal and non-verbal).
  • To be able to give suggestions and tips on how to
    communicate in the workplace.

3
Good communication is a key part of success in
the workplace.
4
Without communication skills we are unable to
let others know what we think, feel, or want to
accomplish. We are unable to build partnerships,
motivate others, or resolve conflict. 
5
ACTIVITY
  • GROUP YOURSELVES
  • GIVE A NAME FOR YOUR GROUP NAME SHOULD RELATE
    TO COMMUNICATION.
  • Example Bloggers
  • WRITE DOWN THE DIFFERENT WORKPLACES THAT YOU CAN
    THINK OF IN YOUR SCHOOL/COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY.

6
What is a workplace?
  • Dictionary definition - A place, such as an
    office or factory, where people are employed.

7
What is our workplace?
  • Administration office
  • Accounting office
  • Human Resources Office
  • Bookstore
  • Maintenance office
  • Engineering office
  • General Services
  • Clinic
  • Registrar
  • Security Guard office
  • Student Services
  • Discipline office
  • Campus Ministry office
  • Others

8
Communication
  • The exchange of thoughts, messages, or
    information, as by speech, signals, writing, or
    behavior.
  • The art and technique of using words effectively
    to impart information or ideas.
  • Acceptable communication differs from company to
    company, but many aspects are universal.

9
Tips to help us communicate effectively in the
workplace
  • Listen - When you listen to others attentively it
    makes them feel good. It also makes for a deeper
    and more positive connection with others.
  • In turn, you form an understanding and they
    will listen to you when its your turn to speak.
  • Poor listening happens often and resultsin
    misunderstandings andmiscommunications.

10
ACTIVITY
  • HOW GOOD A LISTENER ARE YOU?

11
  •      A well-liked college teacher had just
    completed making up the final examinations and
    had turned off the lights in the office.  Just
    then a tall, dark, broad figure appeared and
    demanded the examination.  The professor opened
    the drawer.  
  • Everything in the drawer was picked up and
    the individual ran down the corridor.  The Dean
    was notified immediately.

12
Answer the Questions
  • 1.  The thief was tall, dark, and broad.
                  
  • 2.  The professor turned off the lights.
             
  • 3.  A tall figure demanded the examination.
            
  • 4.  The examination was picked up by someone
             
  • 5.  The examination was picked up by the
    professor.     

13
Answer True or False
  • 6.   A tall, dark figure appeared after the
    professor
  • turned off the lights in the office.
                             
  • 7.  The man who opened the drawer was the
    professor.    
  • 8.  The professor ran down the corridor.
                
  • 9.  The drawer was never actually opened.
            
  • 10. In this report three persons are referred to.
        

14
ANSWERS
  1. T
  2. T
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F
  • 6. F
  • 7. T
  • 8. F
  • 9. F
  • 10. T

15
INTERPRETATION OF SCORES
  • 8PTS 10 PTS - ACTIVE LISTENER
  • 5 PTS- 7 PTS AVERAGE
  • BELOW 5 PTS NEEDS TO BE MORE ATTENTIVE.
  • 1 POINT PER CORRECT ANSWER

16
WHAT IS YOUR PURPOSE?
  • Have Intention - Ask yourself what your intention
    is before starting a project, going to a meeting,
    or speaking to someone.
  • You can also ask others what their intentionsare
    in similar situations. Knowing your intention
    will help you be more conscious of what youre
    doing or saying.
  • which means youll be able to be moreeffective
    and skillful.

17
SPEAK CLEARLY
  • Speak Clearly - Take a deepbreath and remain
    positive whentalking to people.
  • Try to cut outthe ums, uh-hmms and
    ahhsthese make it difficult for peopleto
    understand what youre tryingto communicate.
  • Try to keep yourvoice steady and dont talk
    tooquickly or too quietly.
  • Be confident in what youre sayingand others
    will feel yourconfidence too.

18
BE GENUINE
  • Be Genuine - Being genuine can includespeaking
    honestly, expressing excitementor sadness when
    you feel like it, and beingfriendly.
  • There is nothing wrong withsaying, no, I dont
    really agree with that,or you know, I think
    youve changed mymind! However, dont be rude.
    I wasjust being honest is not a good
    excusefor being harsh.
  • Being genuine builds yourconfidence.

