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CHAPTER 5: ANCIENT GREECE

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CHAPTER 5: ANCIENT GREECE 1750 B.C. 133 B.C. Section 1: Early People of Aegean Europa- daughter of the king of Phoenicia married the king of Crete. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 5: ANCIENT GREECE


1
CHAPTER 5ANCIENT GREECE
  • 1750 B.C. 133 B.C.

2
Section 1 Early People of Aegean
  • Europa- daughter of the king of Phoenicia married
    the king of Crete.
  • Continent of Europe bares her name.
  • Crete-not much is known about this civilization.
  • Called the Minoans after Minos, legendary king of
    Crete (1750-1500 B.C.).

3
  • Success based on trade
  • Acquired ideas and technology from Egypt and
    Mesopotamia.

4
  • Knossos palace in the empire.
  • Included many religious shrines? a sacred place
    like a chapel or an alter.
  • Walls were covered with colorful fresco? colorful
    painting on wet plaster.

5
  • Around 1400 the Minoans vanished.
  • Possible reasons
  • Volcanic eruption
  • Earthquake
  • Tidal wave
  • Invaders-the most possible reason
  • These invaders were the Myceneans

6
Mycenaeans 1400 -1200 B.C.
  • Indo-European people
  • Conquered Greece and Crete
  • They were sea traders
  • Passed on Egyptian Mesopotamian influences to
    later Greeks.
  • Developed numerous city-states in Greece.

7
Trojan War1250 B.C.
  • May have started due to economic rivalries
    between Mycenae and Troy (trading city in Asia
    Minor).

8
Legend
  • Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen, wife of a Greek
    King.
  • Mycenaeans sailed to Troy to rescue her.
  • War started and lasted 10 years.
  • Troy would be burned down by the Mycenaeans.

9
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10
  • Mycenaeans would collapse later after taking
    over Troy.
  • Dorians would move in the area.
  • Between 1100 800 B.C. Greek civilization took a
    step back.
  • People forgot skill and did little writing.
  • Except for two epic poems the Iliad and the
    Odyssey.
  • Both written about the time of the Trojan War, by
    a blind poet named Homer.
  • Epics- narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds

11
  • These two epics tell us about the VALUES of the
    ancient Greeks.

12
Section 2 Rise of Greek City-States
  • Mediterranean and Aegean Seas were central to
    development of Greek civilizations.
  • Greece is part of the Balkan Peninsula
  • Mountains divided the peninsula into isolated
    valleys.
  • Small city-states arose political units made up
    of a city and the surrounding lands.
  • Greeks defended their city-states.

13
  • The seas provided safe harbors for ships.
  • Greeks expanded the Phoenicians alphabet, which
    became the basis of all western alphabets.

14
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15
  • 750 B.C. population growth forced people to
    move. Greek colonies took root from Spain to
    Egypt.
  • Polis Greek city-states that were the
    fundamental political units in ancient Greece.

16
  • Built on two levels
  • ?Fortified hilltop was the acropolis. Temples
    dedicated to gods and goddesses were built there.
  • ?Flatter ground walled the main city with its
    marketplace, theater, public buildings, and
    homes.
  • Men spent time debating issues and there were
    festivals for gods and goddesses.

17
  • From 750 B.C. there were many different ways of
    ruling
  • Monarchy? a government in which a king or queen
    exercises central power.
  • Aristocracy? rule by a landholding elite.
  • Oligarchy? power is in the hands of a small,
    powerful elite, usually from the business class.

18
Warfare
  • Shift from bronze to iron weapons
  • Hoplites? an item of armor or equipment.
  • Formed large phalanx? a massive formation of
    heavily armed foot soldiers.
  • Ordinary people were defending the city-states.

19
Sparta
  • Located on the Peloponnesus Peninsula
  • Defeated Mycenaeans became helots in the Spartan
    army.
  • Helots outnumbered the Spartans 8 to 1
  • Maintained an aristocracy
  • Didnt develop trade or industry just agriculture
  • Spartans isolated themselves from other Greeks

20
Emphasized military
  • Spartan boys left home at age 7, strict military
    education, no shoes, hard beds.
  • At age 20 they could marry, but live in the
    barracks for 10 more years, and eat there 40 more
    years. Age 30 joined the assembly.
  • Spartan girls underwent physical training to
    prepare them for motherhood. Ran, wrestled, and
    played sports. Their role was more than other
    city-states.
  • Sickly children were abandoned to die.

21
  • Spartans emphasized a totalitarian philosophy
    the individual exists to serve the state.

22
Athens
  • North of Sparta
  • Under aristocracy wealthy got wealthy while the
    ordinary people suffered.
  • Simple professions were losing money.
  • Farmers some had to sell land some sold
    themselves and their families to pay their debts.

23
Athens shifted to a democracyAfter clashes with
aristocrats and common people Athens jumped to
their democracy.
  • Only free males counted as citizens
  • Women, slaves, and foreigners were excluded
  • Women had little to do with city life
  • Girls received no education
  • Boys attended school, received military training,
    athletic competition
  • Boys were encouraged to explore their options

24
  • Solon (594 BC)- given full power to run the
    government.
  • Fighting broke out again and Solon left
  • Tyrants soon won support
  • Pisistatus became the 1st tyrant in Athens (546
    BC)
  • Helped the peasants
  • Cleisthenes- set up the Council of 500- proposed
    laws and counseled the assembly.
  • Made the assembly a genuine legislature.

25
Forces of Unity
  • Spoke the same language
  • Common festivals
  • Prayed the same gods
  • Same ancient heroes
  • Temples and festivals
  • Non-Greeks-outsiders were called Barbarians?
    people that didnt speak Greek.

26
  • Greeks were polytheistic.
  • Gods lived on Mt. Olympus
  • Zeus-king of the Gods.
  • Aphrodite-goddess of love
  • Ares-god of war
  • Athena-goddess of wisdom, also Athens was named
    after her.
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