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The Roaring Twenties


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Title: The Roaring Twenties

The Roaring Twenties
  • Unit 2
  • HUSH 111B

The Roaring 20s
  • American society changed in many ways following
    World War I.
  • The country withdrew into isolationism and called
    for worldwide disarmament
  • Conflict existed between Americans ready to adopt
    new manners and new ways and those who tried to
    resist the forces of change.

Postwar Adjustments
  • Economic Adjustments
  • Wartime demand dropped
  • Soldiers faced unemployment
  • Lower demand
  • Higher cost of living
  • Labor Unrest increased
  • Discrimination against blacks

A Republican Decade
  • Warren G. Harding
  • Elected in 1920
  • Scandals
  • Died August 3 1923
  • Calvin Coolidge
  • Silent Cal
  • Laissez Faire Capitalism
  • The business of the American people is business
  • Herbert Hoover 1928
  • Led to Depression

Republican Foreign Policy
  • Harding
  • Isolationism (leads to nativism)
  • Disarmament reducing the size and strength of
    the military
  • Limiting Immigration Quota for 350,000 people
    per year to immigrate
  • Coolidge
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
  • Aristide Briand and Frank. B. Kellogg signed the
    Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris).
  • The treaty outlawed war
  • The US Senate ratified it in 1929 and over the
    next few years forty-six nations signed a similar
    agreement committing themselves to peace.

Political Scandals
  • Warren G. Harding
  • 1921-1923
  • Worst President in the history of the U.S.
  • Hardings cabinet was extremely corrupt
  • Several accused of bribery
  • Never linked directly to Harding however he was
    hurt by scandal
  • Appointed former President Taft as Chief Justice
  • Died in office in 1923
  • Replaced by Coolidge

Calvin Coolidge
  • Succeeded to the Presidency upon the death of
    Warren G. Harding.
  • He was elected in his own right in 1924, and
    gained a reputation as a small-government
  • Believed the League of Nations did not serve
    American interests, and he did not advocate
    membership in it.

More Political Scandals
  • Teapot Dome Scandal
  • Worst of the scandals
  • Involved Hardings cabinet and illegal drilling
    rights in an oil field in CA known as Tea Pot

  • refers to a widespread attitude in a society of a
    rejection of alien persons or culture
  • Believed immigrants could not be fully loyal to
    the US
  • Did not like Jews, Catholics, or Orthodox
  • City problems (slums,corruption) were blamed on
    the immigrants
  • Immigrants meant competition for jobs
  • Believed they carried dangerous political ideas
  • Socialism, Anarchy, etc.
  • Most of them came from very politically unstable

The Red Scare
  • The Red Scare
  • Russian Revolution
  • Bolsheviks
  • Vladimir Lenin
  • Communism
  • Renewed Nativism
  • Palmer Raids
  • Anti-Immigration Laws
  • American Civil Liberties Union
  • Sacco and Vanzetti

Public Opinion
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Reasons to Fear- Would Communism Spread??
The government promises to create revolutions in
other countries and spread communism
The government owns all land and property
Communism in the Soviet Union
A single political party controls the government
Individuals have no rights that the government is
legally bound to respect
  • Attorney General Palmer became convinced that
    Communist agents were planning to overthrow the
    American government
  • Thirty-eight bombs sent to leading politicians by
  • Palmer recruited J. Edgar Hoover as his special
    assistant and together they used the Espionage
    Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to launch
    a campaign against radicals and left-wing
  • The public lost interest by spring of 1920 as one
    Palmer- predicted terrorist attack after another
    failed to occur

Schenck v United States
  • During World War I, Charles T. Schenck produced a
    pamphlet maintaining that the military draft was
  • Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes
    rejected the argument that the pamphlet was
    protected by the First Amendment.
  • He argued that the government is justified in
    silencing free speech only if there is a clear
    and present danger to the nation

