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The Roaring Twenties

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Title: The Roaring Twenties


1
The Roaring Twenties
  • Unit 2
  • HUSH 111B

2
The Roaring 20s
  • American society changed in many ways following
    World War I.
  • The country withdrew into isolationism and called
    for worldwide disarmament
  • Conflict existed between Americans ready to adopt
    new manners and new ways and those who tried to
    resist the forces of change.

3
Postwar Adjustments
  • Economic Adjustments
  • Wartime demand dropped
  • Soldiers faced unemployment
  • Lower demand
  • Higher cost of living
  • Labor Unrest increased
  • Discrimination against blacks

4
A Republican Decade
  • Warren G. Harding
  • Elected in 1920
  • Scandals
  • Died August 3 1923
  • Calvin Coolidge
  • Silent Cal
  • Laissez Faire Capitalism
  • The business of the American people is business
  • Herbert Hoover 1928
  • Led to Depression

5
Republican Foreign Policy
  • Harding
  • Isolationism (leads to nativism)
  • Disarmament reducing the size and strength of
    the military
  • Limiting Immigration Quota for 350,000 people
    per year to immigrate
  • Coolidge
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
  • Aristide Briand and Frank. B. Kellogg signed the
    Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris).
  • The treaty outlawed war
  • The US Senate ratified it in 1929 and over the
    next few years forty-six nations signed a similar
    agreement committing themselves to peace.

6
Political Scandals
  • Warren G. Harding
  • 1921-1923
  • Worst President in the history of the U.S.
  • Hardings cabinet was extremely corrupt
  • Several accused of bribery
  • Never linked directly to Harding however he was
    hurt by scandal
  • Appointed former President Taft as Chief Justice
  • Died in office in 1923
  • Replaced by Coolidge

7
Calvin Coolidge
  • Succeeded to the Presidency upon the death of
    Warren G. Harding.
  • He was elected in his own right in 1924, and
    gained a reputation as a small-government
    conservative.
  • Believed the League of Nations did not serve
    American interests, and he did not advocate
    membership in it.

8
More Political Scandals
  • Teapot Dome Scandal
  • Worst of the scandals
  • Involved Hardings cabinet and illegal drilling
    rights in an oil field in CA known as Tea Pot
    Dome

9
Nativism
  • refers to a widespread attitude in a society of a
    rejection of alien persons or culture
  • Believed immigrants could not be fully loyal to
    the US
  • Did not like Jews, Catholics, or Orthodox
    Christians
  • City problems (slums,corruption) were blamed on
    the immigrants
  • Immigrants meant competition for jobs
  • Believed they carried dangerous political ideas
  • Socialism, Anarchy, etc.
  • Most of them came from very politically unstable
    countries

10
The Red Scare
  • The Red Scare
  • Russian Revolution
  • Bolsheviks
  • Vladimir Lenin
  • Communism
  • Renewed Nativism
  • Palmer Raids
  • Anti-Immigration Laws
  • American Civil Liberties Union
  • Sacco and Vanzetti

11
Public Opinion
12
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13
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14
Reasons to Fear- Would Communism Spread??
The government promises to create revolutions in
other countries and spread communism
The government owns all land and property
Communism in the Soviet Union
A single political party controls the government
Individuals have no rights that the government is
legally bound to respect
15
  • Attorney General Palmer became convinced that
    Communist agents were planning to overthrow the
    American government
  • Thirty-eight bombs sent to leading politicians by
    anarchists
  • Palmer recruited J. Edgar Hoover as his special
    assistant and together they used the Espionage
    Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to launch
    a campaign against radicals and left-wing
    organizations.
  • The public lost interest by spring of 1920 as one
    Palmer- predicted terrorist attack after another
    failed to occur

16
Schenck v United States
  • During World War I, Charles T. Schenck produced a
    pamphlet maintaining that the military draft was
    illegal
  • Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes
    rejected the argument that the pamphlet was
    protected by the First Amendment.
  • He argued that the government is justified in
    silencing free speech only if there is a clear
    and present danger to the nation

