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AT/OT/PT Collaborative Problem Solving

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AT/OT/PT Collaborative Problem Solving By Cricket Rizzo, MS, OTRL, ATP Westmoreland Intermediate Unit & Kendra Bittner, MEd, SoSE,ATAC Allegheny Intermediate Unit – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AT/OT/PT Collaborative Problem Solving


1
AT/OT/PT Collaborative Problem Solving
  • By Cricket Rizzo, MS, OTRL, ATP
  • Westmoreland Intermediate Unit
  • Kendra Bittner, MEd, SoSE,ATAC
  • Allegheny Intermediate Unit

2
Housekeeping
  • Feel free to ask questions as they come to you
  • We will take a break mid-session, but feel free
    to move around

3
  • Technology is a tool that serves a set of
    educational goals, and if we dont think about
    what we want the technology for first, we end up
    with technology-driven solutions that have very
    little impact in the lives of children and in our
    educational system.
  • Dr. Linda Roberts, former director of the Office
    of Educational Technology, U.S. Dept. of
    Education

4
AT Definition
  • IDEA defines Assistive Technology as both a
    device and a service.

5
AT Device
  • Any item, piece of equipment, or product system,
    whether acquired commercially off the shelf,
    modified or customized, that is used to increase,
    maintain, or improve the functional capabilities
    of individuals with disabilities.
  • (34 C.F.R. 300.5)

6
AT Service
  • Any services that directly assist in the
    selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive
    technology device.
  • These services (e.g. acquiring, customizing,
    coordinating, training) imply many tasks for team
    members in the implementation of AT.

7
Assistive Technology Legislation
  • IDEA 2004 (34 CFR Parts 300 and 301 )
  • Early Intervention Act (PL-99-336)
  • Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals
    with Disabilities Act of 1988 (PL-100-407)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (PL-101-336)
  • Entitlement Legislation
  • Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (PL-93-112, as
    amended)
  • Rehabilitation Act Amendments

8
When to consider AT
  • During the IEP/IFSP process
  • When the need arrives for physical access,
    communication assistance, and cognitive support
  • When a disability impacts the performance or
    potential of a person in any of several areas
  • Play
  • Accessing environments
  • Communication
  • Writing
  • Accessing print and auditory information

9
When to consider AT
  • When progress is flat or negative in direction
  • Upon team request
  • As early as possible
  • If someone is asking this question in the first
    place

10
When to consider AT
  • IDEA does not require a formalized implementation
    plan outside of the IEP.
  • Best practice is considered when it is systematic
    and collaborative.
  • Refer to your local entity to discuss the
    procedure and to gain additional guidance.

11
AT Assessment is
  • a flexible, collaborative decision-making
    process in which teams of families,
    professionals, and friends repeatedly revise
    their decisions and reach consensus about the
    ever-changing abilities, needs, and expectations
    of the person with a disability.
  • (Adapted from S. Bagnato Childrens Team Work)

12
How is the AT assessment conducted?
  • Dynamic
  • Multimodal
  • Inventory
  • Interview
  • Observation
  • Formal Testing
  • Informal Testing
  • Assessment should focus on features and
    strategies rather than on a specific device
  • Matches abilities, needs, and expectations to AT
    features

13
Feature Match Abilities, Needs and Expectations
  • Daily needs
  • AT history
  • Individual family input
  • Cognition
  • Language
  • Sensory issues
  • Motor issues
  • Life transitions

14
Multidisciplinary Evaluation
  • In the collaborative team approach, it is
    assumed that no one person or profession has an
    adequate knowledge base or sufficient expertise
    to execute all functions associated with
    providing services.
  • (S.W. Blackstone, 1992)

15
SETT Framework
  • Student
  • What are the students needs?
  • Environment
  • Where are the needs noted? Who teaches or
    supports the student in these settings?
  • Task
  • What must the student do to meet lesson or IEP
    goals? What do peers do in comparison?
  • Tools
  • What no-tech, low-tech, and high-tech tools have
    been used or considered?

16
Multidisciplinary Evaluation
  • Information about the student in regards to the
    SETT framework includes
  • What we know
  • What we need to know
  • What are the barriers
  • What are the areas of concern
  • What level is the student participating
    educationally, physically, socially, and
    technologically

17
AT Assessment - Determination
  • Determination and implementation of assistive
    technology is based on data.
  • Formal and informal assessment data guide initial
    decision-making and planning for AT
    implementation.
  • Student performance is monitored while the
    assistive technology is integrated into the
    students daily and curriculum activities.

18
AT Written Plan
  • Following IEP development and the determination
    that AT is being considered, all those involved
    in implementation work together to develop a
    written action plan that provides detailed
    information about how the AT will be used in
    specific educational settings, what will be done
    and who will do it.

19
AT - Written Plan
  • AT is a not a goal in and of itself
  • AT is a tool that can be used to assist an
    individual to access and achieve functional goals
    and objectives
  • Emphasis should be placed on the needs of the
    individual and the features that are required,
    not on specific names of equipment
  • (J. Marquette, PennTech)
  • AT should be considered for the current needs,
    developing skills, and future academic/communicati
    ve demands.

20
  • Trialing of assistive technology is suggested to
    determine if the technology supports student
    progress.