19
Be Receptive
  • Be open to whatothers are saying or offering.
  • Often, people restrict the flow ofideas or
    communication becausetheyre making too
    manyassumptions or are being too quickto judge
    and criticize.

20
GROUP ACTIVITY
  • LOOK AT THE LIST OF WORKPLACES IN YOUR SCHOOL.
    RATE THEM FROM THE LEAST TO THE MOST NUMBER OF
    TIMES IN A DAY THAT YOU COMMUNICATE WITH THAT
    DEPARTMENT.
  • EX VPA- 2X, ACCTG- 5X, HR- 4 X, ETC.

21
CommunicationFlow
22
Downward communication, Upward communication,
Lateral communication, and the Grapevine.
23
Downward Workplace Communication Enabling
  • Let's focus first on downward communication in
    the workplace, and a couple of its important
    characteristics. Consider these common, downward
    forms of workplace communication
  • A manager explains a task to an employee
  • A customer gives an order to a supplier
  • Shareholders instruct management.

24
Enabling
  • These forms have more than direction in common.
    Each one also provides enabling information in
    the workplace. When a manager instructs an
    employee, she enables the employee to do his job,
    and makes it possible for him to earn a living by
    doing something that has value for the employer.
  • Another example senior management finds out from
    shareholders, or the board of directors, how
    owners want to apply the money they've invested.

25
  • And, as information moves downward in the
    workplace, it grows increasingly detailed.

Make a Budget report
Make a Budget report for the month to include the
following
Make sure the report includes the exact amount
and the qty.
26
  • All organizations of more than one person must
    use workplace communication in one way or
    another.
  • One person must give another instructions before
    any activity can occur.

27
  • At each stage in the downward flow of
    communication, people in the organization receive
    information to help them do their jobs. And, at
    each stage the information become less abstract,
    more specific, and more detailed.

28
GROUP ACTIVITY
  • ILLUSTRATE AN EXAMPLE OF A DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
    THAT YOU HAVE EXPERIENCED.
  • SHOW THAT IT BECOMES MORE DETAILED AS IT GOES
    DOWN THE CHAIN OF COMMAND.

29
Upward Communication Compliance
  • A second major flow of communication is upward,
    from employee to supervisor, supervisor to
    department head, department head to vice
    president, and so on.

30
Less detail
  • Now, turning to upward communication, we know
    that the staff at the registrar or accounting
    department will report back to the section head
    on their number of enrolees.
  • The college account, in turn, will report, in
    less detail, to the VPAA about enrollment
    figures.
  • Finally, VPAA will report to the President on how
    well the College is doing for SY 2008-2009.

31
Group activity
  • ILLUSTRATE AN EXAMPLE OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION
    THAT YOU HAVE EXPERIENCED.
  • SHOW THAT IT BECOMES LESS DETAILED AS IT GOES UP
    THE CHAIN OF COMMAND.

32
Lateral communication Coordination
  • Now, think of the information that flows back and
    forth between you and your peers, whether you're
    a front-line worker, a manager, or a member of
    the board of directors. This is lateral
    communication.

33
Characteristics
  • First, no superior/subordinate relationship
    exists here it's strictly a case of two people
    with roughly equal amounts of power and prestige.
    That makes this form of communication voluntary
    and discretionary.
  • Yes, the boss may tell us to communicate with
    each other, but unless we both want to do it,
    we're not going to exchange much information of
    value.

34
  • That takes us to the second aspect, the idea of
    reciprocating.
  • The quality and quantity of information we
    provide to our peers generally reflects what we
    get back from them. I may provide good
    information to you when we start working
    together, but I won't continue to provide it
    unless you reciprocate in kind.

35
Team Communication
  • Team communication is a special form of lateral
    communication, and an essential one.
  • For teamwork in the workplace, members must not
    only communicate with each other, but will often
    need to communicate with peers outside their
    immediate group.
  • Leaders will need to keep these communication
    flows in mind, as well as the upward and downward
    flows that connect them directly to their
    co-employees.
  • Communication for team building and just plain
    teamwork and is many-faceted and requires
    consistent attention.

36
The Grapevine Filling the Gaps
  • Its Tuesday morning, and John down the hall just
    emptied out his desk and left the building.
    Apparently for good.
  • Everyone wants an answer to the same question
    "Why?" If there's no official answer, and
    sometimes even if there is one, the people around
    him begin speculating about possible reasons.
  • This is a communication channel that no one owns
    and no one controls. And while we might complain
    about gossips and busybodies, we all use it
    sooner or later.