17
Labor Unrest
  • Communist Plot
  • 1919 Bombings?
  • Because of the violence, Economic Boom, and
    increased wages Union membership declined from 5
    million to 3.4 million in 1920
  • One of the key social tensions of the era
  • 1919 4 million workers held 3600 strikes
  • Most strikes were beat down by federal authorities

18
Strikes
  • Steelworkers 1919
  • Gary, Indiana
  • US Steel Corporation used force to break the
    strike
  • 18 dead, 100s seriously wounded
  • federal troops occupied the city for several
    months.
  • United Mine Workers Coal Strike
  • Boston Police Strike
  • (1919), police commissioner refused to recognize
    a policemen's union.
  • Governor Calvin Coolidge finally called out the
    state militia to maintain order in the city,
    declaring "There is no right to strike against
    the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.".

19
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20
Public Opinion
21
Public Opinion
22
Prohibition- the "noble experiment"
  • National prohibition of alcohol (1920-33)--the
    was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption,
    solve social problems, reduce the tax burden
    created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve
    health and hygiene in America.
  • 1919
  • 18th Amendment
  • Volstead Act
  • 1933
  • 21st Amendment-
  • Blaine Act

23
Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages
(Gallons of Pure Alcohol) 1910-1929.
24
Science vs. Religion DebateScopes Monkey Trial
  • Creationism v Evolution
  • John T. Scopes, TN Teacher taught Darwins Origin
    of Species to students
  • Lawyer for ACLU
  • Clarence Darrow
  • Lawyer for Creationists
  • William Jennings Bryant
  • Creationists won case, but lost battle of public
    opinion

25
Rising Intolerance
  • Nationwide Racial Discrimination
  • Yellow Peril
  • African Americans in the North
  • Anti Semitic business practices
  • Mexicans
  • KKK Violence
  • The New Ku Klux Klan
  • White, Protestant, native born, Americans
  • Hiram Wesley Evans Imperial Wizard
  • Over 4 million member in 1924

26
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Two Italian immigrants wrongly accused of murder
    and robbery
  • They were convicted and executed for the crime
    even though another man confessed
  • Many observers believed that their conviction
    resulted from prejudice against them as Italian
    immigrants and because they held radical
    political beliefs
  • Fifty years later, on 23rd August, 1977, the
    Governor of Massachusetts, issued a proclamation,
    effectively absolving the two men of the crime

27
A Consumer Economy
  • Buying On Credit
  • Age of Electricity
  • Ford and the Automobile
  • Effects on the rest of the economy
  • Industrial growth

28
Henry Ford
  • Was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and
    father of modern assembly lines used in mass
    production.
  • His introduction of the Model T automobile
    revolutionized transportation and American
    industry.

Any customer can have a car painted any color
that he wants so long as it is black".
http//www.macomb.k12.mi.us/wq/alvaro/video.htm
29
Society in the 1920s
30
The Flapper and Changes for Women
  • Style
  • bobbed their Hair
  • Wore makeup and shorter dresses
  • Smoked and drank in public
  • Work and Politics
  • Women moved into office, sales, and professional
    jobs
  • Voted in local and national elections
  • Elected to political office

31
Important Roaring 20s Demographics
  • The Great Migration
  • The movement of African-Americans from the South
    to the North in search of jobs and equality
  • Immigration changes
  • Less from Europe
  • More from Canada and Mexico
  • Development of barrios
  • Growth of Suburbs
  • Trolley lines brought commuters to work in the
    cities

32
Important Roaring 20s Demographics
  • The Great Migration
  • The movement of African-Americans from the South
    to the North in search of jobs and equality
  • Immigration changes
  • Less from Europe
  • More from Canada and Mexico
  • Development of barrios
  • Growth of Suburbs
  • Trolley lines brought commuters to work in the
    cities

33
Trolley Line in Inman ParkAtlanta, GA
34
American Heroes
  • Charles Lucky Lindy Lindberg
  • Amelia Earhart
  • Jack Dempsey
  • Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig
  • Gertrude Ederle
  • Helen Wills (Moody)

35
Mass Media
  • Newspapers
  • Between 1920 and 1930circulation rose from 27.8
    million to almost 40 million
  • Motion Pictures
  • Moviemaking became the 4th largest business in
    the country
  • 1922 40 million viewers per week, 1930, 90
    million per week
  • Radio
  • NBC
  • Medium for the masses
  • United the countryWhy?