21
Equipment Trials
  • Team Consensus Equipment trials and timelines
  • Emphasis on meaningful, motivating activities
  • Activities should reflect key environments
  • Use should be consistent
  • Careful collection and review of data, outcomes,
    recommendations
  • Closure through team decision-making

22
Acquisition of Trial Equipment
  • District or IU inventory
  • PaTTAN Short Term Loan
  • Device lending libraries
  • PIAT
  • CIL
  • Organizations
  • Schools
  • Low-tech and no-tech solutions
  • Manufacturer lease or rental
  • Purchase with a trial period agreement
  • Purchase of less expensive items

23
AT Assessment - Integration
  • Assistive Technology
  • is adjusted to support student progress. 
  • spans environments.
  • is used when and where it is needed to facilitate
    the student's access to, and mastery of, the
    curriculum.
  • may facilitate active participation in
    educational activities, assessments,
    extracurricular activities, and typical routines.

24
AT Assessment Responsibility
  • Persons supporting the student across all
    environments in which the assistive technology is
    expected to be used
  • All persons working with the student should know
    their roles and responsibilities, be able to
    support the student using the assistive
    technology
  • All persons should share the implementation of
    the plan.
  • Bottom Line
  • Share the wealth!

25
AT Implementation
  • AT is a process that is on going through out the
    students life.
  • AT is used via
  • In-house equipment
  • Low-tech and no-tech solutions
  • District purchase
  • Family purchase
  • Insurance/Medical Access

26
Areas for Evaluation
  • Seating and Positioning
  • Augmentative Alternative Communication (AAC)
  • Computer Access
  • Electronic Aids to Daily Living

27
Seating and Positioning
28
Seating and Positioning
  • The PELVIS is where its at
  • Proximal stability leads to distal mobility

29
Seating and Positioning
  • What to consider during a seating and positioning
    assessment
  • How will the wheelchair be transported?
  • Where will the wheelchair be charged?
  • Accessibility for the wheelchair within the
    educational environment
  • Environment is which the mobility device will be
    utilized
  • Entrances, surface materials, doors and doorways,
    path of clearance, turning radius, location in
    the classroom, work space (height, space needs
    for books, etc.), bathrooms, cafeteria, elevator
    (key), chair lift
  • Use/develop a Mobility Checklist
  • Fire Drill/Emergency Plan Notify local
    authorities

30
Seating and Positioning
  • Is there or could there be a need for integrated
    controls?
  • Is there or could there be a need for mounting a
    device?
  • Is there a need for changes in positioning?
  • Seating/positioning in different locations i.e.
    WC, chair, stander, beanbag, floor
  • Tilt and/or recline for weight shifts, cathing,
    autonomic dysreflexia, etc.
  • Wheelchair evaluations are usually not done
    through the schools but through outside
    agencies/service providers

31
Seating and Positioning
  • Need for collaboration between school therapists
    and outpatient/inpatient therapists and
    vendors/manufacturers representatives (NRRTS)
  • Parent permission to contact/communicate with
    other professionals
  • What is possibility for attending outside
    evaluations i.e. The Childrens Institute ?

32
Evaluation of Students Skills
  • Cognitive Skills (attention, concentration,
    ability to follow directions, potential for
    learning, frustration tolerance)
  • Do these skills vary depending on the environment
    i.e. 11, small group, classroom
  • Perceptual Skills
  • Depth perception, figure ground, fitting through
    a space width
  • Sensory Skills (vision, touch, hearing)
  • Visual/auditory stimulation/distraction
  • Tactile interaction with the control interface
    (CI)
  • Motor Skills (AROM, coordination, strength)
  • With a power wheelchair, kids will be driving

33
Evaluation of Student's Skills
  • Motor Skills
  • If unable to use hands, identify alternate
    anatomic site for control and evaluate that site
  • Hierarchy of control sites
  • Hands
  • Head, forehead, eye, mouth, chin
  • Feet
  • Elbow/arm
  • Knee/leg

34
Control Interfaces for AT
  • Select candidate control interfaces (i.e.
    joystick, head array) matching the anatomical
    site available for access (i.e. hands, head to
    control the interface)
  • Control interfaces vary in terms of
  • overall size
  • how activated movement, respiration, voice
  • whether or not they give feedback i.e. auditory,
    tactile/kinesthetic, visual

35
Wheelchair Cushions
36
Control Interfaces for Powered Mobility
37
Positioning Devices
38
Evaluation of Student's Skills
  • Cognitive Skills (attention, concentration,
    ability to follow directions, potential for
    learning, frustration tolerance)
  • Perceptual Skills
  • Sensory Skills (vision, touch, hearing)
  • Motor Skills (AROM, coordination, strength)
  • Look at seating first!!!