37
It has a function
  • Despite its many faults, though, the grapevine
    does have a place, a function, in all
    organizations. It fills in gaps left behind by
    conventional and official communication.
  • As I've said, downward communication delivers
    enabling information from superior to
    subordinate, while upward communication involves
    compliance information reported back to the
    superior by the subordinate. And, lateral
    communication takes place between peers, helping
    us coordinate with each other.

38
New tools
  • Traditionally, the grapevine revolved around
    mouth-to-mouth communication, with only
    occasional bits of information written down or
    put on paper.
  • But, new technologies mean change. The Internet
    opened up all kinds of new opportunities for
    unofficial communication. Email, it's true, may
    be monitored, but that's easily circumvented. For
    example, free, anonymous email accounts offered
    all over the Net.

39
  • Then, there are photocopiers and fax machines,
    both of which can be used to surreptitiously
    maintain the grapevine. And how about cell
    phones, which provide an alternate means of
    mouth-to-mouth communication, even when you're at
    the office.
  • While technologies enabling the grapevine may
    change, the same human traits continue to fuel
    this communication channel. They include our
    natural curiosity and our desire to influence the
    way others think and behave. Don't forget,
    either, about the need to get even or to
    belittle, which fuel many rumors that course
    through grapevines.

40
Speed
  • Where downward, upward, and lateral communication
    are structured and flow formally through specific
    channels, the grapevine goes through multiple
    channels and even multiple versions.

41
Communication Flow
  • downward, or enabling, communication that moves
    instructions and other directive information down
    or through a hierarchy
  • upward, or compliance, communication that
    provides feedback to the people who originate
    downward communication
  • lateral, or coordinating, communication that
    moves between peers to maintain or improve
    operational efficiency
  • the grapevine, which fills in gaps in official
    communication and provides answers to unaddressed
    questions.

42
Why is effective communication essential in the
workplace?
  • Communication we are constantly bombarded by it.
    It may be in the form of spoken or written words,
    pictures, gestures, symbols and (for an
    interesting few) telepathic messages from a
    variety of intriguing sources. But in the
    workplace, effective communication is essential
    to our progress and well being.

43
What is your communicating style?
  • Good communication skills require a high level of
    self-awareness. Understanding your personal style
    of communicating will go a long way toward
    helping you to create good and lasting
    impressions on others

44
  • By becoming more aware of how others perceive
    you, you can adapt more readily to their styles
    of communicating.

45
Three basic communication styles
  • Aggressive
  • Passive
  • Assertive

46
Elements of the Aggressive Style
  • Beliefs
  • "Everyone should be like me."
  • "I am never wrong."
  • "I've got rights, but you don't."
  • Communication Style
  • Close minded
  • Poor listener
  • Has difficulty seeing the other person's point of
    view
  • Interrupts
  • Monopolizing

47
  • Behavior
  • Puts others down
  • Doesn't ever think they are wrong
  • Bossy
  • Moves into people's space, overpowers
  • Jumps on others, pushes people around
  • Know-it-all attitude
  • Doesn't show appreciation
  • Characteristics
  • Achieves goals, often at others' expense
  • Domineering, bullying
  • Patronizing
  • Condescending, sarcastic

48
  • Verbal Cues
  • "You must (should, ought better)."
  • "Don't ask why. Just do it."
  • Verbal abuse
  • Confrontation and Problem Solving
  • Must win arguments, threatens, attacks
  • Operates from win/lose position
  • Nonverbal Cues
  • Points, shakes finger
  • Frowns
  • Squints eyes critically
  • Glares
  • Stares
  • Rigid posture
  • Critical, loud, yelling tone of voice
  • Fast, clipped speech

49
  • Effects
  • Provokes counteraggression, alienation from
    others, ill health
  • Wastes time and energy oversupervising others
  • Pays high price in human relationships
  • Fosters resistance, defiance, sabotaging,
    striking back, forming alliances, lying, covering
    up
  • Forces compliance with resentment
  • Feelings Felt
  • Anger
  • Hostility
  • Frustration
  • Impatience

50
Elements of the Passive Style
  • Beliefs
  • "Don't express your true feelings."
  • "Don't make waves."
  • "Don't disagree."
  • "Others have more rights than I do."
  • Communication Style
  • Indirect
  • Always agrees
  • Doesn't speak up
  • - Hesitant