Labor Unrest
  • Communist Plot
  • 1919 Bombings?
  • Because of the violence, Economic Boom, and
    increased wages Union membership declined from 5
    million to 3.4 million in 1920
  • One of the key social tensions of the era
  • 1919 4 million workers held 3600 strikes
  • Most strikes were beat down by federal authorities

  • Steelworkers 1919
  • Gary, Indiana
  • US Steel Corporation used force to break the
  • 18 dead, 100s seriously wounded
  • federal troops occupied the city for several
  • United Mine Workers Coal Strike
  • Boston Police Strike
  • (1919), police commissioner refused to recognize
    a policemen's union.
  • Governor Calvin Coolidge finally called out the
    state militia to maintain order in the city,
    declaring "There is no right to strike against
    the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.".

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Public Opinion
Public Opinion
Prohibition- the "noble experiment"
  • National prohibition of alcohol (1920-33)--the
    was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption,
    solve social problems, reduce the tax burden
    created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve
    health and hygiene in America.
  • 1919
  • 18th Amendment
  • Volstead Act
  • 1933
  • 21st Amendment-
  • Blaine Act

Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages
(Gallons of Pure Alcohol) 1910-1929.
Science vs. Religion DebateScopes Monkey Trial
  • Creationism v Evolution
  • John T. Scopes, TN Teacher taught Darwins Origin
    of Species to students
  • Lawyer for ACLU
  • Clarence Darrow
  • Lawyer for Creationists
  • William Jennings Bryant
  • Creationists won case, but lost battle of public

Rising Intolerance
  • Nationwide Racial Discrimination
  • Yellow Peril
  • African Americans in the North
  • Anti Semitic business practices
  • Mexicans
  • KKK Violence
  • The New Ku Klux Klan
  • White, Protestant, native born, Americans
  • Hiram Wesley Evans Imperial Wizard
  • Over 4 million member in 1924

Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Two Italian immigrants wrongly accused of murder
    and robbery
  • They were convicted and executed for the crime
    even though another man confessed
  • Many observers believed that their conviction
    resulted from prejudice against them as Italian
    immigrants and because they held radical
    political beliefs
  • Fifty years later, on 23rd August, 1977, the
    Governor of Massachusetts, issued a proclamation,
    effectively absolving the two men of the crime

A Consumer Economy
  • Buying On Credit
  • Age of Electricity
  • Ford and the Automobile
  • Effects on the rest of the economy
  • Industrial growth

Henry Ford
  • Was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and
    father of modern assembly lines used in mass
  • His introduction of the Model T automobile
    revolutionized transportation and American

Any customer can have a car painted any color
that he wants so long as it is black".
Society in the 1920s
The Flapper and Changes for Women
  • Style
  • bobbed their Hair
  • Wore makeup and shorter dresses
  • Smoked and drank in public
  • Work and Politics
  • Women moved into office, sales, and professional
  • Voted in local and national elections
  • Elected to political office

Important Roaring 20s Demographics
  • The Great Migration
  • The movement of African-Americans from the South
    to the North in search of jobs and equality
  • Immigration changes
  • Less from Europe
  • More from Canada and Mexico
  • Development of barrios
  • Growth of Suburbs
  • Trolley lines brought commuters to work in the

Important Roaring 20s Demographics
  • The Great Migration
  • The movement of African-Americans from the South
    to the North in search of jobs and equality
  • Immigration changes
  • Less from Europe
  • More from Canada and Mexico
  • Development of barrios
  • Growth of Suburbs
  • Trolley lines brought commuters to work in the

Trolley Line in Inman ParkAtlanta, GA
American Heroes
  • Charles Lucky Lindy Lindberg
  • Amelia Earhart
  • Jack Dempsey
  • Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig
  • Gertrude Ederle
  • Helen Wills (Moody)

Mass Media
  • Newspapers
  • Between 1920 and 1930circulation rose from 27.8
    million to almost 40 million
  • Motion Pictures
  • Moviemaking became the 4th largest business in
    the country
  • 1922 40 million viewers per week, 1930, 90
    million per week
  • Radio
  • NBC
  • Medium for the masses
  • United the countryWhy?