39
Evaluation of Student's Skills
  • Motor Skills
  • If unable to use hands, identify alternate
    anatomic site for control and evaluate that site
  • Hierarchy of control sites
  • Hands
  • Head, forehead, eye, mouth, chin
  • Feet
  • Elbow/arm
  • Knee/leg

40
Control Interfaces for AT
41
Control Interfaces for AT
  • Select candidate control interfaces i.e. various
    keyboards matching the anatomical site available
    for access i.e. hands to control the interface
  • Control interfaces vary in terms of
  • overall size
  • how activated movement, respiration, voice
  • whether or not they give feedback i.e. auditory,
    tactile/kinesthetic, visual

42
Direct Selection vs. Indirect Selection
  • At this stage, you can determine if the student
    will use
  • direct selection
  • indirect selection

43
Direct Selection
  • user can randomly choose any output directly
  • user identifies a target and goes directly to it
  • at any one time, all outputs are equally
    available for selection
  • physically -- requires refined, controlled
    movements, most difficult
  • cognitively -- intuitive, easier

44
Indirect Selection / Scanning
  • intermediate steps involved thus slower access
  • at any one time, all outputs are not equally
    available for selection
  • physically -- requires very little motor control
  • cognitively -- requires significant cognitive
    skills, visual tracking, attention, ability to
    sequence

45
Directed Scanning
  • hybrid of direct and indirect selection
  • user activates the control interface to select
    the direction of the scan, when a desired choice
    is reached, the user sends a signal to select

46
Communication
47
AT and the Purpose to Communicate
  • Communicative functions
  • Rejection
  • Request for social interaction, object, action
  • Comment
  • (Gleason, 1997)

48
Communication Considerations
  • Does the student have access to communication
    across environments to convey intentions?
  • Is the communication system functional?
  • Does it take changing communication partners into
    consideration?
  • Is the language system flexible?

49
AAC - Definition
  • "Augmentative and alternative communication
    (AAC)
  • 1) The supplementation or replacement of natural
    speech and/or writing using aided and/or unaided
    symbols...The use of aided symbols requires a
    transmission device.
  • 2) The field or area of clinical/educational
    practice to improve the communication skills of
    individuals with little or no functional
    speech."(Lloyd, L.L., Fuller, D.R., Arvidson,
    H.H. (1997) Augmentative and Alternative
    Communication A handbook of principles and
    practices. Boston Allyn and Bacon. pg 524)

50
AAC - Determination
  • How is the use of AAC determined?
  • Assessments
  • Students interaction with the world
  • Students language level
  • Input from all members of the team
  • Goals, needs, wants to communicate

51
Pragmatic Intent
  • How is the need to communicate demonstrated?
  • What is the behavior in the absence of language
    Eye gaze, vocalization, grabbing, leading,
    hitting, screaming, drooling, blinking, gesturing

52
Pragmatic Intent
  • How are the needs or message being expressed
  • Single sounds/signs
  • Single words/signs/photos/symbols
  • Multiple words/signs/photos/symbols
  • Phrases
  • Sentences
  • Timely manner in context, establish the amount
    of time, wait time (clock resets at 0 every time
    someone interrupts) how long it takes to get the
    message across to the communication partner

53
Language Mode
  • Manual
  • Sign language formal, home sign, gesture
  • Verbal
  • Speech
  • Vocalizations
  • Written
  • Symbols
  • Letters
  • Words
  • Sentences

54
Language Level
  • Developmental Language Level
  • Emergent
  • Phonological (sounds sound patterns)
  • Semantic (relates words to referents meanings)
  • Morphological/Syntax (putting words together)
  • Pragmatic (Competent)

55
Cognitive Development and Communicative Symbolic
Use
  • Language Development
  • Pre-symbolic Reactive behavior, Proactive
    behavior, intentional, and conventional
    pre-symbolic language
  • Concrete Symbolic use of concrete 11
    correspondence with symbol and the referent
  • Abstract Symbolic/formal symbolic communication
  • (Rowland and Shweigert, US office of Special
    Education Programs)
  • Cognitive Development Jean Piaget
  • Sensorimotor Stage The child is beginning the
    process of learning how to think. She
    experiences her surroundings through her senses
    and actions with objects but does not yet have a
    functional representation of the object.
  • Object Permanence The child is beginning to
    learn that things exist even when they are not
    being experienced.
  • Means-Ends The child begins to solve problems
    in different ways other than trial and error.

56
Building the Language System
  • Functional language in the environments that is
    meaningful to the student
  • Build language for communication needs by
    building a solid foundation
  • Generalization of language is impacted by the
    familiarity of the systems by the professional -
    collaboration

57
Building the Language System
  • Using common, functional words to build core
    vocabulary (no, low, mid, high tech options)
  • Moving beyond yes and no and I WANT.
  • Expand core language to use more rich words and
    messages (two word level agent action MOMMY
    GO, I GO), phrasing (pre-recorded or invented),
    sentence building

58
Low Tech AAC
  • Single recordable switch, sequencing switch,
    paper communication book, talking photo album

59
Mid Tech AAC
  • Icon sequencing or exchange voice output
    communication aid, paper overlay voice output
    communication aids

60
Hi Tech AAC
  • Dynamic display voice output communication aids

61
AAC - Features
  • Access
  • Portability
  • Voice output
  • Operating system
  • Display

62
Access How will the student get the message
across?
  • Direct Selection one step to get the message
    across
  • touch enter
  • touch exit
  • stylus
  • switch with one choice
  • eye gaze selection
  • Indirect Selection/Scanning
  • Indirect selection through directed scanning
    joystick, mouse, multiple switches
  • Switches single, dual
  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Step scanning
  • Inverse scanning (release when your choice is
    highlight)
  • Row/ Column

