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The Mole and mole conversions

A mole is a counting unit.Just like

- eggs equals a dozen eggs
- pencils equals one gross of pencils
- seconds equals one minute
- 500 sheets of paper equals one ream

One mole equals 6.022 x 1023 particles

- So one mole of eggs would be 6.022 x 1023 eggs
- One mole of pencils would be 6.022 x 1023 pencils
- And so on...

Where did the mole come from?

- The unit, called the mole (or mol), is defined as

the number of atoms in exactly 12g of the

carbon-12 isotope - The number of particles in one mole, 6.022 x

1023, is known as Avogadros constant or number. - This was named after Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856)

whose ideas were crucial to the early development

in Chemistry

The Mole

- 1 dozen cookies
- 1 mole of cookies
- 1 dozen cars
- 1 mole of cars
- 1 dozen Al atoms
- 1 mole of Al atoms
- Note that the is

always the same, but the is

very different! - Mole is abbreviated mol

6.022 x 1023 is a very large number!

- If we did not use scientific notation to write

out 6.022 x 1023, we would write out 6022 with 20

zeros after it. - Why dont we try it.

Imagine that we had a mole of gumballs.

- If all 6 billion people on Earth were to do

nothing but count the gumballs in one mole at the

rate of one gumball per second, it would take

over 3 million years to count all the gumballs!!

Just How Big is a Mole?

- Enough soda cans to cover the surface of the

earth to a depth of over 200 miles. - If you had Avogadro's number of unpopped popcorn

kernels, and spread them across the United States

of America, the country would be covered in

popcorn to a depth of over 9 miles. - If we were able to count atoms at the rate of 10

million per second, it would take about 2 billion

years to count the atoms in one mole.

What is all of this used for?

- Avogadros constant can be used to convert an

amount of moles into the equivalent number of

atoms or grams. - This conversion is similar to changing 8 dozen

eggs into the number of individual eggs. - Although this maybe easy to calculate quickly in

your head or on your calculator, the following

strategy will make it easier for you later in

this Chapter.

Mole Problem Solving StrategyExample How many

eggs are in 8 dozen?

- 1. List what you know. (What was given in the

problem?) - 2. Setup the problem. Dont forget your units

and show every step. - 3. NOW, and only now, use your calculator to

verify the answer.

Looks easy right Now you try one How many

pencils are in 9 gross?

- 1. List what you know. (What was given in the

problem?) - 2. Setup the problem. Dont forget your units

and show every step. - 3. NOW, and only now, use your calculator to

verify the answer.

This strategy can also be used with the mole

concept.How many atoms are in 3.5 moles of

copper?

- 1.The procedure is the same. List what you know.

- 2. Notice that 3.5 moles is in the numerator and

then 1 mol is in the denominator. This allows

you to cross out units. - 3. Now calculate the answer. Does it make sense?

You can also convert from atoms to moles

YEAH!!How many moles are in 3.01 x 1023 atoms

of Sodium?

Its your turn again!How many atoms are in 7.5

mol of Argon?

- Before you start throwing down random numbers.

Think about the problem. Should the final answer

be bigger or smaller than 6.022 x 1023? - Since 1 mole is 6.022 x 1023 atoms, 7.5 moles has

to be a larger number of atoms. - Thinking through the problem before you start it

will allow you know if you solved the problem

correctly.

Now calculate How many atoms are in 7.5 mol of

Argon?

Now in small groups try the following practice

problems

- 1. How many atoms are present in 3.7 mol of

sodium? - 2. How many atoms are present in 155 mol of

arsenic? - 3. How many moles of xenon is 5.66 x 1026 atoms?

Molar Mass

- The Mass of 1 mole (in grams)
- Equal to the numerical value of the average

atomic mass (get from periodic table) - 1 mole of C atoms 12.0 g
- 1 mole of Mg atoms 24.3 g
- 1 mole of Cu atoms 63.5 g

Other Names Related to Molar Mass

- Molecular Mass/Molecular Weight If you have a

single molecule, mass is measured in amus

instead of grams. But, the molecular mass/weight

is the as

1 mole of molecules. Only the units are

different. (This is the beauty of Avogadros

Number!) - Formula Mass/Formula Weight Same goes for

compounds. But again, the

. Only the units are different. - THE POINT You may hear all of these terms which

mean the SAME NUMBER just different units

Molar Mass of Molecules and Compounds

- Mass in grams of 1 mole equal numerically to the

sum of the atomic masses - 1 mole of CaCl2 g/mol
- 1 mole Ca x g/mol
- 2 moles Cl x g/mol

g/mol CaCl2 - 1 mole of N2O4

Learning Check

- Prozac, C17H18F3NO, is a widely used

antidepressant that inhibits the uptake of

serotonin by the brain. Find its molar mass.

Converting Moles and Grams

- Aluminum is often used for the structure of

light-weight bicycle frames. How many grams of

Al are in 3.00 moles of Al? - 3.00 moles Al ? g Al

- 1. Molar mass of Al
- 2. Conversion factors for Al
- 3. Setup
- Answer

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