The Harlem Renaissance
  • In the early 1900s, particularly in the 1920s,
    African-American literature, art, music, dance,
    and social commentary began to flourish in
    Harlem, a section of New York City.
  • This African-American cultural movement became
    known as "The New Negro Movement" and later as
    the Harlem Renaissance.

  • Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was the
    center of the African American political,
    cultural, and artistic movement in the 1920s and
  • The Harlem Renaissance emerged in a time of
    social and intellectual upheaval in the African
    American community.

  • The Great Migration, a movement of hundreds of
    thousands of African Americans from rural to
    urban areas was a factor
  • A growing middle class also helped foster the
  • Increasing numbers of educated and socially
    conscious African Americans

Dust to Dust by Jacob Lawrence
Art, Music, and Literature
  • More than a literary movement, the Harlem
    Renaissance exalted the unique culture of
    African-Americans and redefined African-American
  • African-Americans were encouraged to celebrate
    their heritage.

Langston Hughes
  • Was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short
    story writer, and newspaper columnist.
  • Hughes is quoted as saying that in his work he
    confronted racial stereotypes, protested social
    conditions, and expanded African Americas image
    of itself
  • He considered himself a peoples poet who
    sought to reeducate both audience and artist by
    lifting the theory of the black aesthetic into

The Negro Speaks of Riversby Langston Hughes
  • I've known rivers
  • I've known rivers ancient as the world and older
    than the
  • flow of human blood in human veins.
  • My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
  • I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
  • I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to
  • I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids
    above it.
  • I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe
  • went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy
  • bosom turn all golden in the sunset.
  • I've known rivers
  • Ancient, dusky rivers.
  • My soul has grown deep like the rivers.

American Art in the 1920s
  • Art movements included the modernist movement,
    abstract expressionism, surrealism, dadism, and

Georgia OKeefe
Edward Hopper
The Jazz Age
  • Jazz Clubs
  • 500 clubs in Harlem alone
  • Cotton Club, Connies Inn, The Saratoga Club
  • Jelly Roll Morton Band, Louis Armstrong
    (Satchmo), Duke Ellington

Duke Ellington
  • Born Edward Kennedy Ellington, Duke Ellington was
    one of the founding fathers of jazz music.
  • He started playing piano at the age of seven, and
    by the time he was 15, he was composing.
  • A pianist, bandleader, arranger, and composer,
    Ellington and his band played together for 50
  • Some of Ellington's most famous songs include
    "Don't Get Around Much Anymore," "Sophisticated
    Lady" and "In a Sentimental Mood."

George Gershwin
  • George Gershwin was an American composer who
    wrote most of his vocal and theatrical works in
    collaboration with his elder brother lyricist Ira
  • Gershwin is known for his contributions to the
    world of jazz known as Tin Pan Alley
  • His most famous pieces include the lyrics from
    Porgy and Bess and Rhapsody in Blue

F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Regarded as one of the greatest American writers
    of the 20th century.
  • Fitzgerald was the self-styled spokesman of the
    "Lost Generation", Americans born in the 1890s
    who came of age during World War I.
  • He finished four novels, left a fifth unfinished,
    and wrote dozens of short stories that treat
    themes of youth, despair, and age.
  • The Great Gatsby
  • This Side of Paradise

Fitzgerald and his wife, Zelda
Marcus Garvey and Black Pride
  • Alternative solutions to accepting white
  • Marcus Garvey-
  • the first man to give millions of Negroes a
    sense of dignity and destiny MLK
  • Black Pride
  • Published the Negro World
  • Black Eagle Flying Corps
  • Empower blacks worldwide toward economic,
    religious, psychological, and cultural
  • Believed in racial separatism

Thats it for the 20s
  • Read your chapters!!!
  • Test on Friday!!!