63
Portability Features
  • Weight
  • Handle
  • Where is it being transported and by whom?
  • Mounted wheelchair, table, bed, tray
  • How will it be mounted ? apparatus, Dual Lock,
    Dycem

64
Voice Output
  • None
  • Digitized (recorded by a person)
  • Synthesized (computerized)

65
Operating System Features
  • Communication software
  • Paper grids
  • Linguistic organization
  • Core word
  • Symantic compaction
  • Single word/phrase/sentence building with or
    without a message window

66
Display Features
  • One hit area to a multiple hit area
  • Visual Scene
  • Number of grids, windows, keys
  • Static or removable
  • Paper or computerized
  • Outerware Knobs, buttons, and latches
  • Power button
  • Computerized screen quality of back light (CVI)
  • Pressure to activate
  • Keyguards

67
Computer Access
68
Keyboards
  • Standard
  • QWERTY
  • Alphabetic
  • Dvorak
  • Portable
  • Large Print/Button/
  • Expanded
  • Miniature/Contracted
  • Keytop Overlays Keyguards
  • Coded/Alternate Entry
  • Programmable
  • Onscreen
  • Word prediction

69
Standard Keyboards
  • Features
  • Readily available
  • Commonplace and familiar
  • Plug-and-play or freely convertible via operating
    system
  • QWERTY
  • Dvorak
  • Alphabetic
  • Miniature
  • Considerations
  • Specialized layouts impact generalization of
    skill on non-adapted computers
  • Plug-and-play versus programmed

70
(No Transcript)
71
Optimizer Keyboard
  • Optimize key to reduce movement away from
    keyboard
  • Mouse control
  • Number pad
  • QWERTY format

72
Tactile Pro 2.0
  • Replicates the feel of the old Macintosh keyboard
  • Available in Mac and PC versions
  • USB 2.0 port built into the device
  • Available with a pre-programmed Optimizer button
    (see previous slide)

73
Trackball Keyboard
  • Standard QWERTY keyboard
  • Integrated pointing device
  • PS/2 keyboard
  • PS/2 or USB trackball

74
Versa Point RF Keyboard
  • Wireless configuration
  • 100 foot range
  • Line-of-site not required
  • Integrated pointing device
  • Available as a combo with wireless cursor control
    unit

75
Portable Keyboards
  • Features
  • Most are standalone word processors
  • Reduce distractions
  • May offer add-in functionality
  • Pre-programmed
  • Download
  • SD card
  • Text shared with computer via wire or wireless
    connection
  • Durability
  • Low power consumption
  • Considerations
  • Inexpensive in comparison to a laptop
  • Screen size
  • Brightness and contrast limits
  • Limited display fonts and sizes

76
CalcuScribe
  • Portable keyboard
  • Built-in calculator
  • Text display options
  • 4-line
  • 8-line
  • File management system
  • Folders
  • Menu structure
  • Wireless beaming to other CalcuScribes for
    collaboration

77
Dana Portable Keyboard
  • Palm-based
  • Organization tools
  • Downloadable software
  • Laptop-like functionality
  • Large screen
  • Backlight for use in dark rooms
  • Send or Sync

78
Flexible Keyboard
  • Water resistant
  • Low pressure to activate
  • Rollable for storage and transport
  • Available in two heights
  • Standard (19.6 in)
  • Short (16.2 in)

79
Folding Keyboard by Matias
  • Full-sized keyboard
  • Integrated number pad with Tab key feature
  • Function key access
  • Arrow keys
  • Page navigation
  • Delete
  • Volume control keys

80
Fusion Keyboard (The Writer)
  • Text-to-speech output
  • Word prediction
  • Split screen vocabulary word lists
  • Pre-programmed writing prompts
  • Rubrics
  • Basic
  • Perfect Paragraph
  • Multi-Paragraph Essay
  • Six Traits of Writing
  • Persuasive Essay
  • Response to Literature
  • Creative Writing
  • Build-your-own

81
Neo Neo 2
  • Six font choices
  • Capable of running applets
  • Typing tutor
  • Word prediction
  • Quiz software
  • Wired or wireless transfer of text
  • Saves automatically in 8 locations
  • Option for Text2Speech

82
QuickPAD IR QuickPAD Pro
  • Integrated typing tutor
  • Built-in thesaurus and word prediction
  • Infrared connection via dedicated receiver
  • Password-capable portfolio filing system to
    organize writing files
  • Up to 70 pages in 10 separate folders (QuickPAD
    IR)

83
Large Print/Button (Expanded) Keyboards
  • Features
  • Color schemes for ease of viewing or
    identification
  • Large target
  • Clearer separation between letters on large keys
  • Considerations
  • Larger footprint
  • Reduced key set
  • Visually distinct from traditional keyboards

84
BigKeys LX Keyboard Plus
  • Standard keyboard footprint
  • One-inch keys
  • LX model
  • 60 keys
  • Black and white keys
  • Plus model
  • 48 keys
  • Color keys
  • Black and white keys
  • Variety of layouts
  • QWERTY
  • ABC

85
Clevy Keyboard
  • Vertically aligned keys
  • Keys are four times larger than standard keys
  • Keys colored by function
  • Fewer keys than a standard keyboard
  • Durable keys are switches, not membranes

