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The Cold War


Title: The Cold War Author: tnassivera Last modified by: tnassivera Created Date: 5/16/2003 11:36:25 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War

(No Transcript)
The Cold War
  • Europe
  • 1943-1960

  • Cold War describes the conflict between the
    USSR and the Western Powers in the period
    following WWII
  • Period of tension characterized by conflict at
    diplomatic, economic, and all levels short of
    actual armed conflict between the principals on
    either side.

  • Fear of spread of communism following WWI (Red
    Scare) still strong
  • After Battle of Stalingrad (Turning pt. of WWII)
    and D-Day thoughts began to turn to dealing with
    post-war realities

Every granule of Soviet soil must be stubbornly
defended to the last drop of blood.
  • Hitlers loss at Stalingrad in early 1943
    symbolized a shift in morale that pushed the
    Allies on the road to victory
  • 300,000 Germans 500,000 Russians died in the
    Stalingrad Streetfighting Academy

"We will defend the city or die".
Breakdown of wartime co-operation between the
  • Mutual Suspicion

Roosevelt had idealistic aims
four freedoms f. from want, f. of speech, f. of religious belief, and f. from fear
Stalin had more concrete aims
regaining of Russian territory lost in WWI, control over E.E. for SECURITY
  • Feb 4-11, 1945 Yalta Conference Churchill,
    FDR, and Stalin meet agree Stalin could control
    countries of Eastern Europe though Stalin
    promises to hold elections in occupied countries
    (Korea was divided at 38th II)
  • Roosevelt had to secure Russian assistance in
    ending war with Japan

Animosity Builds
  • The Soviets believed that the United States
    purposefully delayed starting a 2nd Front
    (Normandy) so as to allow the Russians to take
    the load of the fighting ensuring their

  • Eastern Europe provided the scene for conflict.
    How the question of Poland would be decided would
    set the precedent for Eastern European

Soviet Policy Toward Poland?
  1. Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939 extinguished Polish
  2. News leaked of Katyn Woods Massacre Soviets
    killed over 4000 Polish officers in 1940
  3. Stalin broke with Polish government-in-exile in
    London and supported a group of Polish Communists
    in Lublin in 1943
  4. Stalin did nothing to stop the Nazis from
    brutally suppressing the 1944 Warsaw Uprising,
    organized by the London Poles, despite the Red
    Army was on the outskirts of the capital
  5. Stalin claimed 1/3 of Poland after war

  • Allied supported gov. in exile in London
  • Soviet supports Lublin gov.
  • Truman takes a hard line refusing to lend money
    to Russia w/o free democratic elections in Poland
  • Russia refuses and announces 5-Year Plan
  • Results Poles would never elect a pro-Soviet
    government so Stalin imposed one.
  • Cost Permanently resentful Poland
  • America and Britain become untrusting of Stalin
  • FDR Stalin has broken everyone of his promises
    at Yalta.

Resentment Fosters
  • July 17 Aug. 2 Potsdam Conference
  • Truman, Churchill, and Stalin meet
  • Stalin cuts off East Germany

I can deal with Stalin. He is honest-but smart
as hell.
The turning point of WWII and the symbolic
beginning of the Cold War occurred at the Battle
  1. Lenigrad
  2. Moscow
  3. Stalingrad
  4. Berlin

Which was NOT a provision of the Yalta Conference?
  1. divided Germany into occupation zones
  2. guaranteed Poles a broader based democratic
  3. gave Soviet Union control of Eastern Europe
  4. Soviet Union promised to enter war against Japan

Stop babying the Soviets.
  • Picture a bright blue ball, just spinning,
    spinnin free,Dizzy with eternity.Paint it with
    a skin of sky,Brush in some clouds and sea,Call
    it home for you and me.A peaceful place or so it
    looks from space,A closer look reveals the human
    race.Full of hope, full of graceIs the human
    face,But afraid we may lay our home to waste.
  • There's a fear down here we can't forget.Hasn't
    got a name just yet.Always awake, always
    around,Singing ashes, ashes, all fall
    down.Ashes, ashes, all fall down.

  • Now watch as the ball revolvesAnd the nighttime
    falls.Again the hunt begins,Again the bloodwind
    calls.By and by, the morning sun will rise,But
    the darkness never goesFrom some men's eyes.It
    strolls the sidewalks and it rolls the
    streets,Staking turf, dividing up
    meat.Nightmare spook, piece of heat,It's you
    and me.You and me.
  • Click flash blade in ghetto night,Rudies
    looking for a fight.Rat cat alley, roll them
    bones.Need that cash to feed that jones.And the
    politicians throwin' stones,Singing ashes,
    ashes, all fall down.Ashes, ashes, all fall down.

  • BridgeCommissars and pin-stripe bossesRoll
    the dice.Any way they fall,Guess who gets to
    pay the price.Money green or proletarian
    gray,Selling guns 'stead of food today.
  • So the kids they danceAnd shake their
    bones,And the politicians throwin'
    stones,Singing ashes, ashes, all fall
    down.Ashes, ashes, all fall down.
  • Heartless powers try to tell usWhat to
    think.If the spirit's sleeping, Then the flesh
    is inkHistory's page will thus be carved in
    stone.And we are here, and we are on our ownOn
    our own.On our own.On our own.