36
The Harlem Renaissance
  • In the early 1900s, particularly in the 1920s,
    African-American literature, art, music, dance,
    and social commentary began to flourish in
    Harlem, a section of New York City.
  • This African-American cultural movement became
    known as "The New Negro Movement" and later as
    the Harlem Renaissance.

37
Background
  • Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was the
    center of the African American political,
    cultural, and artistic movement in the 1920s and
    1930s.
  • The Harlem Renaissance emerged in a time of
    social and intellectual upheaval in the African
    American community.

38
Causes
  • The Great Migration, a movement of hundreds of
    thousands of African Americans from rural to
    urban areas was a factor
  • A growing middle class also helped foster the
    growth
  • Increasing numbers of educated and socially
    conscious African Americans

Dust to Dust by Jacob Lawrence
39
Art, Music, and Literature
  • More than a literary movement, the Harlem
    Renaissance exalted the unique culture of
    African-Americans and redefined African-American
    expression.
  • African-Americans were encouraged to celebrate
    their heritage.

40
Langston Hughes
  • Was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short
    story writer, and newspaper columnist.
  • Hughes is quoted as saying that in his work he
    confronted racial stereotypes, protested social
    conditions, and expanded African Americas image
    of itself
  • He considered himself a peoples poet who
    sought to reeducate both audience and artist by
    lifting the theory of the black aesthetic into
    reality

41
The Negro Speaks of Riversby Langston Hughes
  • I've known rivers
  • I've known rivers ancient as the world and older
    than the
  • flow of human blood in human veins.
  • My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
  • I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
  • I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to
    sleep.
  • I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids
    above it.
  • I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe
    Lincoln
  • went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy
  • bosom turn all golden in the sunset.
  • I've known rivers
  • Ancient, dusky rivers.
  • My soul has grown deep like the rivers.

42
American Art in the 1920s
  • Art movements included the modernist movement,
    abstract expressionism, surrealism, dadism, and
    landscapes.

Georgia OKeefe
43
Edward Hopper
44
The Jazz Age
  • Jazz Clubs
  • 500 clubs in Harlem alone
  • Cotton Club, Connies Inn, The Saratoga Club
  • Jelly Roll Morton Band, Louis Armstrong
    (Satchmo), Duke Ellington

45
Duke Ellington
  • Born Edward Kennedy Ellington, Duke Ellington was
    one of the founding fathers of jazz music.
  • He started playing piano at the age of seven, and
    by the time he was 15, he was composing.
  • A pianist, bandleader, arranger, and composer,
    Ellington and his band played together for 50
    years.
  • Some of Ellington's most famous songs include
    "Don't Get Around Much Anymore," "Sophisticated
    Lady" and "In a Sentimental Mood."

46
George Gershwin
  • George Gershwin was an American composer who
    wrote most of his vocal and theatrical works in
    collaboration with his elder brother lyricist Ira
    Gershwin.
  • Gershwin is known for his contributions to the
    world of jazz known as Tin Pan Alley
  • His most famous pieces include the lyrics from
    Porgy and Bess and Rhapsody in Blue

47
F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Regarded as one of the greatest American writers
    of the 20th century.
  • Fitzgerald was the self-styled spokesman of the
    "Lost Generation", Americans born in the 1890s
    who came of age during World War I.
  • He finished four novels, left a fifth unfinished,
    and wrote dozens of short stories that treat
    themes of youth, despair, and age.
  • The Great Gatsby
  • This Side of Paradise

Fitzgerald and his wife, Zelda
48
Marcus Garvey and Black Pride
  • Alternative solutions to accepting white
    supremacy
  • Marcus Garvey-
  • the first man to give millions of Negroes a
    sense of dignity and destiny MLK
  • Black Pride
  • Published the Negro World
  • Black Eagle Flying Corps
  • Empower blacks worldwide toward economic,
    religious, psychological, and cultural
    independence
  • Believed in racial separatism

49
Thats it for the 20s
  • Read your chapters!!!
  • Test on Friday!!!
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