86
Large Print Keyboard
  • Standard-sized keyboard
  • Enlarged key font (roughly 3 times standard size)
  • Black on yellow
  • Black on ivory
  • Yellow on black
  • Hot keys for common commands and applications

87
ZoomText Keyboard
  • High-contrast keys
  • White on black
  • Yellow on black
  • 16 programmable buttons

88
Miniature (Contracted) Keyboards
  • Features
  • Reduce travel for users with small hand spans
    or fingers
  • May be useful when
  • Fatigue is common
  • Range of motion is limited
  • Only one hand is used for key activations
  • Considerations
  • Key face often features a smaller font than a
    standard keyboard

89
EZ-Reach Keyboard
  • Flat profile
  • Vertically aligned keys
  • Backspace and Enter are repositioned for access
    by the forefinger (rather than the little finger)

90
Frogpad
  • Wired and wireless (Bluetooth) configurations
  • Wearable version
  • PDAs
  • Handheld devices
  • USB version
  • Handhelds
  • Laptops
  • Desktops
  • Left and right hand models
  • Non-standard key configuration (frequency-based)

91
Half Keyboard
  • Palm-sized
  • Left-hand only
  • Allows user to type with left hand and navigate
    pointer with right hand

92
Half QWERTY Keyboard
  • Full-sized keyboard
  • QWERTY arrangement
  • Two-handed typists
  • Left-handed typists
  • Right-handed typists

93
Low Profile Keyboard
  • 101 keys
  • Integrated pointer available
  • Joystick
  • Trackball
  • Laptop-like feel
  • Lightweight
  • Flat profile (approximately one inch high)
  • Small frame (less than 6x12)

94
Magic Wand Keyboard
  • Built-in mouse
  • 11 speeds
  • Left, right, double click
  • Click-drag
  • Accessible with slight head or hand movement
  • Handheld wand
  • Mouthstick
  • No force required for activation
  • Small profile (7 x 6 x 0.5)

95
Space Saver Keyboard
  • 100 keys
  • Narrow design (10.8x6)
  • Keypad, function, and arrow keys above standard
    alphanumerics
  • Two models
  • Desk (weighted, 2.55)
  • Flat (unweighted, 0.75)
  • Available with or without integrated touch pad

96
USB Mini Keyboard by Tash
  • Membrane surface
  • Keys less than ½-inch square
  • QWERTY layout
  • Auditory feedback
  • Mouse Mode key for positioning and click
    functions
  • Adjustable features
  • Response rate
  • Key repeat rate
  • Mouse tracking rate

97
Ergonomic Keyboards
  • Considerations
  • Not conducive to one-handed typing
  • May not fit into built-in keyboard trays
  • Features
  • Increasingly available (and standard) in school,
    home, and work environments
  • Reduce repetitive stress injuries by supporting
    more natural hand positions
  • Some models are adjustable

98
Contoured Keyboard by Kinesis
  • Two models
  • Advantage
  • Classic
  • Concave key arrangement
  • Accommodates differing finger lengths
  • Prevents wrist extension
  • Central positioning of common weak finger keys
  • Backspace
  • Enter
  • Foot switch compatible

99
Freestyle Keyboard by Kinesis
  • Adjustable, split keyboard
  • Pivot Tether connects both modules
  • Driverless Hot keys (not supported on Macs)
  • Optional accessory packages for increased
    functions

100
Goldtouch Keyboard
  • Splits into two sections for adjustment between 0
    and 30 degrees
  • Horizontal
  • Vertical (tenting)
  • Integrated numeric keypad
  • External numeric keypad available

101
Maltron Ergonomic Keyboard
  • Concave key wells to accommodate differing finger
    lengths
  • Centralized number keys
  • Vertical alignment of key rows
  • Thumb keys
  • Return
  • Space
  • Backspace
  • Shift Lock feature

102
Maxim Keyboard by Kinesis
  • Low-force keys
  • Horizontal and vertical adjustments at 0, 8, or
    14 degrees
  • Removable palm supports
  • Embedded numeric keypad
  • External numeric keypad available

103
Natural Keyboard Elite by Microsoft
  • Keys aligned for natural wrist and arm alignment

104
Tru-Form Keyboard
  • Split keyboard in an integrated unit
  • Built-in wrist support
  • Dual keys
  • PC Alt, Shift, Control, spacebar
  • Mac Command, Shift, Option, Control, spacebar
  • Option of built-in touchpad

105
Keytop Overlays Keyguards
  • Features
  • Adapt keyboards for moisture-prone use
  • Provide color cues to emerging typists
  • Retrofit an existing keyboard inexpensively
  • Provide support for users unable to support
    wrists or isolate keys easily
  • Considerations
  • Adhesives may leave a residue when removed
  • OS settings may need to be adjusted (in cases
    where a keyboard is being changed to a non-QWERTY
    layout)

106
Keyboard Skins
  • Protect keyboard from moisture and dust
  • Conforms to keyboards for a secure fit
  • Requires model and FCC at time of order (to
    ensure proper configuration)

107
Keyguards
  • Available in plastic or metal versions
  • May be easily removed, if necessary
  • Conforms to specific keyboard arrangments
    (specified at time of order)
  • Keyguards are often available for specialized
    keyboards (through the keyboard manufacturer)

