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Cradle of Democracy

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Cradle of Democracy Greek Renaissance Return of Maritime Trade Importation of Writing: Phoenician Alphabet Both have 22 characters Both semitic languages Similarity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cradle of Democracy


1
Cradle of Democracy
2
(No Transcript)
3
Greek Renaissance
  • Return of Maritime Trade
  • Importation of Writing Phoenician Alphabet
  • Both have 22 characters
  • Both semitic languages
  • Similarity with Hebrew
  • Greek Poets Homer, Hesiod

4
Cultural Identity
  • Around 800 BC a growing sense of a single
    cultural identity
  • The had no political unity, no common aim, and
    not much in the way of shared life. They had
    different kings, different landscapes, but they
    all spoke some variation of Greek. (Bauer)

5
Olympics
  • First Olympics in 776 BC
  • Every four years in Olympia, not Mt. Olympus
  • In honor of the God Zeus (united by worship of
    the same gods)
  • Sacred truce, safe travel guaranteed by Zeus
  • Foot races and chariot racing originally

6
Olympic Events
  • Eventually other events including a race in full
    armor
  • Only event where clothes were wore
  • Background racer tripping on loin cloth
  • No women allowed
  • Included a no-hold barred wrestling event
  • Except for eye gouges, spitting, and biting
  • Spartans allowed those too

7
To the victor goes the spoils
  • Olive wreath and lifelong glory
  • Storage jar of olive oil
  • In Athens your received room and board for the
    rest of your life
  • Nero always won
  • Loved them and insisted they be held every time
    he was in Greece
  • Declared that no one could win chariot race but
    him
  • Nero singing (religious festival) avoidance of
    people

8
All god things must come to an end
  • Banned by Theodocius in 394 AD
  • Pagan festival
  • Revived in 1896 AD
  • Olympics one of four pan-Hellenic games
  • Olympic Games - the most important and
    prestigious of the Games, held every four years
    near Elis, in honour of Zeus the prize was a
    wreath of wild olive
  • Pythian Games - held every four years, near
    Delphi, in honour of Apollo the prize was a
    wreath of laurel
  • Nemean Games - held every two years, near Nemea,
    also in honour of Zeus the prize was a wreath of
    wild celery
  • Isthmian Games - held every two years, near
    Corinth, in honour of Poseidon the prize was a
    wreath of pine
  • One each year
  • Professional athletes
  • Odes written by Pindar to honor winners

9
The Polis
  • City State
  • Community not the territory
  • Populations s Citizens X 6
  • Citizens

10
Three Types of Rule
  • Basileus (king) early kings fairly powerful
  • Oligarchy
  • Archons (Ten year terms changed to one year
    terms)
  • Tyrants

11
Eventual Layers of Athenian Government
  • 9 Ruling Archons
  • Eponymous Archon - gave his name to the
    government
  • Polemarch (military commander)
  • Archon Basileus (chief justice)
  • 6 Justices
  • Council of 400/500 (drawn by lot from upper and
    middle class citizens 50 from each deme)
  • Council of the Areiopagos (former Archons)
  • Met on the Hill of Ares
  • Assembly (every citizen)

12
Dont be an idiot (?d??t??)
  • Someone who wasnt willing to participate in
    public life

13
Developments in Rule (cont.)
  • Establishment of written code (laws)
  • Draco
  • Murder punished by death
  • Adultery punished by death
  • Stealing a grapefruit punished by death
  • Even petty crimes deserve death, and I cannot
    find a more serous penalty for the greater
    crimes.

14
Solon
  • Known as one of the seven wisest men of antiquity
  • Archon
  • Revoked the laws of Draco
  • Made the Athenians promise that they wouldnt
    revoke his laws for at least ten years without
    his approval.
  • Then, he went on a ten year trip around the
    world.
  • Some laws very unpopular such as forgiveness of
    debt, land redistribution, etc.

15
Solon Visits Croesus
16
Political Parties
  • Men of the Coast (liked Solons reforms)
  • Men of the Plain (wanted to return power to the
    rich)
  • Men of the Hills (radical left-wing populists)

17
Peisistratus
  • Leader of the Men of the Hills
  • In 560 BC faked an attack on himself and used
    bodyguard to seize control of Athens
  • Attempted a political alliance with Megacles
  • Ridiculous trick
  • Finally used military force to seize power

18
Ostracism
  • 10 Year Exile
  • 6000 votes on ostraka (pottery shards)
  • Kept property
  • Used when someone became too powerful

19
Cylon
  • In 632 attempted to become a tyrant

20
Cleisthenes
  • Reforms in 508 BC
  • Given credit for inventing Democracy
  • Demos people kratíapower
  • Power to the people
  • All men able to serve on juries and hold offices.
  • Isonomeia equality under the law
  • Dont be an ?d??t??

21
Culture - Hesiod
  • Some writings similar to Benjamin Franklins
    Poor Richards Almanac
  • Celebrates the pleasures of agriculture
  • Lucky and unlucky days
  • Practical advice
  • Advice on sailing trade

22
  • Especially be cordial to your neighbor, for if
    trouble comes at home your neighbor is there,
    near at hand, while kinsmen take some time to arm
    themselves. It is a curse to have a worthless
    neighbor, equally a good one is a blessing. He
    who is so blessed possesses something of great
    worth. No cow of yours will stray away if you
    have great neighbors.

23
  • Shun evil profit, for dishonest gain is just the
    same as failure.

24
  • Give is a lovely girl, but Grab is only bad and
    she gives only death.

25
  • Too much mistrust and too much trust can both be
    ruinous.

26
  • If in your heart you pray for riches, do these
    things, pile work upon work and still more work.

27
  • Dont let a woman wiggling her behind and
    flattering and coaxing take you in, she wants
    your barn. A woman is just a cheat.
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