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Germany to be divided into zones of occupation
Stalin Stands Strong on Eastern Europe
Satellite Nations Countries Dominated by the
Soviet Union
An Iron Curtain
  • 1946 Winston Churchill, recently defeated as
    Prime Minister by Clement Attlee, gave a speech
  • A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately
    lighted by the Allied victories. . . . From
    Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic,
    an iron curtain descended across the continent.
  • In the West, Iron Curtain becomes a symbol of

The Soviets extended their sphere of influence in
Eastern Europe by establishing
  1. doctrines
  2. communism
  3. satellite governments
  4. dictatorships

What will Americas Policy be Following the War?
  • Advice from Advisors
  • Ambassador Harriman certain elements around
    Stalin misinterpreted our generosity and our
    desire to cooperate as an indication of softness,
    so that the Soviet government could do as it
    pleased without risking challenge from the United
    States. . We must stand firm.
  • They need American economic aid to reconstruct
    their country. We may use this a carrot to get
    what we want.

  • Advice from George Kennan Be realistic and
    recognize both sides have a sphere of influence.
    We should accept this but contain further
    spreading of their ideology.

  • Advice from others
  • Sec of War Stimson Must take Russian need for
    security serious
  • Sec of Navy James Forrestal We had better have
    a showdown with them now rather than later.
  • George Marshall Lets keep our ties with Russia
    open until after we defeat Japan.
  • Admiral William Leahy Dont expect the Soviets
    to sponsor free elections

Long-term, patient but firm and vigilant
containment of Russian expansive
tendencies. - George F. Kennan
  • Containment policy to stop the spread of
    communism that underlined all US policies
    following WWII

Making Containment Work!
The United States met the Soviet expansion
attempt with a policy of designed to limit the
spread of communism.
  1. Berlin Airlift
  2. Containment
  3. Satellite government
  4. Iron Curtain

The United Nations
Collective Security
Established in 1945 to secure peace
General Assembly Each member nation had 1 rep.
  • Security Council had 5 permanent members (U.S.,
    G.B., France, Soviet Union, and China) each with
    the power of veto

Stalin had his eyes on the Med. and the South
  1. Keep Troops in North Iran (they were stationed
    there during WWII to protect the oil from

2. Obtain base in Turkey to control the Straits
3. Obtain base in formally Italian controlled
North Africa to control Eastern Med.
Stalin Had Gone Too Far!!!
  • Truman and Atlee denied the demand for Turkish
    bases while moving the U.S. 6th Fleet into the
    Eastern Med.
  • Brought the question of N. Iran to the UN
    Security Council

What will Stalins reaction be?
Reaction to Great Britain declaring they could
not support Greece and Turkey
  • It now must be the policy of the United States
    to support free peoples who are resisting
    attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by
    outside pressures. We must assist free peoples
    to work out their own destinies in their own way.

Truman Doctrine 1947
400 million in economic aid to Greece and Turkey
Truman hoped to stop spread of communism
Soviet P.O.V.
1947, George C. Marshall visited Stalin in Moscow
  • All the way back to Washington, he talked of
    the importance of finding some initiative to
    prevent the complete breakdown of Western Europe.

Marshall Plan - 1947
  • Massive Aid package that offered food and
    economic assistance to European countries
  • To strengthen democracies

Stalins Reaction
Yugoslavia Josef Tito breaks from Stalin,
though still communist
  • The U.S. sent economic assistance
  • The Yugoslav dictator might be a
    son-of-a-bitch, the new Secretary of State Dean
    Acheson acknowledged in 1949, but he was now our

Berlin Airlift
  • Stalins resentment of Western countries
    rebuilding of Germany led him to caught off
    Berlin from supplies
  • U.S. airlifted food and supplies to people

NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact
  • 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    formed as a military alliance pledged to help one
    another if one of them was attacked
  • 1955 Warsaw Pact formed military alliance of
    USSR and its satellites of Eastern Europe

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) defunded
  • 1947 National Security Act establishes the CIA
  • - coordinate the nations intelligence
    activities and correlating, evaluating and
    disseminating intelligence affecting national

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Which of the following was NOT a part of the
Marshall Plan?
  1. Promote European economic recovery
  2. stop the spread of communism
  3. cede control of Eastern Europe to Soviets
  4. aid to US economy by rebuilding European trade
    and markets

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How did the Soviet victory at the Battle of
Stalingrad alter the foreign policy thinking of
the United States?
  • From that point on in the war, Roosevelt and
    Truman had to design foreign policy around not
    just defeating Germany and Japan but on dealing
    with Russia as well.

History Connection
When did the Cold War Start?
  • Historians debate the true start of the Cold
    War, but through applying our knowledge we could
    argue the following
  • With the dropping of the Atomic Bomb
  • With the defeat of Germany in Europe
  • With the defeat of the Germans at Stalingrad
    in 1943

Which one do you think?
History Connection
  • Remember, Stalin was allied with the Nazis at
    the beginning of the war Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939
    and only when Hitler turned on him did Russia
    join the Allies.

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  • Do not worry, he reassured his foreign
    minister, Molotov. We can implement it in our
    own way later.

The Policy Makers
  • Consider the following question
  • What policy will the Soviet Union enforce in the
    country of Poland?
  • Use information from your knowledge of the Yalta
    Conference and Russias previous actions toward
    Poland to support your decision.
  • Share your decision with your partner.
  • Share your decision with the class.

Stalin was told on July 24 of A-Bomb test at
Russians Upset that Allies Received 2/3 of
Germany but Sink Their Own Ship
  • Problems arose with Soviet treatment of East
    Germans to alienate all Germans
  • Extracted reparations on an indiscriminate scale
  • Raped over 2 million German women
  • Stalin believed Germans would eventually seek to
    unite under communism as Marxian worker
    revolution came to fruition.

The Soviet Point of View of the Truman Doctrine
Stalin found his military overstretched and
ordered a quiet withdrawal from Iran
Offered to Soviet Union Stalin saw it as trick
Marshall Plan