108
Keytop Overlays
  • Braille
  • Early Learning
  • Finger Position
  • High Contrast
  • Large Print
  • Uppercase/Lowercase

109
Coded/Alternate Entry Keyboards
  • Features
  • Utilize chords, codes, or pre-programmed settings
  • Reduce keystrokes
  • Reduce hand movement (travel)
  • Considerations
  • Learning curve is typical
  • Non-intuitive

110
BAT Keyboard
  • Left and right hand models
  • Single-handed keying
  • Can be used in addition to a standard keyboard
  • Free hand for Braille reading
  • Seven keys to perform all standard keystrokes
  • Chord-based entry
  • Programmable macros

111
Darci USB
  • Adjustable, stored settings
  • One to three switches
  • Timing
  • Code set
  • Plug-and-play (no specialized drivers)
  • Bus-powered for convenience and portability
  • Audio feedback

112
EasyLink Braille Keyboard
  • Bluetooth Brailler
  • 6 Braille keys
  • 3 function keys
  • Compact design
  • Highly portable
  • 10 hours of continuous use on battery

113
EZ Keys XP
  • Multiple layouts/entry methods for adapted
    computer access
  • Mouse
  • Switch access
  • Single
  • Multiple
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse emulation software
  • Morse Code
  • Built-in features
  • Text to speech
  • Word prediction
  • Abbreviation expansion

114
Jouse2
  • Morse code joystick
  • Control movement with mouth, chin, cheek, or
    tongue
  • Perform mouse clicks with the integrated sip and
    puff switch
  • Emulates mouse and keyboard activations
  • Four user-selectable versions of Morse Code

115
Lomak
  • Light operated mouse and keyboard
  • Handheld pointer
  • Head pointer
  • Plug-and-play
  • Requires little physical effort
  • Reduces accidental input through dual input
  • Selection confirmed by illumination
  • Confirm key to use
  • Equidistant, circular key arrangement

116
Programmable Keyboards
  • Features
  • Allow macros to be programmed
  • Allow computer input via traditional and
    non-traditional means
  • Letter-based
  • Word-based
  • Phrase-based
  • Picture-based
  • Highly customizable
  • User requirements
  • Activity requirements
  • Considerations
  • Time and planning is often required prior to use
  • Typically require specialized drivers (not
    plug-and-play)

117
DX1 Keyboard
  • 25 repositionable keys
  • Useful when vision, dexterity, or range of motion
    hinder use of other devices
  • Scalable add keys when needed
  • Macros
  • Programmable
  • Pre-built
  • Recordable

118
IntelliKeys Keyboard
  • Built-in stand for flat or angled use
  • Wide variety of overlays
  • Pre-programmed
  • Printable
  • Customized (with separate Overlay Maker software)
  • Keyguards available
  • Dual-switch inputs
  • Compatible with IntelliTools software and
    activities

119
X Keys Stick
  • Programmable software
  • Macro Works (PC)
  • iKey (Mac)
  • Sixteen keys
  • Repositionable
  • Backlight illumination for low-light use
  • Legends
  • Pre-cut for handwrite
  • Microsoft Templates

120
X-Keys Keypad
  • Programmable keypad
  • Works as an auxiliary keyboard
  • Two configurations
  • 20 keys (39 macros)
  • 58 key (115 macros)

121
Onscreen Keyboards
  • Features
  • Keyboard and text are on the same plane
  • Ability to change layout
  • Alternate input
  • Mouse click or dwell
  • Switch
  • Touchscreen
  • Integrated word prediction and abbreviation
    expansion
  • Considerations
  • Loss of real estate
  • Fatigue and repetitive stress
  • May require assistance with programming/set-up

122
Clicker 5
  • Support or develop writing skills in non
    writers
  • Allows for high level of structure
  • Option for textless composition
  • Universal Design
  • Quick, on-the-fly changes to cell content
  • Free, content-sharing site

123
CubeWriter
  • Customizable interface
  • Letters
  • Words
  • Numbers
  • Punctuation
  • Personalized word lists
  • Three modes of use
  • Type
  • Write
  • Teach

124
DiscoverScreen by Madentec
  • Text-to-speech
  • Point and click access
  • Letters
  • Words
  • Phrases
  • Adjunctive (works with all applications on a
    computer)

125
IntelliTools Classroom Suite
  • Fully customizable
  • Switch-ready
  • Scanning available
  • Compatible with IntelliKeys USB
  • Pre-made overlays
  • Overlay Maker software is required for custom
    overlays

126
KeyStrokes
  • Macintosh software
  • Five resizable layouts
  • Number pad
  • Function keys
  • Navigation
  • QWERTY
  • Alphabetic
  • Modifiable keys and background
  • Resizable
  • Dwell selection

127
Onscreen by IMG
  • Built-in supports
  • Word prediction
  • Calculators
  • Macros
  • Numeric layouts
  • International layouts
  • Dwell selection
  • Verbal Keys Feedback
  • Show/Hide key function
  • Smart Window repositioning
  • Scanning option available