51
  • Characteristics
  • Apologetic, self-conscious
  • Trusts others, but not self
  • Doesn't express own wants and feelings
  • Allows others to make decisions for self
  • Doesn't get what he or she wants
  • Behaviors
  • Sighs a lot
  • Tries to sit on both sides of the fence to avoid
    conflict
  • Clams up when feeling treated unfairly
  • Asks permission unnecessarily
  • Complains instead of taking action
  • Lets others make choices
  • Has difficulty implementing plans
  • Self-effacing

52
  • Nonverbal Cues
  • Fidgets
  • Nods head often comes across as pleading
  • Lack of facial animation
  • Smiles and nods in agreement
  • Downcast eyes
  • Slumped posture
  • Low volume, meek
  • Up talk
  • Fast, when anxious slow, hesitant, when doubtful

53
  • Verbal Cues
  • "You should do it."
  • "You have more experience than I do."
  • "I can't......"
  • "This is probably wrong, but..."
  • "I'll try..."
  • Monotone, low energy

54
  • Confrontation and Problem Solving
  • Avoids, ignores, leaves, postpones
  • Withdraws, is sullen and silent
  • Agrees externally, while disagreeing internally
  • Expends energy to avoid conflicts that are
    anxiety provoking
  • Spends too much time asking for advice,
    supervision
  • Agrees too often

55
  • Feelings Felt
  • Powerlessness
  • Wonders why doesn't receive credit for good work
  • Chalks lack of recognition to others' inabilities
  • Effects
  • Gives up being him or herself
  • Builds dependency relationships
  • Doesn't know where he or she stands
  • Slowly loses self esteemPromotes others' causes
  • Is not well-liked

56
Elements of the Assertive Style
  • Beliefs
  • Believes self and others are valuable
  • Knowing that assertiveness doesn't mean you
    always win, but that you handled the situation as
    effectively as possible
  • "I have rights and so do others."
  • Communication Style
  • Effective, active listener
  • States limits, expectations
  • States observations, no labels or judgments
  • Expresses self directly, honestly, and as soon as
    possible about feelings and wants
  • Checks on others feelings

57
  • Characteristics
  • Non-judgmental
  • Observes behavior rather than labeling it
  • Trusts self and others
  • Confident
  • Self-aware
  • Open, flexible, versatile
  • Playful, sense of humor
  • Decisive
  • Proactive, initiating

58
  • Behavior
  • Operates from choice
  • Knows what it is needed and develops a plan to
    get it
  • Action-oriented
  • Firm
  • Realistic in her expectations
  • Fair, just
  • Consistent
  • Takes appropriate action toward getting what she
    wants without denying rights of others

59
  • Nonverbal Cues
  • Open, natural gestures
  • Attentive, interested facial expression
  • Direct eye contact
  • Confident or relaxed posture
  • Vocal volume appropriate, expressive
  • Varied rate of speech

60
  • Verbal Cues
  • "I choose to..."
  • "What are my options?"
  • "What alternatives do we have?"
  • Confrontation and Problem Solving
  • Negotiates, bargains, trades off, compromises
  • Confronts problems at the time they happen
  • Doesn't let negative feelings build up

61
  • Feelings Felt
  • Enthusiasm
  • Well being
  • Even tempered
  • Effects
  • Increased self-esteem and self-confidence
  • Increased self-esteem of others
  • Feels motivated and understood
  • Others know where they stand

62
  • Clearly, the assertive style is the one to strive
    for. Keep in mind that very few people are all
    one or another style. In fact, the aggressive
    style is essential at certain times such as
  • when a decision has to be made quickly
  • during emergencies
  • when you know you're right and that fact is
    crucial
  • stimulating creativity by designing competitions
    destined for use in training or to increase
    productivity

63
  • Passiveness also has its critical applications
  • when an issue is minor
  • when the problems caused by the conflict are
    greater than the conflict itself
  • when emotions are running high and it makes sense
    to take a break in order to calm down and regain
    perspective
  • when your power is much lower than the other
    party's
  • when the other's position is impossible to change
    for all practical purposes (i.e., government
    policies, etc.).

64
Remaining aware of your own communication style
and fine-tuning it as time goes by gives you the
best chance of success in business and life.
65
Thank you....
66
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