128
REACH Interface Author by Applied Human Factor
  • 140 preprogrammed layouts
  • Customizable
  • Create-your-own
  • Key Size Button for quick resizing
  • Built-in supports
  • Word prediction
  • Scanning
  • Word use learning
  • Dwell selection
  • Smart Keys
  • Removes or deemphasizes unlikely combinations
  • AutoType for single-result combinations

129
ScreenDoors 2000 by Madentec
  • Built-in features
  • Word prediction
  • Abbreviation expansion
  • Three keyboard layouts
  • QWERTY
  • Alphabetic
  • Frequency of Use
  • Dwell selection

130
SofType
  • Five layouts
  • QWERTY
  • Alphabetic
  • Frequency of use
  • Numeric
  • KidKeys
  • Create-your-own
  • Resizable
  • Size
  • Font
  • Spacing
  • Built-in features
  • Word prediction
  • Dwell selection
  • Jitter control
  • Dragger single switch control of mouse
    functions
  • Macro programming

131
WiVik by Prentke Romich
  • 50 layouts in 22 languages
  • Fully customizable
  • Repositionable
  • Built-in features
  • Word prediction
  • Abbreviation expansion
  • Dwell selection
  • Scanning
  • Automatic
  • Step
  • Direct

132
Word Prediction
  • Features
  • Rate enhancement to reduce keystrokes
  • Real-time display of choices
  • Vertical
  • Horizontal
  • Dynamic
  • Access to specialized word lists as needed
  • Text-to-speech capability
  • Considerations
  • Adjunctive versus self-contained word prediction
  • Phonetic versus sequence based

133
CoWriter
  • Intelligent word prediction
  • Flexible spelling
  • Collected words
  • Predict Ahead
  • eWord Banks
  • Basic, personal, and topic dictionaries
  • Text-to-speech
  • Neo version available
  • Adjunctive use (may be used with a wide range of
    applications)

134
Cloze Pro
  • Type or paste prepared text
  • Remove words automatically or manually
  • Word or letter recurrence
  • Sequence
  • Pattern
  • Present words in a grid or pop-up list
  • Prompt with word shape, word, exposed letters
  • Useful when etext is available
  • Suitable for assessment and cloze-style tasks

135
Writing With Symbols 2000
  • Four writing environments
  • Symbol Processor
  • Word Processor
  • Grids for Printing
  • Grids for Writing
  • Customizable word lists
  • Useful as a teacher or student tool

136
Soothsayer
  • Text-to-speech
  • Adjunctive word prediction
  • AutoType Feature
  • Abbreviation Expansion
  • Sentence completion
  • Automated correction of common spelling errors

137
WordQ
  • Text-to-speech
  • Adjunctive word prediction
  • Usage examples for confusing words
  • Accommodates phonetic spelling attempts
  • Offers the option of speech recognition via SpeakQ

138
Other Input Devices
  • Mice
  • Trackballs
  • Joysticks
  • Number Pads
  • Switches and switch interfaces
  • Touchscreens
  • Head mice
  • Microphone and speech recognition

139
Other Input Devices
  • Mouse options
  • Switch adapted
  • Ergonomic
  • Handheld
  • Trackballs
  • Joysticks
  • Gaming
  • Roller Joystick
  • Roller Joystick Plus
  • Number Pads
  • Switches and Switch Interfaces
  • Crick USB
  • Don Johnston Switch Interface Pro
  • IntelliKeys USB Keyboard
  • Touchscreens monitors
  • Head Mouse
  • Tracker Pro

140
Speech Recognition
  • Utilizes a microphone to input text
  • Requires adequate speech skills
  • Requires topic and perform corrections/training
    significant executive functions to maintain a
  • May allow for reduced use of the hands when
    controlling the computer
  • Consider environment and task when implementing

141
Dragon Naturally Speaking, IBM Via Voice, Mac
Dictate
  • Skip Training option
  • Accuracy tool set
  • Works in an adjunct capacity to other software
  • Not suitable for discrete recognition
  • Specialized versions available (Dragon
    NaturallySpeaking)
  • Continuous recognition
  • Allows for keyboard-free text input
  • Support for adult and teen voices
  • Analyzes existing documents for vocabulary and
    style
  • Noise-cancelling headset or array microphone is
    recommended

142
SpeakQ
  • Customizable training
  • Discrete and continuous prediction modes
  • Speech feedback of recognized text
  • No verbal commands for control or correction
  • Integrated word prediction capability
  • Text-to-speech feedback
  • Allows for both keyboard and speech input
  • Server-level storage of student voice files

143
Scan and Read/Write Programs
  • Kurzweil 3000
  • Read and Write Gold
  • SOLO by Don Johnston
  • WYNN

144
Kurzweil 3000
  • Reading, writing, studying, and test taking
    software
  • Grades 3-12
  • Assists students who are unable to read fluently
    at grade level
  • Multisensory access to virtually any text or
    curriculum
  • Print
  • Electronic
  • Web-based documents
  • Helps develop study skills for independent
    learning
  • Used at all tier levels for RtI
  • Supports principles of (UDL) Universal Design for
    Learning
  • Web Licensing for access at home

145
Read and Write Gold
  • Reading, writing, studying, test taking software
  • Improves reading fluency and comprehension
  • Encourages independence and inclusion
  • Multisensory access to virtually any text or
    curriculum
  • Print
  • Electronic
  • Web-based documents
  • Used at all tier levels of RtI
  • Supports the Principles of UDL
  • Concurrent user licensing accessed from school or
    home

146
SOLO by Don Johnston
  • Literacy Suite combining 4 tools
  • Word Prediction
  • Graphic Organizer
  • Talking Word Processor
  • Text Reader
  • Assists in developing reading skills
  • Comprehend
  • Synthesize
  • Expand ideas
  • Edit
  • Assists in developing writing skills
  • Compose
  • Organize
  • Revise
  • Publish

147
WYNN Wizard
  • Reading, writing, studying, test taking software
  • Improves reading fluency and comprehension
  • Encourages independence and inclusion
  • Color-coded, rotating toolbars
  • File management
  • Visual and auditory presentation of text
  • Study Tools
  • Writing Aids
  • Internet Use
  • Multisensory access to virtually any text or
    curriculum
  • Print
  • Electronic
  • Web-based documents
  • Used at all tier levels of RtI

148
Electronic Aids to Daily Living(EADL)
149
Electronic Aids to Daily Living (EADL)
  • Basic EADLs
  • Provide alternative access to
  • Battery operated devices i.e. toy
  • Simple electronic devices i.e. fan
  • Provide limited control of an infrared receiving
    device
  • i.e. TV volume up
  • Access almost always by a switch
  • Multifunction EADLs
  • Provide control of a variety of devices such as
  • TV, DVD, Stereo, CD
  • Lights
  • Appliances i.e. blender, fan
  • Heating and AC
  • Door Openers
  • Electric Hospital Beds
  • Telephone

150
Electronic Aids to Daily Living (EADL)
  • Basic EADLs
  • Operated by direct connection via battery adapter
  • Individual can notch battery cover and insert
    battery adapter between battery and contacts
  • Operated by direct connection via pre-adapted
    device
  • Ablenet
  • Adaptivation
  • Enabling Devices
  • Can have intermittent control via
  • Switch latch
  • Switch latch and timer
  • Dual switch latch and timer
  • Choice switch latch and timer

151
How can EADLs be used?
  • To provide play
  • To meet educational goals
  • To increase independence
  • To increase social interaction with peers
  • To prepare/train for more advanced assistive
    technology

152
Electronic Aids to Daily Living(EADL)
  • Integrating into the curriculum
  • Play and Learn
  • http//www.ablenetinc.com/Store/tabid/205/Default.
    aspx?ItemCode200PAL
  • A 12-month motor-based preschool curriculum
    specifically developed for children of All
    abilities!
  • More than 300 pages of theme-based activities
    that are highly engaging, and relevant to young
    children.
  • Each activity includes a "Try Another Way" option
    that utilizes simple assistive technology so all
    students can participate, communicate and learn.

153
Case Studies
  • Case 1
  • Seating/positioning, mobility, accessibility
    w/classroom and different chairs, AAC,
    Intellitools, EADL i.e. games for recess,
    inclusion for class activities i.e. fan, blender
  • Case 2
  • Seating/positioning, AAC, access to curriculum,
    peer relations, EADL for computer and AAC access

154
Case Studies
  • Case 3
  • Kurzweil 3000, Fusion
  • Case 4
  • AAC, Clicker 5

155
Resources
  • Ablenet Presentations
  • Positioning for Access by Michelle Lange, OTR,
    ABDA, ATP
  • http//www.ablenetinc.com/Default.aspx?tabid241S
    upportDocId191
  • Switch Access and Assessment determining type
    and location by Michelle Lange, OTR, ABDA, ATP
  • http//www.ablenetinc.com/Default.aspx?tabid241S
    upportDocId192
  • Classroom Applications by Michelle Lange, OTR,
    ABDA, ATP
  • http//www.ablenetinc.com/Default.aspx?tabid241S
    upportDocId193

156
Resources
  • Closing the Gap
  • http//www.closingthegap.com/
  • Dynavox Technologies Implementation Toolkit
  • http//www.dynavoxtech.com/training/toolkit/
  • Enabling Devices Communicator Comparison Chart
  • http//enablingdevices.com/files/content/Compariso
    nChart.pdf
  • Scott A. Dougherty, AIU 3
  • http//www.aiu3.net/Level3.aspx?id3822

157
Websites
  • Adaptivation Photo Gallery of Ideas
    http//www.adaptivation.com/Adaptivation_Website/A
    daptivation_Photo_Album.html
  • Abledata http//www.abledata.com/
  • Georgia Project for Assistive Technology
    http//www.gpat.org/Index.aspx

158
Contact Information
  • Cricket Rizzo
  • MS, OTR/L, ATP
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Westmoreland Intermediate Unit 7
  • 102 Equity Drive
  • Greensburg, PA 15601
  • lrizzo_at_wiu.k12.pa.us
  • (724) 836-2460 x 2193 (VM)
  • Kendra Bittner
  • MEd, SoSE, ATAC
  • IDEA TaC, Assistive Technology
  • Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3
  • 475 East Waterfront Drive
  • Homestead, PA 15120-1144
  • kendra.bittner_at_aiu3.net
  • 412-394-5872

AIU Assistive Technology Home Page http//www.aiu3
.net/Level3.aspx?id1220
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